International Science Index
Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking
Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.
Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise
Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image steganography is used for watermarking. The watermarking is an application of the steganography. The watermark contains 80*88 pixels and each pixel requirs 8 bits for its binary equivalent form so, the total number of bits required to hide the watermark are 80*88*8(56320). The experiment was performed on standard 256*256 and 512*512 size images. After the watermark insertion, histogram analysis was performed. A noise factor (salt and pepper) of 0.02 was added to the stego image in order to evaluate the robustness of the method. The watermark was successfully retrieved after insertion of noise. An experiment was performed in order to know the imperceptibility of stego and the retrieved watermark. It is clear that the LSB watermarking scheme is robust to the salt and pepper noise.
Effectual Reversible Watermarking Method for Hide the Patient Details in Brain Tumor Image
The security of the medical images and its related data is the major research area which is to be concentrated in today’s era. Security in the medical image indicates that the physician may hide patients’ related data in the medical image and transfer it safely to a defined location using reversible watermarking. Many reversible watermarking methods had proposed over the decade. This paper enhances the security level in brain tumor images to hide the patient’s detail, which has to be conferred with other physician’s suggestions. The details or the information will be hidden in Non-ROI area of the image by using the block cipher algorithm. The block cipher uses different keys to extract the details that are difficult for the intruder to detect all the keys and to spot the details, which are the key advantage of this method. The ROI is the tumor area and Non-ROI is the area rest of ROI. The Non-ROI should not be spoiled in any cause and the details in the Non-ROI should be extracted correctly. The reversible watermarking method proposed in this paper performs well when compared to existing methods in the process of extraction of an original image and providing information security.
An Interlacing Technique-Based Blind Video Watermarking Using Wavelet
The rapid growth of multimedia technology demands
the secure and efficient access to information. This fast growing lose
the confidence of unauthorized duplication. Henceforth the protection
of multimedia content is becoming more important. Watermarking
solves the issue of unlawful copy of advanced data. In this paper,
blind video watermarking technique has been proposed. A luminance
layer of selected frames is interlaced into two even and odd rows of
an image, further it is deinterlaced and equalizes the coefficients of
the two shares. Color watermark is split into different blocks, and the
pieces of block are concealed in one of the share under the wavelet
transform. Stack the two images into a single image by introducing
interlaced even and odd rows in the two shares. Finally, chrominance
bands are concatenated with the watermarked luminance band. The
safeguard level of the secret information is high, and it is
undetectable. Results show that the quality of the video is not
changed also yields the better PSNR values.
Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance
Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means
of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems,
particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper
we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking
iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible
algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition.
We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images
to unmodiﬁed images, and matching watermarked images to
watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes
give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the
importance ofinvestigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms
cause signiﬁcant reduction in recognition performance. However,
in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is
improved by the watermarking process.
New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database
The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems; the challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.
Deterministic Random Number Generators for Online Applications
Cryptography, Image watermarking and E-banking are
filled with apparent oxymora and paradoxes. Random sequences are
used as keys to encrypt information to be used as watermark during
embedding the watermark and also to extract the watermark during
detection. Also, the keys are very much utilized for 24x7x365
banking operations. Therefore a deterministic random sequence is
very much useful for online applications. In order to obtain the same
random sequence, we need to supply the same seed to the generator.
Many researchers have used Deterministic Random Number
Generators (DRNGs) for cryptographic applications and Pseudo
Noise Random sequences (PNs) for watermarking. Even though,
there are some weaknesses in PN due to attacks, the research
community used it mostly in digital watermarking. On the other hand,
DRNGs have not been widely used in online watermarking due to its
computational complexity and non-robustness. Therefore, we have
invented a new design of generating DRNG using Pi-series to make it
useful for online Cryptographic, Digital watermarking and Banking
Graphic Watermarking, Security Feature in Cadastral Content Management
The paper shows the necessity to increase the security
level for paper management in the cadastral field by using specific
graphical watermarks. Using the graphical watermarking will
increase the security in the cadastral content management;
furthermore any altered document will be validated afterwards of its
originality by checking the graphic watermark. If, by any reasons the
document is changed for counterfeiting, it is invalidated and found
that is an illegal copy due to the graphic check of the watermarking,
check made at pixel level
Contourlet versus Wavelet Transform for a Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique
In this paper, a watermarking algorithm that uses the wavelet transform with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) concepts is introduced. Also, the paper investigates the role of Contourlet Transform (CT) versus Wavelet Transform (WT) in providing robust image watermarking. Two measures are utilized in the comparison between the waveletbased and the contourlet-based methods; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC). Experimental results reveal that the introduced algorithm is robust against different attacks and has good results compared to the contourlet-based algorithm.
Secure Block-Based Video Authentication with Localization and Self-Recovery
Because of the great advance in multimedia
technology, digital multimedia is vulnerable to malicious
manipulations. In this paper, a public key self-recovery block-based
video authentication technique is proposed which can not only
precisely localize the alteration detection but also recover the missing
data with high reliability. In the proposed block-based technique,
multiple description coding MDC is used to generate two codes (two
descriptions) for each block. Although one block code (one
description) is enough to rebuild the altered block, the altered block
is rebuilt with better quality by the two block descriptions. So using
MDC increases the ratability of recovering data. A block signature is
computed using a cryptographic hash function and a doubly linked
chain is utilized to embed the block signature copies and the block
descriptions into the LSBs of distant blocks and the block itself. The
doubly linked chain scheme gives the proposed technique the
capability to thwart vector quantization attacks. In our proposed
technique , anyone can check the authenticity of a given video using
the public key. The experimental results show that the proposed
technique is reliable for detecting, localizing and recovering the
Inter-frame Collusion Attack in SS-N Video Watermarking System
Video watermarking is usually considered as watermarking of a set of still images. In frame-by-frame watermarking approach, each video frame is seen as a single watermarked image, so collusion attack is more critical in video watermarking. If the same or redundant watermark is used for embedding in every frame of video, the watermark can be estimated and then removed by watermark estimate remodolulation (WER) attack. Also if uncorrelated watermarks are used for every frame, these watermarks can be washed out with frame temporal filtering (FTF). Switching watermark system or so-called SS-N system has better performance against WER and FTF attacks. In this system, for each frame, the watermark is randomly picked up from a finite pool of watermark patterns. At first SS-N system will be surveyed and then a new collusion attack for SS-N system will be proposed using a new algorithm for separating video frame based on watermark pattern. So N sets will be built in which every set contains frames carrying the same watermark. After that, using WER attack in every set, N different watermark patterns will be estimated and removed later.
A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme
The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.
Authentication and Data Hiding Using a Reversible ROI-based Watermarking Scheme for DICOM Images
In recent years image watermarking has become an
important research area in data security, confidentiality and image
integrity. Many watermarking techniques were proposed for medical
images. However, medical images, unlike most of images, require
extreme care when embedding additional data within them because
the additional information must not affect the image quality and
readability. Also the medical records, electronic or not, are linked to
the medical secrecy, for that reason, the records must be confidential.
To fulfill those requirements, this paper presents a lossless
watermarking scheme for DICOM images. The proposed a fragile
scheme combines two reversible techniques based on difference
expansion for patient's data hiding and protecting the region of
interest (ROI) with tamper detection and recovery capability.
Patient's data are embedded into ROI, while recovery data are
embedded into region of non-interest (RONI). The experimental
results show that the original image can be exactly extracted from the
watermarked one in case of no tampering. In case of tampered ROI,
tampered area can be localized and recovered with a high quality
version of the original area.
Support Vector Machine based Intelligent Watermark Decoding for Anticipated Attack
In this paper, we present an innovative scheme of
blindly extracting message bits from an image distorted by an attack.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to nonlinearly classify the
bits of the embedded message. Traditionally, a hard decoder is used
with the assumption that the underlying modeling of the Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients does not appreciably change.
In case of an attack, the distribution of the image coefficients is
heavily altered. The distribution of the sufficient statistics at the
receiving end corresponding to the antipodal signals overlap and a
simple hard decoder fails to classify them properly. We are
considering message retrieval of antipodal signal as a binary
classification problem. Machine learning techniques like SVM is
used to retrieve the message, when certain specific class of attacks is
most probable. In order to validate SVM based decoding scheme, we
have taken Gaussian noise as a test case. We generate a data set using
125 images and 25 different keys. Polynomial kernel of SVM has
achieved 100 percent accuracy on test data.
HSV Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography
In this paper a simple watermarking method for
color images is proposed. The proposed method is based on
watermark embedding for the histograms of the HSV planes
using visual cryptography watermarking. The method has
been proved to be robust for various image processing
operations such as filtering, compression, additive noise, and
various geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping,
flipping, and shearing.
Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery
In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.
Genetic Content-Based MP3 Audio Watermarking in MDCT Domain
In this paper a novel scheme for watermarking digital
audio during its compression to MPEG-1 Layer III format is
proposed. For this purpose we slightly modify some of the selected
MDCT coefficients, which are used during MPEG audio
compression procedure. Due to the possibility of modifying different
MDCT coefficients, there will be different choices for embedding the
watermark into audio data, considering robustness and transparency
factors. Our proposed method uses a genetic algorithm to select the
best coefficients to embed the watermark. This genetic selection is
done according to the parameters that are extracted from the
perceptual content of the audio to optimize the robustness and
transparency of the watermark. On the other hand the watermark
security is increased due to the random nature of the genetic
selection. The information of the selected MDCT coefficients that
carry the watermark bits, are saves in a database for future extraction
of the watermark. The proposed method is suitable for online MP3
stores to pursue illegal copies of musical artworks. Experimental
results show that the detection ratio of the watermarks at the bitrate
of 128kbps remains above 90% while the inaudibility of the
watermark is preserved.
Techniques with Statistics for Web Page Watermarking
Information hiding, especially watermarking is a
promising technique for the protection of intellectual property rights.
This technology is mainly advanced for multimedia but the same has
not been done for text. Web pages, like other documents, need a
protection against piracy. In this paper, some techniques are
proposed to show how to hide information in web pages using some
features of the markup language used to describe these pages. Most
of the techniques proposed here use the white space to hide
information or some varieties of the language in representing
elements. Experiments on a very small page and analysis of five
thousands web pages show that these techniques have a wide
bandwidth available for information hiding, and they might form a
solid base to develop a robust algorithm for web page watermarking.
Entropy Based Data Hiding for Document Images
In this paper we present a novel technique for data
hiding in binary document images. We use the concept of entropy in
order to identify document specific least distortive areas throughout
the binary document image. The document image is treated as any
other image and the proposed method utilizes the standard document
characteristics for the embedding process. Proposed method
minimizes perceptual distortion due to embedding and allows
watermark extraction without the requirement of any side information
at the decoder end.
A Copyright Protection Scheme for Color Images using Secret Sharing and Wavelet Transform
This paper proposes a copyright protection scheme for color images using secret sharing and wavelet transform. The scheme contains two phases: the share image generation phase and the watermark retrieval phase. In the generation phase, the proposed scheme first converts the image into the YCbCr color space and creates a special sampling plane from the color space. Next, the scheme extracts the features from the sampling plane using the discrete wavelet transform. Then, the scheme employs the features and the watermark to generate a principal share image. In the retrieval phase, an expanded watermark is first reconstructed using the features of the suspect image and the principal share image. Next, the scheme reduces the additional noise to obtain the recovered watermark, which is then verified against the original watermark to examine the copyright. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can resist several attacks such as JPEG compression, blurring, sharpening, noise addition, and cropping. The accuracy rates are all higher than 97%.
Watermark-based Counter for Restricting Digital Audio Consumption
In this paper we introduce three watermarking methods that can be used to count the number of times that a user has played some content. The proposed methods are tested with audio content in our experimental system using the most common signal processing attacks. The test results show that the watermarking methods used enable the watermark to be extracted under the most common attacks with a low bit error rate.
Attack Detection through Image Adaptive Self Embedding Watermarking
Now a days, a significant part of commercial and governmental organisations like museums, cultural organizations, libraries, commercial enterprises, etc. invest intensively in new technologies for image digitization, digital libraries, image archiving and retrieval. Hence image authorization, authentication and security has become prime need. In this paper, we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for color images. The method converts the host image into YIQ color space followed by application of orthogonal dual domains of DCT and DWT transforms. The DCT helps to separate relevant from irrelevant image content to generate silent image features. DWT has excellent spatial localisation to help aid in spatial tamper characterisation. Thus image adaptive watermark is generated based of image features which allows the sharp detection of microscopic changes to locate modifications in the image. Further, the scheme utilises the multipurpose watermark consisting of soft authenticator watermark and chrominance watermark. Which has been proved fragile to some predefined processing like intentinal fabrication of the image or forgery and robust to other incidental attacks caused in the communication channel.
A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions
This paper presents a new steganography approach suitable for Arabic texts. It can be classified under steganography feature coding methods. The approach hides secret information bits within the letters benefiting from their inherited points. To note the specific letters holding secret bits, the scheme considers the two features, the existence of the points in the letters and the redundant Arabic extension character. We use the pointed letters with extension to hold the secret bit 'one' and the un-pointed letters with extension to hold 'zero'. This steganography technique is found attractive to other languages having similar texts to Arabic such as Persian and Urdu.