International Science Index

13
10008900
An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances
Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.

Paper Detail
66
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12
10007838
Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility
Abstract:
Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.
Paper Detail
204
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11
10004256
An Analytical Study of Small Unmanned Arial Vehicle Dynamic Stability Characteristics
Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) dynamic stability derivatives. Simulating SUAV dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the earliest design stages is too important and more efficient design aspect. The approach suggested in this paper is using the wind tunnel experiment to collect the aerodynamic data and get the dynamic stability derivatives. AutoCAD Software was used to draw the case study (wildlife surveillance SUAV). The SUAV is scaled down to be 0.25% of the real SUAV dimensions and converted to a wind tunnel model. The model was tested in three different speeds for three different attitudes which are; pitch, roll and yaw. The wind tunnel results were then used to determine the case study stability derivative values, and hence it used to calculate the roots of the characteristic equation for both longitudinal and lateral motions. Finally, the characteristic equation roots were found and discussed in all possible cases.

Paper Detail
860
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10
10003261
Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
Authors:
Abstract:
This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Paper Detail
971
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9
10007107
Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Cantilever Rectangular Plate Structure on Subsonic Flutter
Abstract:

In this study, flutter characteristics of cantilever rectangular plate structure under incompressible flow regime are investigated by comparing the results of commercial flutter analysis program ZAERO© with wind tunnel tests conducted in Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART). A rectangular polycarbonate (PC) plate, 5x125x1000 mm in dimensions, is used for both numerical and experimental investigations. Analysis and test results are very compatible with each other. A comparison between two different solution methods (g and k-method) of ZAERO© is also done. It is seen that, k-method gives closer result than the other one. However, g-method results are on conservative side and it is better to use conservative results namely g-method results. Even if the modal analysis results are used for the flutter analysis for this simple structure, a modal test should be conducted in order to validate the modal analysis results to have accurate flutter analysis results for more complicated structures.

Paper Detail
179
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8
10003323
Aerodynamic Study of Vehicle Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel for Analysis of Bodies
Abstract:

The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians’ comfort, and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20V generated by a thread of 2,5mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Paper Detail
784
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7
9996709
Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence
Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14. and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Reynolds numbers does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number, below which the scaling breaks down, is around 25.

Paper Detail
1763
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6
3055
Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet
Abstract:
Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.
Paper Detail
1179
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5
5463
The Effect of Canard Configurations to the Aerodynamics of the Blended Wing Body
Abstract:
The aerodynamics characteristics of a blended-wing body (BWB) aircraft were obtained in Universiti Teknologi MARA low speed wind tunnel. The scaled-down of BWB model consisted of a canard as its horizontal stabilizer. There were four canards with different aspect ratio used in the experiments. Canard setting angles were varied from -20q to 20q. All tests were conducted at velocity of 35 m/s, with Mach number 0.1. At low angles of attacks, the increment of lift slope for various canards aspect ratio is small and almost constant. Higher canard aspect ratio will cause higher drag. However, canard has a high effect to the moment at zero lift, CM,0.The visualization using mini tuff was performed to observe the airflow at the upper surface of canard. KeywordsAerodynamics,blended-wing body, canard, wind tunnel.
Paper Detail
4360
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4
3823
Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section
Abstract:
A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.
Paper Detail
1340
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3
444
Conceptual Design of Aeroelastic Demonstrator for Whirl Flutter Simulation
Abstract:
This paper deals with the conceptual design of the new aeroelastic demonstrator for the whirl flutter simulation. The paper gives a theoretical background of the whirl flutter phenomenon and describes the events of the whirl flutter occurrence in the aerospace practice. The second part is focused on the experimental research of the whirl flutter on aeroelastic similar models. Finally the concept of the new aeroelastic demonstrator is described. The demonstrator represents the wing and engine of the twin turboprop commuter aircraft including a driven propeller. It allows the changes of the main structural parameters influencing the whirl flutter stability characteristics. It is intended for the experimental investigation of the whirl flutter in the wind tunnel. The results will be utilized for validation of analytical methods and software tools.
Paper Detail
2242
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2
893
Wind-tunnel Measurement of the Drag-reducing Effect of Compliant Coating
Abstract:
A specially designed flat plate was mounted vertically over the axial line in the wind tunnel of the Aerospace Department of the Pusan National University. The plate is 2 m long, 0.8 m high and 8 cm thick. The measurements were performed in velocity range from 15 to 60 m/s. A sand paper turbulizer was placed close to the plate nose to provide fully developed turbulent boundary layer over the most part of the plate. Strain balances were mounted in the trailing part of the plate to measure the skin friction drag over removable insertions of 0.55×0.25m2 size. A set of the insertions was designed and manufactured: 3mm thick polished metal surface and three compliant surfaces. The compliant surfaces were manufactured of a silicone rubber Silastic® S2 (Dow Corning company). To modify the viscoelastic properties of the rubber, its composition was varied: 90% of the rubber + 10% catalyst (standard), 92.5% + 7.5% (weak), 85% + 15% (strong). Modulus of elasticity and the loss tangent were measured accurately for these materials in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 3 KHz using the unique proposed technique.
Paper Detail
1107
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1
8130
Application of RP Technology with Polycarbonate Material for Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication
Abstract:
Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database development.
Paper Detail
1701
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