International Science Index
Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed
IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.
Perception-Oriented Model Driven Development for Designing Data Acquisition Process in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have always been characterized for application-specific sensing, relaying and collection of information for further analysis. However, software development was not considered as a separate entity in this process of data collection which has posed severe limitations on the software development for WSN. Software development for WSN is a complex process since the components involved are data-driven, network-driven and application-driven in nature. This implies that there is a tremendous need for the separation of concern from the software development perspective. A layered approach for developing data acquisition design based on Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as the sensed data collection process itself varies depending upon the application taken into consideration. This work focuses on the layered view of the data acquisition process so as to ease the software point of development. A metamodel has been proposed that enables reusability and realization of the software development as an adaptable component for WSN systems. Further, observing users perception indicates that proposed model helps in improving the programmer's productivity by realizing the collaborative system involved.
Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks
In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny
wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most
fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby
environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated
destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the
data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due
to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named
Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the
focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum
latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum
number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the
aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or
interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph
model and the more realistic physical interference model known as
Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with
different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with
power control or without power control), and different antenna
models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models.
In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard,
we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation
algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its
Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Monitoring
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can facilitate continuous monitoring of patients and increase early detection of emergency conditions and diseases. High density WSNs helps us to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. Due to energy capacity limitation of sensors, enhancing the lifetime and the reliability of WSNs are important factors in designing of these networks. The clustering strategies are verified as effective and practical algorithms for reducing energy consumption in WSNs and can tackle WSNs limitations. In this paper, an Energy-efficient weight-based Clustering Protocol (EWCP) is presented. Artificial retina is selected as a case study of WSNs applied in body sensors. Cluster heads’ (CHs) selection is equipped with energy efficient parameters. Moreover, cluster members are selected based on their distance to the selected CHs. Comparing with the other benchmark protocols, the lifetime of EWCP is improved significantly.
Detecting and Secluding Route Modifiers by Neural Network Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks
In a real world scenario, the viability of the sensor networks has been proved by standardizing the technologies. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to both electronic and physical security breaches because of their deployment in remote, distributed, and inaccessible locations. The compromised sensor nodes send malicious data to the base station, and thus, the total network effectiveness will possibly be compromised. To detect and seclude the Route modifiers, a neural network based Pattern Learning predictor (PLP) is presented. This algorithm senses data at any node on present and previous patterns obtained from the en-route nodes. The eminence of any node is upgraded by their predicted and reported patterns. This paper propounds a solution not only to detect the route modifiers, but also to seclude the malevolent nodes from the network. The simulation result proves the effective performance of the network by the presented methodology in terms of energy level, routing and various network conditions.
Optimized Energy Scheduling Algorithm for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks can be tiny, low cost, intelligent sensors connected with advanced communication systems. WSNs have pulled in significant consideration as a matter of fact that, industrial as well as medical solicitations employ these in monitoring targets, conservational observation, obstacle exposure, movement regulator etc. In these applications, sensor hubs are thickly sent in the unattended environment with little non-rechargeable batteries. This constraint requires energy-efficient systems to drag out the system lifetime. There are redundancies in data sent over the network. To overcome this, multiple virtual spine scheduling has been presented. Such networks problems are called Maximum Lifetime Backbone Scheduling (MLBS) problems. Though this sleep wake cycle reduces radio usage, improvement can be made in the path in which the group heads stay selected. Cluster head selection with emphasis on geometrical relation of the system will enhance the load sharing among the nodes. Also the data are analyzed to reduce redundant transmission. Multi-hop communication will facilitate lighter loads on the network.
C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network
One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.
Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols
In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.
Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.
Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.
Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the data collection problem in
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference
models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference
model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The
main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum
number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency
schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without
any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works
studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message
models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message
model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm.
To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result
of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both
Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Routing Algorithm in Case of Disaster Prediction
Ubiquity of natural disasters during last few decades
have risen serious questions towards the prediction of such events
and human safety. Every disaster regardless its proportion has a
precursor which is manifested as a disruption of some environmental
parameter such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vibrations and
etc. In order to anticipate and monitor those changes, in this paper
we propose an overall system for disaster prediction and monitoring,
based on wireless sensor network (WSN). Furthermore, we introduce
a modified and simplified WSN routing protocol built on the top
of the trickle routing algorithm. Routing algorithm was deployed
using the bluetooth low energy protocol in order to achieve low
power consumption. Performance of the WSN network was analyzed
using a real life system implementation. Estimates of the WSN
parameters such as battery life time, network size and packet delay are
determined. Based on the performance of the WSN network, proposed
system can be utilized for disaster monitoring and prediction due to
its low power profile and mesh routing feature.
Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast
Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs).
The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules
with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can
broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike
existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs,
we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively
determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop
a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio
is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate
the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.
Tree Based Data Fusion Clustering Routing Algorithm for Illimitable Network Administration in Wireless Sensor Network
In wireless sensor networks, locality and positioning information can be captured using Global Positioning System (GPS). This message can be congregated initially from spot to identify the system. Users can retrieve information of interest from a wireless sensor network (WSN) by injecting queries and gathering results from the mobile sink nodes. Routing is the progression of choosing optimal path in a mobile network. Intermediate node employs permutation of device nodes into teams and generating cluster heads that gather the data from entity cluster’s node and encourage the collective data to base station. WSNs are widely used for gathering data. Since sensors are power-constrained devices, it is quite vital for them to reduce the power utilization. A tree-based data fusion clustering routing algorithm (TBDFC) is used to reduce energy consumption in wireless device networks. Here, the nodes in a tree use the cluster formation, whereas the elevation of the tree is decided based on the distance of the member nodes to the cluster-head. Network simulation shows that this scheme improves the power utilization by the nodes, and thus considerably improves the lifetime.
Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.
Identifying a Drug Addict Person Using Artificial Neural Networks
Use and abuse of drugs by teens is very common and can have dangerous consequences. The drugs contribute to physical and sexual aggression such as assault or rape. Some teenagers regularly use drugs to compensate for depression, anxiety or a lack of positive social skills. Teen resort to smoking should not be minimized because it can be "gateway drugs" for other drugs (marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin). The combination of teenagers' curiosity, risk taking behavior, and social pressure make it very difficult to say no. This leads most teenagers to the questions: "Will it hurt to try once?" Nowadays, technological advances are changing our lives very rapidly and adding a lot of technologies that help us to track the risk of drug abuse such as smart phones, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Internet of Things (IoT), etc. This technique may help us to early discovery of drug abuse in order to prevent an aggravation of the influence of drugs on the abuser. In this paper, we have developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for detecting the drug abuse using Artificial Neural Network (ANN); we used a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network in developing the system. The input layer includes 50 variables while the output layer contains one neuron which indicates whether the person is a drug addict. An iterative process is used to determine the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each one. We used multiple experiment models that have been completed with Log-Sigmoid transfer function. Particularly, 10-fold cross validation schemes are used to access the generalization of the proposed system. The experiment results have obtained 98.42% classification accuracy for correct diagnosis in our system. The data had been taken from 184 cases in Jordan according to a set of questions compiled from Specialists, and data have been obtained through the families of drug abusers.
Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.
Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud
The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.
Wireless Sensor Networks for Water Quality Monitoring: Prototype Design
This paper is devoted to present the advances in the design of a prototype that is able to supervise the complex behavior of water quality parameters such as pH and temperature, via a real-time monitoring system. The current water quality tests that are performed in government water quality institutions in Mexico are carried out in problematic locations and they require taking manual samples. The water samples are then taken to the institution laboratory for examination. In order to automate this process, a water quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks is proposed. The system consists of a sensor node which contains one pH sensor, one temperature sensor, a microcontroller, and a ZigBee radio, and a base station composed by a ZigBee radio and a PC. The progress in this investigation shows the development of a water quality monitoring system. Due to recent events that affected water quality in Mexico, the main motivation of this study is to address water quality monitoring systems, so in the near future, a more robust, affordable, and reliable system can be deployed.
Dominating Set Algorithm and Trust Evaluation Scheme for Secured Cluster Formation and Data Transferring
This paper describes the proficient way of choosing the cluster head based on dominating set algorithm in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The algorithm overcomes the energy deterioration problems by this selection process of cluster heads. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH, EEHC and HEED enhance scalability in WSNs. Dominating set algorithm keeps the first node alive longer than the other protocols previously used. As the dominating set of cluster heads are directly connected to each node, the energy of the network is saved by eliminating the intermediate nodes in WSN. Security and trust is pivotal in network messaging. Cluster head is secured with a unique key. The member can only connect with the cluster head if and only if they are secured too. The secured trust model provides security for data transmission in the dominated set network with the group key. The concept can be extended to add a mobile sink for each or for no of clusters to transmit data or messages between cluster heads and to base station. Data security id preferably high and data loss can be prevented. The simulation demonstrates the concept of choosing cluster heads by dominating set algorithm and trust evaluation using DSTE. The research done is rationalized.
Cluster-Based Multi-Path Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks
Small-size and low-power sensors with sensing, signal
processing and wireless communication capabilities is suitable for the
wireless sensor networks. Due to the limited resources and battery
constraints, complex routing algorithms used for the ad-hoc networks
cannot be employed in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose
node-disjoint multi-path hexagon-based routing algorithms in wireless
sensor networks. We suggest the details of the algorithm and compare
it with other works. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme
achieves better performance in terms of efficiency and message
Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network
Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs),
which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range
of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they
need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base
station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network
construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred
to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two
types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong
the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery
capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The
first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes
the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique,
an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the
residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each
technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of
both techniques is the most effective.
Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network
(WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with
the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability,
low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a
novel routing algorithm that complies with these design
requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks
and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This
division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and
hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may
be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and
allows the realization of the design requirements.
Indoor Localization Algorithm and Appropriate Implementation Using Wireless Sensor Networks
The relationship dependence between RSS and distance
in an enclosed environment is an important consideration because it is
a factor that can influence the reliability of any localization algorithm
founded on RSS. Several algorithms effectively reduce the variance of
RSS to improve localization or accuracy performance. Our proposed
algorithm essentially avoids this pitfall and consequently, its high
adaptability in the face of erratic radio signal. Using 3 anchors in
close proximity of each other, we are able to establish that RSS can be
used as reliable indicator for localization with an acceptable degree of
accuracy. Inherent in this concept, is the ability for each prospective
anchor to validate (guarantee) the position or the proximity of the
other 2 anchors involved in the localization and vice versa. This
procedure ensures that the uncertainties of radio signals due to
multipath effects in enclosed environments are minimized. A major
driver of this idea is the implicit topological relationship among
sensors due to raw radio signal strength. The algorithm is an area
based algorithm; however, it does not trade accuracy for precision
(i.e the size of the returned area).
A Review on Enhanced Dynamic Clustering in WSN
Recent advancement in wireless internetworking has presented a number of dynamic routing protocols based on sensor networks. At present, a number of revisions are made based on their energy efficiency, lifetime and mobility. However, to the best of our knowledge no extensive survey of this special type has been prepared. At present, review is needed in this area where cluster-based structures for dynamic wireless networks are to be discussed. In this paper, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of some extensively explored hierarchical dynamic clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks. This document also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of dynamic hierarchical clustering in wireless sensor networks.
Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be
effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the
sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest
number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides
complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these
disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This
paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum
number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A
population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the
solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the
members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics
escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored
by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The
proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require
sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage
applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the
existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that
too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the
Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense
environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop
communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload
that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run
out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical
individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new
Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life
and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all
nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a
novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation
of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy.
Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life
and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a
counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst
nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet
extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative
approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the
Range-Free Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks
Localization of nodes is one of the key issues of
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that gained a wide attention in
recent years. The existing localization techniques can be generally
categorized into two types: range-based and range-free. Compared
with rang-based schemes, the range-free schemes are more costeffective,
because no additional ranging devices are needed. As a
result, we focus our research on the range-free schemes. In this paper
we study three types of range-free location algorithms to compare the
localization error and energy consumption of each one. Centroid
algorithm requires a normal node has at least three neighbor anchors,
while DV-hop algorithm doesn’t have this requirement. The third
studied algorithm is the amorphous algorithm similar to DV-Hop
algorithm, and the idea is to calculate the hop distance between two
nodes instead of the linear distance between them. The simulation
results show that the localization accuracy of the amorphous
algorithm is higher than that of other algorithms and the energy
consumption does not increase too much.
An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.
Performance Evaluation of XMAC and BMAC Routing Protocol under Static and Mobility Scenarios in Wireless Sensor Network
Based on application requirements, nodes are static or
mobile in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Mobility poses
challenges in protocol design, especially at the link layer requiring
mobility adaptation algorithms to localize mobile nodes and predict
link quality to be established with them. This study implements
XMAC and Berkeley Media Access Control (BMAC) routing
protocols to evaluate performance under WSN’s static and mobility
conditions. This paper gives a comparative study of mobility-aware
MAC protocols. Routing protocol performance, based on Average
End to End Delay, Average Packet Delivery Ratio, Average Number
of hops, and Jitter is evaluated.