Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.
The use of biomass to produce renewable energy is one of the forms that can be used to reduce the impact of energy production. Like any other energy resource, there are limitations for biomass use, and it must compete not only with fossil fuels but also with other renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Combustion is currently the most efficient and widely used waste-to-energy process, in the areas where direct use of biomass is possible, without the need to make large transfers of raw material. Many industrial facilities can use agricultural or forestry waste, straw, chips, bagasse, etc. in their thermal systems without making major transformations or adjustments in the feeding to the ovens, making this waste an attractive and cost-effective option in terms of availability, access, and costs. In spite of the facilities and benefits, the environmental reasons (emission of gases and particulate material) are decisive for its use for energy purpose. This paper describes a valorization of residues from forest industry to generate energy, using a case study.
Nowadays, the use of renewable energy sources has been increasingly great because of the cost increase and public demand for clean energy sources. One of the fastest growing sources is wind energy. In this paper, Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the Consumer Load, a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS), and a Dump Load (DL) is used. Voltage is controlled by Diesel Generator; the frequency is controlled by BESS and DL. The BESS elimination is an efficient way to reduce maintenance cost and increase the dynamic response. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency of Power System, active power, and the battery power are presented for load changes. The controlling parameters are optimized by using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared. Results show that in no BESS case, the frequency control is more optimal than the BESS case by using ICA.
Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost associated with it. In this paper the impact of wind energy is evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost, as well as any other penalty imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a critical question to be answered. Here we increase the penetration from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED) model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using Linear Programming. The goal of this study is show how the increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.
In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.
Scarcity in energy sector is a major problem, which can hamper the growing development of a country. Bangladesh is one of the electricity-deprived countries; however, the energy demand of Bangladesh is increasing day by day. Due to the shortage of natural resources and environmental issues, many nations are now moving towards renewable energy. Among various form of renewable energy, wind energy is one of most potential source. In this paper, the present energy condition of Bangladesh is discussed and the necessity of moving towards renewable energy is clarified. The wind speed found at different locations at different heights and different years from the survey of several organizations are presented. Although, the results of installed low capacity wind turbines (from few kW to few tens of kW) operated by private or government organization at different places in Bangladesh are not so encouraging; however, it is shown that Bangladesh has a high potential of using large wind turbine (MW range) for capturing wind energy at different places. The present condition of wind energy in Bangladesh and other countries in the world are also presented to emphasize the requisite of moving towards wind energy.