International Science Index
Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.
Energy Management System and Interactive Functions of Smart Plug for Smart Home
Intelligent electronic equipment and automation network is the brain of high-tech energy management systems in critical role of smart homes dominance. Smart home is a technology integration for greater comfort, autonomy, reduced cost, and energy saving as well. These services can be provided to home owners for managing their home appliances locally or remotely and consequently allow them to automate intelligently and responsibly their consumption by individual or collective control systems. In this study, three smart plugs are described and one of them tested on typical household appliances. This article proposes to collect the data from the wireless technology and to extract some smart data for energy management system. This smart data is to quantify for three kinds of load: intermittent load, phantom load and continuous load. Phantom load is a waste power that is one of unnoticed power of each appliance while connected or disconnected to the main. Intermittent load and continuous load take in to consideration the power and using time of home appliances. By analysing the classification of loads, this smart data will be provided to reduce the communication of wireless sensor network for energy management system.
A Car Parking Monitoring System Using a Line-Topology Wireless Sensor Network
This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using a wireless sensor network. The presented sensor network has a line-shaped topology and adopts a TDMA-based protocol for allowing multi-hop communications. Sensor nodes are deployed in the ground of an outdoor parking lot in such a way that a sensor node monitors a parking space. Each sensor node detects the availability of the associated parking space and transmits the detection result to a sink node via intermediate sensor nodes existing between the source sensor node and the sink node. We evaluate the feasibility of the presented sensor network and the TDMA-based communication protocol through experiments using 11 sensor nodes deployed in a real parking lot. The result shows that the presented car parking monitoring system is robust to changes in the communication environments and efficient for monitoring parking spaces of outdoor parking lots.
Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.
Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability
The early-stage damage detection in offshore
structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the
large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in
the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of
offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive
and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor
networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable
sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the
results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring
method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure
that underwent wave loading. This method determines the
serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various
environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the
model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave
loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is
the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed
to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi
adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired
from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the
design of the wireless system is verified.
Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network
In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the
sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication
periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is
present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission
and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when
compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy
consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the
“funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique
(TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The
throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease
in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed
scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime
of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for
inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time
complexity is O(n2).
Review of Trust Models in Wireless Sensor Networks
The major challenge faced by wireless sensor networks is security. Because of dynamic and collaborative nature of sensor networks the connected sensor devices makes the network unusable. To solve this issue, a trust model is required to find malicious, selfish and compromised insiders by evaluating trust worthiness sensors from the network. It supports the decision making processes in wireless sensor networks such as pre key-distribution, cluster head selection, data aggregation, routing and self reconfiguration of sensor nodes. This paper discussed the kinds of trust model, trust metrics used to address attacks by monitoring certain behavior of network. It describes the major design issues and their countermeasures of building trust model. It also discusses existing trust models used in various decision making process of wireless sensor networks.
Multiple Targets Classification and Fuzzy Logic Decision Fusion in Wireless Sensor Networks
This paper proposes a hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) to model the detection of M vehicles in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The HHMM model contains an extra level of hidden Markov model to model the temporal transitions of each
state of the first HMM. By modeling the temporal transitions, only those hypothesis with nonzero transition probabilities needs to be tested. Thus, this method efficiently reduces the computation load, which is preferable in WSN applications.This paper integrates several techniques to optimize the detection performance. The output of the states of the first HMM is modeled as Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), where the number of states and the number of Gaussians are experimentally determined, while the other parameters are estimated using Expectation Maximization (EM). HHMM is used to model the sequence of the local decisions which are based on multiple hypothesis testing with maximum likelihood approach. The states in the HHMM represent various combinations of vehicles of different types. Due to the statistical advantages of multisensor data fusion, we propose a heuristic based on fuzzy weighted majority voting to enhance cooperative classification of moving vehicles within a region that is monitored by a wireless sensor network. A fuzzy inference system weighs each local decision based on the signal to noise
ratio of the acoustic signal for target detection and the signal to noise ratio of the radio signal for sensor communication. The spatial correlation among the observations of neighboring sensor nodes is efficiently utilized as well as the temporal correlation. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of this scheme.
Centralized Peak Consumption Smoothing Revisited for Habitat Energy Scheduling
Currently, electricity suppliers must predict the consumption of their customers in order to deduce the power they need to produce. It is then important in a first step to optimize household consumptions to obtain more constant curves by limiting peaks in energy consumption. Here centralized real time scheduling is proposed to manage the equipments starting in parallel. The aim is not to exceed a certain limit while optimizing the power consumption across a habitat. The Raspberry Pi is used as a box; this scheduler interacts with the various sensors in 6LoWPAN. At the scale of a single dwelling, household consumption decreases, particularly at times corresponding to the peaks. However, it would be wiser to consider the use of a residential complex so that the result would be more significant. So the ceiling would no longer be fixed. The scheduling would be done on two scales, on the one hand per dwelling, and secondly, at the level of a residential complex.
A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.
Sensor Network Based Emergency Response and Navigation Support Architecture
In an emergency, combining Wireless Sensor Network's data with the knowledge gathered from various other information sources and navigation algorithms, could help safely guide people to a building exit while avoiding the risky areas. This paper presents an emergency response and navigation support architecture for data gathering, knowledge manipulation, and navigational support in an emergency situation. At normal state, the system monitors the environment. When an emergency event detects, the system sends messages to first responders and immediately identifies the risky areas from safe areas to establishing escape paths. The main functionalities of the system include, gathering data from a wireless sensor network which is deployed in a multi-story indoor environment, processing it with information available in a knowledge base, and sharing the decisions made, with first responders and people in the building. The proposed architecture will act to reduce risk of losing human lives by evacuating people much faster with least congestion in an emergency environment.
Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are wireless
networks consisting of number of tiny, low cost and low power
sensor nodes to monitor various physical phenomena like
temperature, pressure, vibration, landslide detection, presence of any
object, etc. The major limitation in these networks is the use of nonrechargeable
battery having limited power supply. The main cause of
energy consumption WSN is communication subsystem. This paper
presents an efficient grid formation/clustering strategy known as Grid
based level Clustering and Aggregation of Data (GCAD). The
proposed clustering strategy is simple and scalable that uses low duty
cycle approach to keep non-CH nodes into sleep mode thus reducing
energy consumption. Simulation results demonstrate that our
proposed GCAD protocol performs better in various performance
Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.
Measurement of UHF Signal Strength Propagating from Road Surface with Vehicle Obstruction
Radio wave propagation on the road surface is a major
problem on wireless sensor network for traffic monitoring. In this
paper, we compare receiving signal strength on two scenarios 1) an
empty road and 2) a road with a vehicle. We investigate the effect of
antenna polarization and antenna height to the receiving signal
strength. The transmitting antenna is installed on the road surface.
The receiving signal is measured 360 degrees around the transmitting
antenna with the radius of 2.5 meters. Measurement results show the
receiving signal fluctuation around the transmitting antenna in both
scenarios. Receiving signal with vertical polarization antenna results
in higher signal strength than horizontal polarization antenna. The
optimum antenna elevation is 1 meter for both horizon and vertical
polarizations with the vehicle on the road. In the empty road, the
receiving signal level is unvarying with the elevation when the
elevation is greater than 1.5 meters.
Energy and Distance Based Clustering: An Energy Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we propose an energy efficient cluster
based communication protocol for wireless sensor network. Our
protocol considers both the residual energy of sensor nodes and the
distance of each node from the BS when selecting cluster-head. This
protocol can successfully prolong the network-s lifetime by 1)
reducing the total energy dissipation on the network and 2) evenly
distributing energy consumption over all sensor nodes. In this
protocol, the nodes with more energy and less distance from the BS
are probable to be selected as cluster-head. Simulation results with
MATLAB show that proposed protocol could increase the lifetime of
network more than 94% for first node die (FND), and more than 6%
for the half of the nodes alive (HNA) factor as compared with
Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide
areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in
recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of
sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging
aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals
with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low
power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy
consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for
alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.
Simulation using the Recursive Method in USN
Sensor networks are often deployed in unattended
environments, thus leaving these networks vulnerable to false data
injection attacks in which an adversary injects forged reports into the
network through compromised nodes, with the goal of deceiving the
base station or depleting the resources of forwarding nodes. Several
research solutions have been recently proposed to detect and drop such
forged reports during the forwarding process. Each design can provide
the equivalent resilience in terms of node compromising. However,
their energy consumption characteristics differ from each other. Thus,
employing only a single filtering scheme for a network is not a
recommendable strategy in terms of energy saving. It's very important
the threshold determination for message authentication to identify. We
propose the recursive contract net protocols which less energy level of
terminal node in wireless sensor network.
Increasing Lifetime of Target Tracking Wireless Sensor Networks
A model to identify the lifetime of target tracking
wireless sensor network is proposed. The model is a static clusterbased
architecture and aims to provide two factors. First, it is to
increase the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network.
Secondly, it is to enable good localization result with low energy
consumption for each sensor in the network. The model consists of
heterogeneous sensors and each sensing member node in a cluster
uses two operation modes–active mode and sleep mode. The
performance results illustrate that the proposed architecture consumes
less energy and increases lifetime than centralized and dynamic
clustering architectures, for target tracking sensor network.