International Science Index
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference
Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.
Valorization of Residues from Forest Industry for the Generation of Energy
The use of biomass to produce renewable energy is one of the forms that can be used to reduce the impact of energy production. Like any other energy resource, there are limitations for biomass use, and it must compete not only with fossil fuels but also with other renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Combustion is currently the most efficient and widely used waste-to-energy process, in the areas where direct use of biomass is possible, without the need to make large transfers of raw material. Many industrial facilities can use agricultural or forestry waste, straw, chips, bagasse, etc. in their thermal systems without making major transformations or adjustments in the feeding to the ovens, making this waste an attractive and cost-effective option in terms of availability, access, and costs. In spite of the facilities and benefits, the environmental reasons (emission of gases and particulate material) are decisive for its use for energy purpose. This paper describes a valorization of residues from forest industry to generate energy, using a case study.
Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control
This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.
Multi-Criteria Selection and Improvement of Effective Design for Generating Power from Sea Waves
Sustainable development is the nominal goal of most countries at present. In general, fossil fuels are the development mainstay of most world countries. Regrettably, the fossil fuel consumption rate is very high, and the world is facing the problem of conventional fuels depletion soon. In addition, there are many problems of environmental pollution resulting from the emission of harmful gases and vapors during fuel burning. Thus, clean, renewable energy became the main concern of most countries for filling the gap between available energy resources and their growing needs. There are many renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and wave energy. Energy can be obtained from the motion of sea waves almost all the time. However, power generation from solar or wind energy is highly restricted to sunny periods or the availability of suitable wind speeds. Moreover, energy produced from sea wave motion is one of the cheapest types of clean energy. In addition, renewable energy usage of sea waves guarantees safe environmental conditions. Cheap electricity can be generated from wave energy using different systems such as oscillating bodies' system, pendulum gate system, ocean wave dragon system and oscillating water column device. In this paper, a multi-criteria model has been developed using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to support the decision of selecting the most effective system for generating power from sea waves. This paper provides a widespread overview of the different design alternatives for sea wave energy converter systems. The considered design alternatives have been evaluated using the developed AHP model. The multi-criteria assessment reveals that the off-shore Oscillating Water Column (OWC) system is the most appropriate system for generating power from sea waves. The OWC system consists of a suitable hollow chamber at the shore which is completely closed except at its base which has an open area for gathering moving sea waves. Sea wave's motion pushes the air up and down passing through a suitable well turbine for generating power. Improving the power generation capability of the OWC system is one of the main objectives of this research. After investigating the effect of some design modifications, it has been concluded that selecting the appropriate settings of some effective design parameters such as the number of layers of Wells turbine fans and the intermediate distance between the fans can result in significant improvements. Moreover, simple dynamic analysis of the Wells turbine is introduced. Furthermore, this paper strives for comparing the theoretical and experimental results of the built experimental prototype.
H∞ Fuzzy Integral Power Control for DFIG Wind Energy System
In order to maximize energy capturing from wind
energy, controlling the doubly fed induction generator to have optimal
power from the wind, generator speed and output electrical power
control in wind energy system have a great importance due to the
nonlinear behavior of wind velocities. In this paper purposes the
design of a control scheme is developed for power control of wind
energy system via H∞ fuzzy integral controller. Firstly, the nonlinear
system is represented in term of a TS fuzzy control design via linear
matrix inequality approach to find the optimal controller to have an
H∞ performance are derived. The proposed control method extract
the maximum energy from the wind and overcome the nonlinearity
and disturbances problems of wind energy system which give good
tracking performance and high efficiency power output of the DFIG.
Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Lower Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation
Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lower Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization for power generation in Sindh province. The results obtained show a large variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in Lower Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi and Hyderabad). In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low during the monsoon months, July and August. The KT value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky throughout almost the entire year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even during the monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential, whereas Karachi and Hyderabad have low solar potential. During the monsoon months the Lower part of Sindh can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 m/sec to 6.9 m/sec. A wind corridor exists near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in the monsoon months of July and August, wind speeds are higher in the Lower region of Sindh.
Optimal Type and Installation Time of Wind Farm in a Power System, Considering Service Providers
The economic development benefits of wind energy may be the most tangible basis for the local and state officials’ interests. In addition to the direct salaries associated with building and operating wind projects, the wind energy industry provides indirect jobs and benefits. The optimal planning of a wind farm is one most important topic in renewable energy technology. Many methods have been implemented to optimize the cost and output benefit of wind farms, but the contribution of this paper is mentioning different types of service providers and also time of installation of wind turbines during planning horizon years. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the problem. It is observed that an appropriate layout of wind farm can cause to minimize the different types of cost.
Wind Power Assessment for Turkey and Evaluation by APLUS Code
Energy is a fundamental component in economic development and energy consumption is an index of prosperity and the standard of living. The consumption of energy per capita has increased significantly over the last decades, as the standard of living has improved. Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. Information such as installation capacity of wind power plants in installation, under construction and license stages in the country are reported in detail. Some suggestions are presented in order to increase the wind power installation capacity of Turkey. Turkey’s economic and social development has led to a massive increase in demand for electricity over the last decades. Since the Turkey has no major oil or gas reserves, it is highly dependent on energy imports and is exposed to energy insecurity in the future. But Turkey does have huge potential for renewable energy utilization. There has been a huge growth in the construction of wind power plants and small hydropower plants in recent years. To meet the growing energy demand, the Turkish Government has adopted incentives for investments in renewable energy production. Wind energy investments evaluated the impact of feed-in tariffs (FIT) based on three scenarios that are optimistic, realistic and pessimistic with APLUS software that is developed for rational evaluation for energy market. Results of the three scenarios are evaluated in the view of electricity market for Turkey.
The Impact of Large-Scale Wind Energy Development on Islands’ Interconnection to the Mainland System
Greek islands’ interconnection (IC) with larger power systems, such as the mainland grid, is a crucial issue that has attracted a lot of interest; however, the recent economic recession that the country undergoes together with the highly capital intensive nature of this kind of projects have stalled or sifted the development of many of those on a more long-term basis. On the other hand, most of Greek islands are still heavily dependent on the lengthy and costly supply chain of oil imports whilst the majority of them exhibit excellent potential for wind energy (WE) applications. In this respect, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate −through a parametric study which varies both in wind farm (WF) and submarine IC capacities− the impact of large-scale WE development on the IC of the third in size island of Greece (Lesbos) with the mainland system. The energy and economic performance of the system is simulated over a 25-year evaluation period assuming two possible scenarios, i.e. S(a): without the contribution of the local Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and S(b): the TPP is maintained to ensure electrification of the island. The economic feasibility of the two options is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results, Lesbos island IC presents considerable economic interest for covering part of island’s future electrification needs with WE having a vital role in this challenging venture.
Cost Analysis of Hybrid Wind Energy Generating System Considering CO2 Emissions
The basic objective of the research is to study the effect of hybrid wind energy on the cost of generated electricity considering the cost of reduction CO2 emissions. The system consists of small wind turbine(s), storage battery bank and a diesel generator (W/D/B). Using an optimization software package, different system configurations are investigated to reach optimum configuration based on the net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) as economic optimization criteria. The cost of avoided CO2 is taken into consideration. The system is intended to supply the electrical load of a small community (gathering six families) in a remote Egyptian area. The investigated system is not connected to the electricity grid and may replace an existing conventional diesel powered electric supply system to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The simulation results showed that W/D energy system is more economic than diesel alone. The estimated COE is 0.308$/kWh and extracting the cost of avoided CO2, the COE reached 0.226 $/kWh which is an external benefit of wind turbine, as there are no pollutant emissions through operational phase.
Techno-Economic Prospects of High Wind Energy Share in Remote vs. Interconnected Island Grids
On the basis of comparative analysis of alternative “development scenarios” for electricity generation, the main objective of the present study is to investigate the techno-economic viability of high wind energy (WE) use at the local (island) level. An integrated theoretical model is developed based on first principles assuming two main possible scenarios for covering future electrification needs of a medium–sized Greek island, i.e. Lesbos. The first scenario (S1), assumes that the island will keep using oil products as the main source for electricity generation. The second scenario (S2) involves the interconnection of the island with the mainland grid to satisfy part of the electricity demand, while remarkable WE penetration is also achieved. The economic feasibility of the above solutions is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for the time-period 2020-2045, including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results obtained, interconnection of Lesbos Island with the mainland grid (S2) presents considerable economic interest in comparison to autonomous development (S1) with WE having a prominent role to this effect.
Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation
Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.
Mathematical Modeling of Wind Energy System for Designing Fault Tolerant Control
This paper addresses the mathematical model of wind energy system useful for designing fault tolerant control. To serve the demand of power, large capacity wind energy systems are vital. These systems are installed offshore where non planned service is very costly. Whenever there is a fault in between two planned services, the system may stop working abruptly. This might even lead to the complete failure of the system. To enhance the reliability, the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance of wind turbines, the fault tolerant control systems are very essential. For designing any control system, an appropriate mathematical model is always needed. In this paper, the two-mass model is modified by considering the frequent mechanical faults like misalignments in the drive train, gears and bearings faults. These faults are subject to a wear process and cause frictional losses. This paper addresses these faults in the mathematics of the wind energy system. Further, the work is extended to study the variations of the parameters namely generator inertia constant, spring constant, viscous friction coefficient and gear ratio; on the pole-zero plot which is related with the physical design of the wind turbine. Behavior of the wind turbine during drive train faults are simulated and briefly discussed.
Development of a Wind Resource Assessment Framework Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, Python Scripting and Geographic Information Systems
Wind energy is rapidly emerging as the primary
source of electricity in the Philippines, although developing an
accurate wind resource model is difficult. In this study, Weather
Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, an open source mesoscale
Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, was used to produce a
1-year atmospheric simulation with 4 km resolution on the Ilocos
Region of the Philippines. The WRF output (netCDF) extracts the
annual mean wind speed data using a Python-based Graphical User
Interface. Lastly, wind resource assessment was produced using a
GIS software. Results of the study showed that it is more flexible to
use Python scripts than using other post-processing tools in dealing
with netCDF files. Using WRF Model, Python, and Geographic
Information Systems, a reliable wind resource map is produced.
Atmospheric Full Scale Testing of a Morphing Trailing Edge Flap System for Wind Turbine Blades
A novel Active Flap System (AFS) has been developed
at DTU Wind Energy, as a result of a 3-year R&D project following
almost 10 years of innovative research in this field. The full scale AFS
comprises an active deformable trailing edge has been tested at the
unique rotating test facility at the Risø Campus of DTU Wind Energy
in Denmark. The design and instrumentation of the wing section and
the AFS are described. The general description and objectives of the
rotating test rig at the Risø campus of DTU are presented, along
with an overview of sensors on the setup and the test cases. The
post-processing of data is discussed and results of steady, flap step
and azimuth control flap cases are presented.
The Transient Reactive Power Regulation Capability of SVC for Large Scale WECS Connected to Distribution Networks
The recent interest in alternative and renewable
energy systems results in increased installed capacity ratio of such
systems in total energy production of the world. Specifically, Wind
Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) draw significant attention
among possible alternative energy options, recently. On the contrary
of the positive points of penetrating WECS in all over the world in
terms of environment protection, energy independence of the
countries, etc., there are significant problems to be solved for the grid
connection of large scale WECS. The reactive power regulation,
voltage variation suppression, etc. can be presented as major issues to
be considered in this regard. Thus, this paper evaluates the
application of a Static VAr Compensator (SVC) unit for the reactive
power regulation and operation continuity of WECS during a fault
condition. The system is modeled employing the IEEE 13 node test
system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the system performance with
an overall grid simulation model close to real grid systems. The
overall simulation model is developed in
MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems® environments and the
obtained results effectively match the target of the provided study.
Influence of Inertial Forces of Large Bearings Utilized in Wind Energy Assemblies
Main objective of this paper is to establish a link
between inertial forces of the bearings used in construction of wind
power plant and its behavior. Using bearings with lower inertial
forces has the immediate effect of decreasing inertia rotor system,
with significant results in increased energy efficiency, due to
decreased friction forces between rollers and raceways. The F.E.M.
analysis shows the appearance of uniform contact stress at the ends of
the rollers, demonstrated the necessity of production of low mass
bearings. Favorable results are expected in the economic field, by
reducing material consumption and by increasing the durability of
bearings. Using low mass bearings with hollow rollers instead of
solid rollers has an impact on working temperature, on vibrations and
noise which decrease. Implementation of types of hollow rollers of
cylindrical tubular type, instead of expensive rollers with logarithmic
profile, will bring significant inertial forces decrease with large
benefits in behavior of wind power plant.
Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components
As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction
Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and
variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the
growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid
connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code
requirements such as grid stability, Fault Ride Through (FRT), power
quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc.
Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the
control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along
with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated
above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually
grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the
operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the
intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side
converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using
power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG
system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage
fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in
the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in
view of different grid disturbances.
Influence of Thermal Damage on the Mechanical Strength of Trimmed CFRP
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) are widely
used for advanced applications, in particular in aerospace, automotive
and wind energy industries. Once cured to near net shape, CFRP
parts need several finishing operations such as trimming, milling or
drilling in order to accommodate fastening hardware and meeting the
final dimensions. The present research aims to study the effect of the
cutting temperature in trimming on the mechanical strength of high
performance CFRP laminates used for aeronautics applications. The
cutting temperature is of great importance when dealing with
trimming of CFRP. Temperatures higher than the glass-transition
temperature (Tg) of the resin matrix are highly undesirable: they
cause degradation of the matrix in the trimmed edges area, which can
severely affect the mechanical performance of the entire component.
In this study, a 9.50mm diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool
with six flutes was used to trim 24-plies CFRP laminates. A
300m/min cutting speed and 1140mm/min feed rate were used in the
experiments. The tool was heated prior to trimming using a
blowtorch, for temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C. The
temperature at the cutting edge was measured using embedded KType
thermocouples. Samples trimmed for different cutting
temperatures, below and above Tg, were mechanically tested using
three-points bending short-beam loading configurations. New cutting
tools as well as worn cutting tools were utilized for the experiments.
The experiments with the new tools could not prove any correlation
between the length of cut, the cutting temperature and the mechanical
performance. Thus mechanical strength was constant, regardless of
the cutting temperature. However, for worn tools, producing a cutting
temperature rising up to 450°C, thermal damage of the resin was
observed. The mechanical tests showed a reduced mean resistance in
short beam configuration, while the resistance in three point bending
decreases with increase of the cutting temperature.
Wind Diesel Hybrid System without Battery Energy Storage Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm
Nowadays, the use of renewable energy sources has been increasingly great because of the cost increase and public demand for clean energy sources. One of the fastest growing sources is wind energy. In this paper, Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the Consumer Load, a Battery-based Energy Storage System (BESS), and a Dump Load (DL) is used. Voltage is controlled by Diesel Generator; the frequency is controlled by BESS and DL. The BESS elimination is an efficient way to reduce maintenance cost and increase the dynamic response. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency of Power System, active power, and the battery power are presented for load changes. The controlling parameters are optimized by using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared. Results show that in no BESS case, the frequency control is more optimal than the BESS case by using ICA.
Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller
This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed
Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion
System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy
employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and slidingmode
controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required
rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of
active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and
SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two
controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a
model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the
controllers and their application in the DFIG power control.
Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are
provided by MATLAB/Simulink.
Impact of Wind Energy on Cost and Balancing Reserves
Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no
fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy
sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to
accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with
the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can
severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost
associated with it. In this paper the impact of wind energy is
evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective
is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the
proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment
cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost, as well as any other penalty
imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind
penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the
penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a
critical question to be answered. Here we increase the penetration
from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable
limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED)
model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power
system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using
Linear Programming. The goal of this study is show how the
increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.
Improvement of Voltage Profile of Grid Integrated Wind Distributed Generation by SVC
Due to the continuous increment of the load demand,
identification of weaker buses, improvement of voltage profile and
power losses in the context of the voltage stability problems has
become one of the major concerns for the larger, complex,
interconnected power systems. The objective of this paper is to
review the impact of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
controller in Wind generators connected electrical network for
maintaining voltage stability. Wind energy could be the growing
renewable energy due to several advantages. The influence of wind
generators on power quality is a significant issue; non uniform power
production causes variations in system voltage and frequency.
Therefore, wind farm requires high reactive power compensation; the
advances in high power semiconducting devices have led to the
development of FACTS. The FACTS devices such as for example
SVC inject reactive power into the system which helps in maintaining
a better voltage profile. The performance is evaluated on an IEEE 14
bus system, two wind generators are connected at low voltage buses
to meet the increased load demand and SVC devices are integrated at
the buses with wind generators to keep voltage stability. Power
flows, nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the power network are
obtained by iterative solutions using MIPOWER.
Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators
In order to better understand the long term
implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided
grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed
and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant
data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions
experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for
expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and
calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data
and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data
for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted
with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.
A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines
The investigation on wind turbine degradation was
carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW
wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were
selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five
years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed
that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the
normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the
three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction
of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and
the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.
Wind Energy Status in Turkey
Since large part of electricity is generated by using
fossil based resources, energy is an important agenda for countries. In
this context, renewable energy sources are alternative to conventional
sources due to the depletion of fossil resources, increasing awareness
of climate change and global warming concerns. Solar, wind and
hydropower energy are the main renewable energy sources. Among
of them, since installed capacity of wind power has increased
approximately eight times between 2008 - November of 2014, wind
energy is a promising source for Turkey. Furthermore, signing of
Kyoto Protocol can be accepted as a milestone for Turkey's energy
policy. Turkish Government has announced Vision 2023 (energy
targets by 2023) in 2010-2014 Strategic Plan prepared by Ministry of
Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). Energy targets in this plan
can be summarized as follows: Share of renewable energy sources in
electricity generation is 30% of total electricity generation by 2023.
Installed capacity of wind energy will be 20 GW by 2023. Other
renewable energy sources such as solar, hydropower and geothermal
are encouraged with new incentive mechanisms. Dependence on
foreign energy is reduced for sustainability and energy security. On
the other hand, since Turkey is surrounded by three coastal areas,
wind energy potential is convenient for wind power application. As
of November of 2014, total installed capacity of wind power plants is
3.51 GW and a lot of wind power plants are under construction with
capacity 1.16 GW. Turkish government also encourages the locally
manufactured equipments. In this context, one of the projects funded
by private sector, universities and TUBİTAK names as MILRES is
an important project aimed to promote the use wind energy in
electricity generation. Within this project, wind turbine with 500 kW
power has been produced and will be installed at the beginning of the
2015. After that, by using the experience obtained from the first
phase of the project, a wind turbine with 2.5 MW power will be
manufactured in an industrial scale.
Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Wind System Based On a DFIG
This paper proposes the study of a robust control of
the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in a wind energy
production. The proposed control is based on the linear active
disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and it is applied to the control
currents rotor of the DFIG, the DC bus voltage and active and
reactive power exchanged between the DFIG and the network. The
system under study and the proposed control are simulated using
Power Management Strategy for Solar-Wind-Diesel Stand-alone Hybrid Energy System
This paper presents a simulation and mathematical model of stand-alone solar-wind-diesel based hybrid energy system (HES). A power management system is designed for multiple energy resources in a stand-alone hybrid energy system. Both Solar photovoltaic and wind energy conversion system consists of maximum power point tracking (MPPT), voltage regulation, and basic power electronic interfaces. An additional diesel generator is included to support and improve the reliability of stand-alone system when renewable energy sources are not available. A power management strategy is introduced to distribute the generated power among resistive load banks. The frequency regulation is developed with conventional phase locked loop (PLL) system. The power management algorithm was applied in Matlab®/Simulink® to simulate the results.
Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade
Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyze the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades.
Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm.
Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyze the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.