International Science Index
Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking
In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.
A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform
In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.
Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison
Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.
Identity Management in Virtual Worlds Based on Biometrics Watermarking
With the technological development and rise of virtual worlds, these spaces are becoming more and more attractive for cybercriminals, hidden behind avatars and fictitious identities. Since access to these spaces is not restricted or controlled, some impostors take advantage of gaining unauthorized access and practicing cyber criminality. This paper proposes an identity management approach for securing access to virtual worlds. The major purpose of the suggested solution is to install a strong security mechanism to protect virtual identities represented by avatars. Thus, only legitimate users, through their corresponding avatars, are allowed to access the platform resources. Access is controlled by integrating an authentication process based on biometrics. In the request process for registration, a user fingerprint is enrolled and then encrypted into a watermark utilizing a cancelable and non-invertible algorithm for its protection. After a user personalizes their representative character, the biometric mark is embedded into the avatar through a watermarking procedure. The authenticity of the avatar identity is verified when it requests authorization for access. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a dataset of avatars from various virtual worlds, and we have registered promising performance results in terms of authentication accuracy, acceptation and rejection rates.
Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram
Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.
Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise
Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image steganography is used for watermarking. The watermarking is an application of the steganography. The watermark contains 80*88 pixels and each pixel requirs 8 bits for its binary equivalent form so, the total number of bits required to hide the watermark are 80*88*8(56320). The experiment was performed on standard 256*256 and 512*512 size images. After the watermark insertion, histogram analysis was performed. A noise factor (salt and pepper) of 0.02 was added to the stego image in order to evaluate the robustness of the method. The watermark was successfully retrieved after insertion of noise. An experiment was performed in order to know the imperceptibility of stego and the retrieved watermark. It is clear that the LSB watermarking scheme is robust to the salt and pepper noise.
A Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on Chaotic and Wavelet Neural Network
This paper presented a video watermarking algorithm based on wavelet chaotic neural network. First, to enhance binary image’s security, the algorithm encrypted it with double chaotic based on Arnold and Logistic map, Then, the host video was divided into some equal frames and distilled the key frame through chaotic sequence which generated by Logistic. Meanwhile, we distilled the low frequency coefficients of luminance component and self-adaptively embedded the processed image watermark into the low frequency coefficients of the wavelet transformed luminance component with the wavelet neural network. The experimental result suggested that the presented algorithm has better invisibility and robustness against noise, Gaussian filter, rotation, frame loss and other attacks.
An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength
Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data. It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.
Effectual Reversible Watermarking Method for Hide the Patient Details in Brain Tumor Image
The security of the medical images and its related data is the major research area which is to be concentrated in today’s era. Security in the medical image indicates that the physician may hide patients’ related data in the medical image and transfer it safely to a defined location using reversible watermarking. Many reversible watermarking methods had proposed over the decade. This paper enhances the security level in brain tumor images to hide the patient’s detail, which has to be conferred with other physician’s suggestions. The details or the information will be hidden in Non-ROI area of the image by using the block cipher algorithm. The block cipher uses different keys to extract the details that are difficult for the intruder to detect all the keys and to spot the details, which are the key advantage of this method. The ROI is the tumor area and Non-ROI is the area rest of ROI. The Non-ROI should not be spoiled in any cause and the details in the Non-ROI should be extracted correctly. The reversible watermarking method proposed in this paper performs well when compared to existing methods in the process of extraction of an original image and providing information security.
An Interlacing Technique-Based Blind Video Watermarking Using Wavelet
The rapid growth of multimedia technology demands
the secure and efficient access to information. This fast growing lose
the confidence of unauthorized duplication. Henceforth the protection
of multimedia content is becoming more important. Watermarking
solves the issue of unlawful copy of advanced data. In this paper,
blind video watermarking technique has been proposed. A luminance
layer of selected frames is interlaced into two even and odd rows of
an image, further it is deinterlaced and equalizes the coefficients of
the two shares. Color watermark is split into different blocks, and the
pieces of block are concealed in one of the share under the wavelet
transform. Stack the two images into a single image by introducing
interlaced even and odd rows in the two shares. Finally, chrominance
bands are concatenated with the watermarked luminance band. The
safeguard level of the secret information is high, and it is
undetectable. Results show that the quality of the video is not
changed also yields the better PSNR values.
Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image
With the growing of computer and network, digital
data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition,
digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security
issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data.
Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data.
Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this
paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into
the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking
is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing
of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny
difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot
of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by
partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to
speed up the data hiding process.
The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and
color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed.
In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to
fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted
watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that
the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in
Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance
Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means
of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems,
particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper
we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking
iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible
algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition.
We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images
to unmodiﬁed images, and matching watermarked images to
watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes
give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the
importance ofinvestigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms
cause signiﬁcant reduction in recognition performance. However,
in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is
improved by the watermarking process.
High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting
Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error pre-compensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighboring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error pre-compensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.
GPU Based High Speed Error Protection for Watermarked Medical Image Transmission
Medical image is an integral part of e-health care and e-diagnosis system. Medical image watermarking is widely used to protect patients’ information from malicious alteration and manipulation. The watermarked medical images are transmitted over the internet among patients, primary and referred physicians. The images are highly prone to corruption in the wireless transmission medium due to various noises, deflection, and refractions. Distortion in the received images leads to faulty watermark detection and inappropriate disease diagnosis. To address the issue, this paper utilizes error correction code (ECC) with (8, 4) Hamming code in an existing watermarking system. In addition, we implement the high complex ECC on a graphics processing units (GPU) to accelerate and support real-time requirement. Experimental results show that GPU achieves considerable speedup over the sequential CPU implementation, while maintaining 100% ECC efficiency.
New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database
The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems; the challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.
Deterministic Random Number Generators for Online Applications
Cryptography, Image watermarking and E-banking are
filled with apparent oxymora and paradoxes. Random sequences are
used as keys to encrypt information to be used as watermark during
embedding the watermark and also to extract the watermark during
detection. Also, the keys are very much utilized for 24x7x365
banking operations. Therefore a deterministic random sequence is
very much useful for online applications. In order to obtain the same
random sequence, we need to supply the same seed to the generator.
Many researchers have used Deterministic Random Number
Generators (DRNGs) for cryptographic applications and Pseudo
Noise Random sequences (PNs) for watermarking. Even though,
there are some weaknesses in PN due to attacks, the research
community used it mostly in digital watermarking. On the other hand,
DRNGs have not been widely used in online watermarking due to its
computational complexity and non-robustness. Therefore, we have
invented a new design of generating DRNG using Pi-series to make it
useful for online Cryptographic, Digital watermarking and Banking
Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm
In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure
system that is based on the combination between two different
transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet
Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the
drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed
algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully.
The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for
embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility
and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated
imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a
PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm
improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian
noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a
successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.
A Prediction-Based Reversible Watermarking for MRI Images
Reversible watermarking is a special branch of image watermarking, that is able to recover the original image after extracting the watermark from the image. In this paper, an adaptive prediction-based reversible watermarking scheme is presented, in order to increase the payload capacity of MRI medical images. The scheme divides the image into two parts, Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non-Interest (RONI). Two bits are embedded in each embeddable pixel of RONI and one bit is embedded in each embeddable pixel of ROI. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to achieve high embedding capacity. This is mainly caused by two reasons. First, the pixels that were excluded from data embedding due to overflow/underflow are used for data embedding. Second, large location map that need to be added to watermark data as overhead is eliminated and thus lower data embedding capacity is prevented. Moreover, the scheme provides good visual quality to the watermarked image.
Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model
An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has
been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model
depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in
the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed
model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to
produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate
embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor.
Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of
watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental
attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and
rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the
model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The
proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time
achieved a high level of imperceptibility.
M-band Wavelet and Cosine Transform Based Watermark Algorithm Using Randomization and Principal Component Analysis
Computational techniques derived from digital image processing are playing a significant role in the security and digital copyrights of multimedia and visual arts. This technology has the effect within the domain of computers. This research presents discrete M-band wavelet transform (MWT) and cosine transform (DCT) based watermarking algorithm by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed algorithm is expected to achieve higher perceptual transparency. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing, such as geometric distortions, and Gaussian noise. In addition, the proposed algorithm can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. To meet these requirements, the image is transformed by a combination of MWT & DCT. In order to improve the security further, we randomize the watermark image to create three code books. During the watermark embedding, PCA is applied to the coefficients in approximation sub-band. Finally, first few component bands represent an excellent domain for inserting the watermark.
Graphic Watermarking, Security Feature in Cadastral Content Management
The paper shows the necessity to increase the security
level for paper management in the cadastral field by using specific
graphical watermarks. Using the graphical watermarking will
increase the security in the cadastral content management;
furthermore any altered document will be validated afterwards of its
originality by checking the graphic watermark. If, by any reasons the
document is changed for counterfeiting, it is invalidated and found
that is an illegal copy due to the graphic check of the watermarking,
check made at pixel level
Fragile Watermarking for Color Images Using Thresholding Technique
In this paper, we propose ablock-wise watermarking scheme for color image authentication to resist malicious tampering of digital media. The thresholding technique is incorporated into the scheme such that the tampered region of the color image can be recovered with high quality while the proofing result is obtained. The watermark for each block consists of its dual authentication data and the corresponding feature information. The feature information for recovery iscomputed bythe thresholding technique. In the proofing process, we propose a dual-option parity check method to proof the validity of image blocks. In the recovery process, the feature information of each block embedded into the color image is rebuilt for high quality recovery. The simulation results show that the proposed watermarking scheme can effectively proof the tempered region with high detection rate and can recover the tempered region with high quality.
ROI Based Embedded Watermarking of Medical Images for Secured Communication in Telemedicine
Medical images require special safety and confidentiality because critical judgment is done on the information provided by medical images. Transmission of medical image via internet or mobile phones demands strong security and copyright protection in telemedicine applications. Here, highly secured and robust watermarking technique is proposed for transmission of image data via internet and mobile phones. The Region of Interest (ROI) and Non Region of Interest (RONI) of medical image are separated. Only RONI is used for watermark embedding. This technique results in exact recovery of watermark with standard medical database images of size 512x512, giving 'correlation factor' equals to 1. The correlation factor for different attacks like noise addition, filtering, rotation and compression ranges from 0.90 to 0.95. The PSNR with weighting factor 0.02 is up to 48.53 dBs. The presented scheme is non blind and embeds hospital logo of 64x64 size.
An Artificial Intelligent Technique for Robust Digital Watermarking in Multiwavelet Domain
In this paper, an artificial intelligent technique for
robust digital image watermarking in multiwavelet domain is
proposed. The embedding technique is based on the quantization
index modulation technique and the watermark extraction process
does not require the original image. We have developed an
optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for
optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked
image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a
prediction model based on image moments and back propagation
neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the
watermark extraction process begins. The experimental results show
that the proposed watermarking algorithm yields watermarked image
with good imperceptibility and very robust watermark against various
image processing attacks.
Robust Minutiae Watermarking in Wavelet Domain for Fingerprint Security
In this manuscript, a wavelet-based blind
watermarking scheme has been proposed as a means to provide
security to authenticity of a fingerprint. The information used for
identification or verification of a fingerprint mainly lies in its
minutiae. By robust watermarking of the minutiae in the fingerprint
image itself, the useful information can be extracted accurately even
if the fingerprint is severely degraded. The minutiae are converted in
a binary watermark and embedding these watermarks in the detail
regions increases the robustness of watermarking, at little to no
additional impact on image quality. It has been experimentally shown
that when the minutiae is embedded into wavelet detail coefficients
of a fingerprint image in spread spectrum fashion using a
pseudorandom sequence, the robustness is observed to have a
proportional response while perceptual invisibility has an inversely
proportional response to amplification factor “K". The DWT-based
technique has been found to be very robust against noises,
geometrical distortions filtering and JPEG compression attacks and is
also found to give remarkably better performance than DCT-based
technique in terms of correlation coefficient and number of erroneous
High Capacity Spread-Spectrum Watermarking for Telemedicine Applications
This paper presents a new spread-spectrum
watermarking algorithm for digital images in discrete wavelet
transform (DWT) domain. The algorithm is applied for embedding
watermarks like patient identification /source identification or
doctors signature in binary image format into host digital
radiological image for potential telemedicine applications.
Performance of the algorithm is analysed by varying the gain factor,
subband decomposition levels, and size of watermark. Simulation
results show that the proposed method achieves higher watermarking
A Novel Reversible Watermarking Method based on Adaptive Thresholding and Companding Technique
Embedding and extraction of a secret information as
well as the restoration of the original un-watermarked image is
highly desirable in sensitive applications like military, medical, and
law enforcement imaging. This paper presents a novel reversible
data-hiding method for digital images using integer to integer
wavelet transform and companding technique which can embed and
recover the secret information as well as can restore the image to its
pristine state. The novel method takes advantage of block based
watermarking and iterative optimization of threshold for companding
which avoids histogram pre and post-processing. Consequently, it
reduces the associated overhead usually required in most of the
reversible watermarking techniques. As a result, it keeps the
distortion small between the marked and the original images.
Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the
existing reversible data hiding schemes reported in the literature.
Post-Compression Consideration in Video Watermarking for Wireless Communication
A simple but effective digital watermarking scheme
utilizing a context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) method
is presented for wireless communication system. In the proposed
approach, the watermark bits are embedded in the final non-zero
quantized coefficient of each DCT block, thereby yielding a potential
reduction in the length of the coded block. As a result, the
watermarking scheme not only provides the means to check the
authenticity and integrity of the video stream, but also improves the
compression ratio and therefore reduces both the transmission time
and the storage space requirements of the coded video sequence. The
results confirm that the proposed scheme enables the detection of
malicious tampering attacks and reduces the size of the coded H.264
file. Therefore, the current study is feasible to apply in the video
applications of wireless communication such as 3G system
Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos
In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking
scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits
into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero
level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain.
The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or
called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro
block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the
neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of
the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of
reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that
our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and
output bit-rate for most test videos.
Web Page Watermarking: XML files using Synonyms and Acronyms
Advent enhancements in the field of computing have
increased massive use of web based electronic documents. Current
Copyright protection laws are inadequate to prove the ownership for
electronic documents and do not provide strong features against
copying and manipulating information from the web. This has
opened many channels for securing information and significant
evolutions have been made in the area of information security.
Digital Watermarking has developed into a very dynamic area of
research and has addressed challenging issues for digital content.
Watermarking can be visible (logos or signatures) and invisible
(encoding and decoding). Many visible watermarking techniques
have been studied for text documents but there are very few for web
based text. XML files are used to trade information on the internet
and contain important information. In this paper, two invisible
watermarking techniques using Synonyms and Acronyms are
proposed for XML files to prove the intellectual ownership and to
achieve the security. Analysis is made for different attacks and
amount of capacity to be embedded in the XML file is also noticed.
A comparative analysis for capacity is also made for both methods.
The system has been implemented using C# language and all tests are
made practically to get the results.