International Science Index

78
10007743
Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit
Abstract:

Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Paper Detail
37
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77
10004814
3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization
Abstract:
This paper presents a technique for compact three dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough. Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother wavelets.
Paper Detail
601
downloads
76
10004888
Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures
Abstract:

Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Paper Detail
522
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75
10004592
Automatic Detection of Defects in Ornamental Limestone Using Wavelets
Abstract:

A methodology based on wavelets is proposed for the automatic location and delimitation of defects in limestone plates. Natural defects include dark colored spots, crystal zones trapped in the stone, areas of abnormal contrast colors, cracks or fracture lines, and fossil patterns. Although some of these may or may not be considered as defects according to the intended use of the plate, the goal is to pair each stone with a map of defects that can be overlaid on a computer display. These layers of defects constitute a database that will allow the preliminary selection of matching tiles of a particular variety, with specific dimensions, for a requirement of N square meters, to be done on a desktop computer rather than by a two-hour search in the storage park, with human operators manipulating stone plates as large as 3 m x 2 m, weighing about one ton. Accident risks and work times are reduced, with a consequent increase in productivity. The base for the algorithm is wavelet decomposition executed in two instances of the original image, to detect both hypotheses – dark and clear defects. The existence and/or size of these defects are the gauge to classify the quality grade of the stone products. The tuning of parameters that are possible in the framework of the wavelets corresponds to different levels of accuracy in the drawing of the contours and selection of the defects size, which allows for the use of the map of defects to cut a selected stone into tiles with minimum waste, according the dimension of defects allowed.

Paper Detail
359
downloads
74
10003918
Calcification Classification in Mammograms Using Decision Trees
Abstract:

Cancer affects people globally with breast cancer being a leading killer. Breast cancer is due to the uncontrollable multiplication of cells resulting in a tumour or neoplasm. Tumours are called ‘benign’ when cancerous cells do not ravage other body tissues and ‘malignant’ if they do so. As mammography is an effective breast cancer detection tool at an early stage which is the most treatable stage it is the primary imaging modality for screening and diagnosis of this cancer type. This paper presents an automatic mammogram classification technique using wavelet and Gabor filter. Correlation feature selection is used to reduce the feature set and selected features are classified using different decision trees.

Paper Detail
626
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73
10001955
A Numerical Solution Based On Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem
Abstract:
In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.
Paper Detail
1102
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72
9999464
Wavelet Based Residual Method of Detecting GSM Signal Strength Fading
Abstract:

In this paper, GSM signal strength was measured in order to detect the type of the signal fading phenomenon using onedimensional multilevel wavelet residual method and neural network clustering to determine the average GSM signal strength received in the study area. The wavelet residual method predicted that the GSM signal experienced slow fading and attenuated with MSE of 3.875dB. The neural network clustering revealed that mostly -75dB, -85dB and -95dB were received. This means that the signal strength received in the study is a weak signal.

Paper Detail
1204
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71
9998762
Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices
Abstract:

In this paper, Semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions

Paper Detail
2154
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70
9998763
Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based On Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method
Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet together with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.

Paper Detail
1928
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69
9998893
Feature Level Fusion of Multimodal Images Using Haar Lifting Wavelet Transform
Abstract:

This paper presents feature level image fusion using Haar lifting wavelet transform. Feature fused is edge and boundary information, which is obtained using wavelet transform modulus maxima criteria. Simulation results show the superiority of the result as entropy, gradient, standard deviation are increased for fused image as compared to input images. The proposed methods have the advantages of simplicity of implementation, fast algorithm, perfect reconstruction, and reduced computational complexity. (Computational cost of Haar wavelet is very small as compared to other lifting wavelets.)

Paper Detail
1342
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68
9996697
A Comparative Study between Discrete Wavelet Transform and Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform for Testing Stationarity
Abstract:

In this paper the core objective is to apply discrete wavelet transform and maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform functions namely Haar, Daubechies2, Symmlet4, Coiflet2 and discrete approximation of the Meyer wavelets in non stationary financial time series data from Dow Jones index (DJIA30) of US stock market. The data consists of 2048 daily data of closing index from December 17, 2004 to October 23, 2012. Unit root test affirms that the data is non stationary in the level. A comparison between the results to transform non stationary data to stationary data using aforesaid transforms is given which clearly shows that the decomposition stock market index by discrete wavelet transform is better than maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform for original data.

Paper Detail
3029
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67
9996583
Automatic Detection of Breast Tumors in Sonoelastographic Images Using DWT
Abstract:

Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Earlier the detection of cancer, better the treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of the cancer rely on segmentation of Sonoelastographic images. Texture features has not considered for Sonoelastographic segmentation. Sonoelastographic images of 15 patients containing both benign and malignant tumorsare considered for experimentation.The images are enhanced to remove noise in order to improve contrast and emphasize tumor boundary. It is then decomposed into sub-bands using single level Daubechies wavelets varying from single co-efficient to six coefficients. The Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features are extracted and then selected by ranking it using Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS) technique from each sub-band. The resultant images undergo K-Means clustering and then few post-processing steps to remove the false spots. The tumor boundary is detected from the segmented image. It is proposed that Local Binary Pattern (LBP) from the vertical coefficients of Daubechies wavelet with two coefficients is best suited for segmentation of Sonoelastographic breast images among the wavelet members using one to six coefficients for decomposition. The results are also quantified with the help of an expert radiologist. The proposed work can be used for further diagnostic process to decide if the segmented tumor is benign or malignant.

Paper Detail
1490
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66
16506
Numerical Solution of a Laminar Viscous Flow Boundary Layer Equation Using Uniform Haar Wavelet Quasi-linearization Method
Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a Haar wavelet quasilinearization method to solve the well known Blasius equation. The method is based on the uniform Haar wavelet operational matrix defined over the interval [0, 1]. In this method, we have proposed the transformation for converting the problem on a fixed computational domain. The Blasius equation arises in the various boundary layer problems of hydrodynamics and in fluid mechanics of laminar viscous flows. Quasi-linearization is iterative process but our proposed technique gives excellent numerical results with quasilinearization for solving nonlinear differential equations without any iteration on selecting collocation points by Haar wavelets. We have solved Blasius equation for 1≤α ≤ 2 and the numerical results are compared with the available results in literature. Finally, we conclude that proposed method is a promising tool for solving the well known nonlinear Blasius equation.

Paper Detail
2204
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65
2502
The Utility of Wavelet Transform in Surface Electromyography Feature Extraction -A Comparative Study of Different Mother Wavelets
Abstract:

Electromyography (EMG) signal processing has been investigated remarkably regarding various applications such as in rehabilitation systems. Specifically, wavelet transform has served as a powerful technique to scrutinize EMG signals since wavelet transform is consistent with the nature of EMG as a non-stationary signal. In this paper, the efficiency of wavelet transform in surface EMG feature extraction is investigated from four levels of wavelet decomposition and a comparative study between different mother wavelets had been done. To recognize the best function and level of wavelet analysis, two evaluation criteria, scatter plot and RES index are recruited. Hereupon, four wavelet families, namely, Daubechies, Coiflets, Symlets and Biorthogonal are studied in wavelet decomposition stage. Consequently, the results show that only features from first and second level of wavelet decomposition yields good performance and some functions of various wavelet families can lead to an improvement in separability class of different hand movements.

Paper Detail
1794
downloads
64
2910
Evaluation of Haar Cascade Classifiers Designed for Face Detection
Abstract:
In the past years a lot of effort has been made in the field of face detection. The human face contains important features that can be used by vision-based automated systems in order to identify and recognize individuals. Face location, the primary step of the vision-based automated systems, finds the face area in the input image. An accurate location of the face is still a challenging task. Viola-Jones framework has been widely used by researchers in order to detect the location of faces and objects in a given image. Face detection classifiers are shared by public communities, such as OpenCV. An evaluation of these classifiers will help researchers to choose the best classifier for their particular need. This work focuses of the evaluation of face detection classifiers minding facial landmarks.
Paper Detail
2966
downloads
63
11279
Investigation on Feature Extraction and Classification of Medical Images
Abstract:
In this paper we present the deep study about the Bio- Medical Images and tag it with some basic extracting features (e.g. color, pixel value etc). The classification is done by using a nearest neighbor classifier with various distance measures as well as the automatic combination of classifier results. This process selects a subset of relevant features from a group of features of the image. It also helps to acquire better understanding about the image by describing which the important features are. The accuracy can be improved by increasing the number of features selected. Various types of classifications were evolved for the medical images like Support Vector Machine (SVM) which is used for classifying the Bacterial types. Ant Colony Optimization method is used for optimal results. It has high approximation capability and much faster convergence, Texture feature extraction method based on Gabor wavelets etc..
Paper Detail
1721
downloads
62
11283
Optic Disc Detection by Earth Mover's Distance Template Matching
Abstract:

This paper presents a method for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the powerful preprocessing techniques such as the contrast enhancement, Gabor wavelet transform for vessel segmentation, mathematical morphology and Earth Mover-s distance (EMD) as the matching process. The OD detection algorithm is based on matching the expected directional pattern of the retinal blood vessels. Vessel segmentation method produces segmentations by classifying each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, based on the pixel-s feature vector. Feature vectors are composed of the pixel-s intensity and 2D Gabor wavelet transform responses taken at multiple scales. A simple matched filter is proposed to roughly match the direction of the vessels at the OD vicinity using the EMD. The minimum distance provides an estimate of the OD center coordinates. The method-s performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE and STARE databases. On the DRIVE database the OD center was detected correctly in all of the 40 images (100%) and on the STARE database the OD was detected correctly in 76 out of the 81 images, even in rather difficult pathological situations.

Paper Detail
1210
downloads
61
6361
Speckle Reducing Contourlet Transform for Medical Ultrasound Images
Abstract:
Speckle noise affects all coherent imaging systems including medical ultrasound. In medical images, noise suppression is a particularly delicate and difficult task. A tradeoff between noise reduction and the preservation of actual image features has to be made in a way that enhances the diagnostically relevant image content. Even though wavelets have been extensively used for denoising speckle images, we have found that denoising using contourlets gives much better performance in terms of SNR, PSNR, MSE, variance and correlation coefficient. The objective of the paper is to determine the number of levels of Laplacian pyramidal decomposition, the number of directional decompositions to perform on each pyramidal level and thresholding schemes which yields optimal despeckling of medical ultrasound images, in particular. The proposed method consists of the log transformed original ultrasound image being subjected to contourlet transform, to obtain contourlet coefficients. The transformed image is denoised by applying thresholding techniques on individual band pass sub bands using a Bayes shrinkage rule. We quantify the achieved performance improvement.
Paper Detail
1582
downloads
60
7649
Nonstational Dual Wavelet Frames in Sobolev Spaces
Abstract:

In view of the good properties of nonstationary wavelet frames and the better flexibility of wavelets in Sobolev spaces, the nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces are studied in this paper. We mainly give the oblique extension principle and the mixed extension principle for nonstationary dual wavelet frames in a pair of dual Sobolev spaces Hs(Rd) and H-s(Rd).

Paper Detail
1025
downloads
59
9688
A New Voting Approach to Texture Defect Detection Based on Multiresolutional Decomposition
Abstract:
Wavelets have provided the researchers with significant positive results, by entering the texture defect detection domain. The weak point of wavelets is that they are one-dimensional by nature so they are not efficient enough to describe and analyze two-dimensional functions. In this paper we present a new method to detect the defect of texture images by using curvelet transform. Simulation results of the proposed method on a set of standard texture images confirm its correctness. Comparing the obtained results indicates the ability of curvelet transform in describing discontinuity in two-dimensional functions compared to wavelet transform
Paper Detail
897
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58
13811
Performance Evaluation of ROI Extraction Models from Stationary Images
Abstract:
In this paper three basic approaches and different methods under each of them for extracting region of interest (ROI) from stationary images are explored. The results obtained for each of the proposed methods are shown, and it is demonstrated where each method outperforms the other. Two main problems in ROI extraction: the channel selection problem and the saliency reversal problem are discussed and how best these two are addressed by various methods is also seen. The basic approaches are 1) Saliency based approach 2) Wavelet based approach 3) Clustering based approach. The saliency approach performs well on images containing objects of high saturation and brightness. The wavelet based approach performs well on natural scene images that contain regions of distinct textures. The mean shift clustering approach partitions the image into regions according to the density distribution of pixel intensities. The experimental results of various methodologies show that each technique performs at different acceptable levels for various types of images.
Paper Detail
775
downloads
57
7689
Haar Wavelet Method for Solving Fitz Hugh-Nagumo Equation
Abstract:

In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient Haar wavelet method for well-known FitzHugh-Nagumo equation. The proposed scheme can be used to a wide class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. The power of this manageable method is confirmed. Moreover the use of Haar wavelets is found to be accurate, simple, fast, flexible, convenient, small computation costs and computationally attractive.

Paper Detail
1862
downloads
56
7538
Peakwise Smoothing of Data Models using Wavelets
Abstract:
Smoothing or filtering of data is first preprocessing step for noise suppression in many applications involving data analysis. Moving average is the most popular method of smoothing the data, generalization of this led to the development of Savitzky-Golay filter. Many window smoothing methods were developed by convolving the data with different window functions for different applications; most widely used window functions are Gaussian or Kaiser. Function approximation of the data by polynomial regression or Fourier expansion or wavelet expansion also gives a smoothed data. Wavelets also smooth the data to great extent by thresholding the wavelet coefficients. Almost all smoothing methods destroys the peaks and flatten them when the support of the window is increased. In certain applications it is desirable to retain peaks while smoothing the data as much as possible. In this paper we present a methodology called as peak-wise smoothing that will smooth the data to any desired level without losing the major peak features.
Paper Detail
1080
downloads
55
3764
Speaker Identification Using Admissible Wavelet Packet Based Decomposition
Abstract:
Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features are widely used as acoustic features for speech recognition as well as speaker recognition. In MFCC feature representation, the Mel frequency scale is used to get a high resolution in low frequency region, and a low resolution in high frequency region. This kind of processing is good for obtaining stable phonetic information, but not suitable for speaker features that are located in high frequency regions. The speaker individual information, which is non-uniformly distributed in the high frequencies, is equally important for speaker recognition. Based on this fact we proposed an admissible wavelet packet based filter structure for speaker identification. Multiresolution capabilities of wavelet packet transform are used to derive the new features. The proposed scheme differs from previous wavelet based works, mainly in designing the filter structure. Unlike others, the proposed filter structure does not follow Mel scale. The closed-set speaker identification experiments performed on the TIMIT database shows improved identification performance compared to other commonly used Mel scale based filter structures using wavelets.
Paper Detail
1276
downloads
54
13626
Denoising and Compression in Wavelet Domainvia Projection on to Approximation Coefficients
Abstract:

We describe a new filtering approach in the wavelet domain for image denoising and compression, based on the projections of details subbands coefficients (resultants of the splitting procedure, typical in wavelet domain) onto the approximation subband coefficients (much less noisy). The new algorithm is called Projection Onto Approximation Coefficients (POAC). As a result of this approach, only the approximation subband coefficients and three scalars are stored and/or transmitted to the channel. Besides, with the elimination of the details subbands coefficients, we obtain a bigger compression rate. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach compares favorably to more typical methods of denoising and compression in wavelet domain.

Paper Detail
1007
downloads
53
13765
Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression
Abstract:
In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.
Paper Detail
1061
downloads
52
9822
A New Method for Image Classification Based on Multi-level Neural Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a supervised method for color image classification based on a multilevel sigmoidal neural network (MSNN) model. In this method, images are classified into five categories, i.e., “Car", “Building", “Mountain", “Farm" and “Coast". This classification is performed without any segmentation processes. To verify the learning capabilities of the proposed method, we compare our MSNN model with the traditional Sigmoidal Neural Network (SNN) model. Results of comparison have shown that the MSNN model performs better than the traditional SNN model in the context of training run time and classification rate. Both color moments and multi-level wavelets decomposition technique are used to extract features from images. The proposed method has been tested on a variety of real and synthetic images.
Paper Detail
1035
downloads
51
173
Robust Detection of R-Wave Using Wavelet Technique
Abstract:
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the backbone of cardiology. ECG is composed of P, QRS & T waves and information related to cardiac diseases can be extracted from the intervals and amplitudes of these waves. The first step in extracting ECG features starts from the accurate detection of R peaks in the QRS complex. We have developed a robust R wave detector using wavelets. The wavelets used for detection are Daubechies and Symmetric. The method does not require any preprocessing therefore, only needs the ECG correct recordings while implementing the detection. The database has been collected from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and the signals from Lead-II have been analyzed. MatLab 7.0 has been used to develop the algorithm. The ECG signal under test has been decomposed to the required level using the selected wavelet and the selection of detail coefficient d4 has been done based on energy, frequency and cross-correlation analysis of decomposition structure of ECG signal. The robustness of the method is apparent from the obtained results.
Paper Detail
1597
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50
7940
Improved Approximation to the Derivative of a Digital Signal Using Wavelet Transforms for Crosstalk Analysis
Abstract:
The information revealed by derivatives can help to better characterize digital near-end crosstalk signatures with the ultimate goal of identifying the specific aggressor signal. Unfortunately, derivatives tend to be very sensitive to even low levels of noise. In this work we approximated the derivatives of both quiet and noisy digital signals using a wavelet-based technique. The results are presented for Gaussian digital edges, IBIS Model digital edges, and digital edges in oscilloscope data captured from an actual printed circuit board. Tradeoffs between accuracy and noise immunity are presented. The results show that the wavelet technique can produce first derivative approximations that are accurate to within 5% or better, even under noisy conditions. The wavelet technique can be used to calculate the derivative of a digital signal edge when conventional methods fail.
Paper Detail
1193
downloads
49
13480
Image Compression Using Multiwavelet and Multi-Stage Vector Quantization
Abstract:

The existing image coding standards generally degrades at low bit-rates because of the underlying block based Discrete Cosine Transform scheme. Over the past decade, the success of wavelets in solving many different problems has contributed to its unprecedented popularity. Due to implementation constraints scalar wavelets do not posses all the properties such as orthogonality, short support, linear phase symmetry, and a high order of approximation through vanishing moments simultaneously, which are very much essential for signal processing. New class of wavelets called 'Multiwavelets' which posses more than one scaling function overcomes this problem. This paper presents a new image coding scheme based on non linear approximation of multiwavelet coefficients along with multistage vector quantization. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with the results obtained from scalar wavelets.

Paper Detail
1209
downloads