International Science Index
Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir
22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.
Assessment of Groundwater Chemistry and Quality Characteristics in an Alluvial Aquifer and a Single Plane Fractured-Rock Aquifer in Bloemfontein, South Africa
The evolution of groundwater chemistry and its quality is largely controlled by hydrogeochemical processes and their understanding is therefore important for groundwater quality assessments and protection of the water resources. A study was conducted in Bloemfontein town of South Africa to assess and compare the groundwater chemistry and quality characteristics in an alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifers. 9 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes drilled into the two aquifer systems during a once-off sampling exercise. Samples were collected through low-flow purging technique and analysed for major ions and trace elements. In order to describe the hydrochemical facies and identify dominant hydrogeochemical processes, the groundwater chemistry data are interpreted using stiff diagrams and principal component analysis (PCA), as complimentary tools. The fitness of the groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses is also assessed. Results show that the alluvial aquifer is characterised by a Na-HCO3 hydrochemical facie while fractured-rock aquifer has a Ca-HCO3 facie. The groundwater in both aquifers originally evolved from the dissolution of calcite rocks that are common on land surface environments. However the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer further goes through another evolution as driven by cation exchange process in which Na in the sediments exchanges with Ca2+ in the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical type to result in the Na-HCO3 hydrochemical type. Despite the difference in the hydrogeochemical processes between the alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifer, this did not influence the groundwater quality. The groundwater in the two aquifers is very hard as influenced by the elevated magnesium and calcium ions that evolve from dissolution of carbonate minerals which typically occurs in surface environments. Based on total dissolved levels (600-900 mg/L), groundwater quality of the two aquifer systems is classified to be of fair quality. The negative potential impacts of the groundwater quality for domestic uses are highlighted.
Analysis on the Feasibility of Landsat 8 Imagery for Water Quality Parameters Assessment in an Oligotrophic Mediterranean Lake
Lake water quality monitoring in combination with the use of earth observation products constitutes a major component in many water quality monitoring programs. Landsat 8 images of Trichonis Lake (Greece) acquired on 30/10/2013 and 30/08/2014 were used in order to explore the possibility of Landsat 8 to estimate water quality parameters and particularly CDOM absorption at specific wavelengths, chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations in this oligotrophic freshwater body, characterized by inexistent quantitative, temporal and spatial variability. Water samples have been collected at 22 different stations, on late August of 2014 and the satellite image of the same date was used to statistically correlate the in-situ measurements with various combinations of Landsat 8 bands in order to develop algorithms that best describe those relationships and calculate accurately the aforementioned water quality components. Optimal models were applied to the image of late October of 2013 and the validation of the results was conducted through their comparison with the respective available in-situ data of 2013. Initial results indicated the limited ability of the Landsat 8 sensor to accurately estimate water quality components in an oligotrophic waterbody. As resulted by the validation process, ammonium concentrations were proved to be the most accurately estimated component (R = 0.7), followed by chl-a concentration (R = 0.5) and the CDOM absorption at 420 nm (R = 0.3). In-situ nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations of 2014 were measured as lower than the detection limit of the instrument used, hence no statistical elaboration was conducted. On the other hand, multiple linear regression among reflectance measures and total phosphorus concentrations resulted in low and statistical insignificant correlations. Our results were concurrent with other studies in international literature, indicating that estimations for eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes are more accurate than oligotrophic, owing to the lack of suspended particles that are detectable by satellite sensors. Nevertheless, although those predictive models, developed and applied to Trichonis oligotrophic lake are less accurate, may still be useful indicators of its water quality deterioration.
Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring
For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.
Plecoptera Fauna of Alara and Karpuz Streams and Determination of their Relationships with Water Quality
This study was carried on 12 determined stations, on Alara and Karpuz Streams, between January and November 2014. Seasonal samples were taken from the stations to analyze physicochemical parameters and Plecoptera Fauna in the water. The correlation between identified taxa and physicochemical data were tried to determine. As the result of the study, 2088 individuals from Plecoptera fauna were examined, 3 genera and 13 species were identified. The taxa of Brachyptera risi, Capnia bifrons, Dinocras cephalotes, Diura bicaudata, Isogenus nebecula, Isogenus sp., Isoperla grammatica, Leuctra hippopus, Leuctra inermis, Leuctra moselyi, Leuctra sp., Nemoura sp., Perla bipunctata, Perla marginata, Protonemura meyeri and Rhabdiopteryx acuminata were determined. In Alara Stream, the dominant species were; Isogenus nebecula at stations I and IV, Leuctra moselyi at station II, Leuctra hippopus at stations III, V and VI. In Karpuz Stream, Brachyptera risi was the dominant species in all stations. While Leuctra hippopus was the dominant taxon in Alara Stream, in Karpuz Stream it was Brachyptera risi. The highest diversity value was at station III and the lowest was at station VI in Alara Stream and the lowest diversity value was at station VI, while the highest was at station I in Karpuz Stream. In Alara Stream, the most similar stations were I and III, while in Karpuz Stream the highest similarity was determined between stations I and II. As for the evaluation result, the water quality of Alara and Karpuz Streams were determined as at oligosaprobic level.
Environmental Impacts of Point and Non-Point Source Pollution in Krishnagiri Reservoir: A Case Study in South India
Reservoirs are being contaminated all around the world with point source and Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution. The most common NPS pollutants are sediments and nutrients. Krishnagiri Reservoir (KR) has been chosen for the present case study, which is located in the tropical semi-arid climatic zone of Tamil Nadu, South India. It is the main source of surface water in Krishnagiri district to meet the freshwater demands. The reservoir has lost about 40% of its water holding capacity due to sedimentation over the period of 50 years. Hence, from the research and management perspective, there is a need for a sound knowledge on the spatial and seasonal variations of KR water quality. The present study encompasses the specific objectives as (i) to investigate the longitudinal heterogeneity and seasonal variations of physicochemical parameters, nutrients and biological characteristics of KR water and (ii) to examine the extent of degradation of water quality in KR. 15 sampling points were identified by uniform stratified method and a systematic monthly sampling strategy was selected due to high dynamic nature in its hydrological characteristics. The physicochemical parameters, major ions, nutrients and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) were analysed. Trophic status of KR was classified by using Carlson's Trophic State Index (TSI). All statistical analyses were performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences programme, version-16.0. Spatial maps were prepared for Chl a using Arc GIS. Observations in KR pointed out that electrical conductivity and major ions are highly variable factors as it receives inflow from the catchment with different land use activities. The study of major ions in KR exhibited different trends in their values and it could be concluded that as the monsoon progresses the major ions in the water decreases or water quality stabilizes. The inflow point of KR showed comparatively higher concentration of nutrients including nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total phosphors (TP), total suspended phosphorus (TSP) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) during monsoon seasons. This evidently showed the input of significant amount of nutrients from the catchment side through agricultural runoff. High concentration of TDP and TSP at the lacustrine zone of the reservoir during summer season evidently revealed that there was a significant release of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. Carlson’s TSI of KR ranged between 81 and 92 during northeast monsoon and summer seasons. High and permanent Cyanobacterial bloom in KR could be mainly due to the internal loading of phosphorus from the bottom sediments. According to Carlson’s TSI classification Krishnagiri reservoir was ranked in the hyper-eutrophic category. This study provides necessary basic data on the spatio-temporal variations of water quality in KR and also proves the impact of point and NPS pollution from the catchment area. High TSI warrants a greater threat for the recovery of internal P loading and hyper-eutrophic condition of KR. Several expensive internal measures for the reduction of internal loading of P were introduced by many scientists. However, the outcome of the present research suggests for the innovative algae harvesting technique for the removal of sediment nutrients.
Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant
Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.
A Multivariate Statistical Approach for Water Quality Assessment of River Hindon, India
River Hindon is an important river catering the
demand of highly populated rural and industrial cluster of western
Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is deteriorating at
an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural
activities. The present study aimed at identifying the pollution
sources and quantifying the degree to which these sources are
responsible for the deteriorating water quality of the river. Various
water quality parameters, like pH, temperature, electrical
conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, chloride,
nitrate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen
demand, and total alkalinity were assessed. Water quality data
obtained from eight study sites for one year has been subjected to the
two multivariate techniques, namely, principal component analysis
and cluster analysis. Principal component analysis was applied with
the aim to find out spatial variability and to identify the sources
responsible for the water quality of the river. Three Varifactors were
obtained after varimax rotation of initial principal components using
principal component analysis. Cluster analysis was carried out to
classify sampling stations of certain similarity, which grouped eight
different sites into two clusters. The study reveals that the
anthropogenic influence (municipal, industrial, waste water and
agricultural runoff) was the major source of river water pollution.
Thus, this study illustrates the utility of multivariate statistical
techniques for analysis and elucidation of multifaceted data sets,
recognition of pollution sources/factors and understanding
temporal/spatial variations in water quality for effective river water
Adverse Impacts of Poor Wastewater Management Practices on Water Quality in Gebeng Industrial Area, Pahang, Malaysia
This study was carried out to investigate the adverse
effect of industrial wastewater on surface water quality in Gebeng
industrial estate, Pahang, Malaysia. Surface water was collected from
six sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters were
characterized based on in-situ and ex-situ analysis according to
standard methods by American Public Health Association (APHA).
Selected heavy metals were determined by using Inductively Coupled
Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS). The results revealed that the
concentration of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr and Hg were
high in samples. The results also showed that the value of Pb and Hg
were higher in the wet season in comparison to dry season.
According to Malaysia National Water Quality Standard (NWQS)
and Water Quality Index (WQI) all the sampling station were
categorized as class IV (highly polluted). The present study revealed
that the adverse effects of careless disposal of wastes and directly
discharge of effluents affected on surface water quality. Therefore,
the authorities should implement the laws to ensure the proper
practices of wastewater management for environmental sustainability
around the study area.
Flocculation on the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater: Pretreatment
Currently, continuous two-phase decanter process
used for olive oil production is the more internationally widespread.
The wastewaters generated from this industry (OMW) are a real
environmental problem because of its high organic load. Among
proposed treatments for these wastewaters, advanced oxidation
technologies (Fenton, ozone, photoFenton, etc.) are the most
favourable. The direct application of these processes is somewhat
expensive. Therefore, the application of a previous stage based on a
flocculation-sedimentation operation is of high importance. In this
research five commercial flocculants (three cationic, and two anionic)
have been used to achieve the separation of phases (liquid clarifiedsludge).
For each flocculant, different concentrations (0-1000 mg/L)
have been studied. In these experiments, sludge volume formed and
the final water quality were determined. The final removal
percentages of total phenols (11.3-25.1%), COD (5.6-20.4%), total
carbon (2.3-26.5%), total organic carbon (1.50-23.8%), total nitrogen
(1.45-24.8%), and turbidity (27.9-61.4%) were determined. The
variation on electric conductivity reduction percentage (1-8%) was
also determined. Finally, the best flocculants with highest removal
percentages have been determined (QG2001 and Flocudex CS49).
Variability of Metal Composition and Concentrations in Road Dust in the Urban Environment
Urban road dust comprises of a range of potentially
toxic metal elements and plays a critical role in degrading urban
receiving water quality. Hence, assessing the metal composition and
concentration in urban road dust is a high priority. This study
investigated the variability of metal composition and concentrations
in road dust in 4 different urban land uses in Gold Coast, Australia.
Samples from 16 road sites were collected and tested for selected 12
metal species. The data set was analyzed using both univariate and
multivariate techniques. Outcomes of the data analysis revealed that
the metal concentrations inroad dust differs considerably within and
between different land uses. Iron, aluminum, magnesium and zinc are
the most abundant in urban land uses. It was also noted that metal
species such as titanium, nickel, copper and zinc have the highest
concentrations in industrial land use. The study outcomes revealed
that soil and traffic related sources as key sources of metals deposited
on road surfaces.
Monitoring of Water Pollution and Its Consequences: An Overview
Water a vital component for all living forms is derived from variety of sources, including surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs and ponds) and ground water (aquifers). Over the years of time, water bodies are subjected to human interference regularly resulting in deterioration of water quality. Therefore, pollution of water bodies has become matter of global concern. As the water quality closely relate to human health, water analysis before usage is of immense importance. Improper management of water bodies can cause serious problems in availability and quality of water. The quality of water may be described according to their physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics. For effective maintenance of water quality through appropriate control measures, continuous monitoring of metals, physico-chemical and biological parameter is essential for the establishment of baseline data for the water quality in any study area. The present study has focused on to explore the status of water pollution in various areas and to estimate the magnitude of its toxicity using different bioassay.
Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand
This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the Amphawa District. The surface water quality parameters in this study included water temperature, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, suspended solids, phosphorus, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo and Coconut orchards for 3 seasons from January to December 2011.
The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo and coconut orchards were met the type III of surface water quality standard. The concentration of heavy metal and did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen.
The surface water was suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before and was suitable for agriculture.
Groundwater Quality Assessment for Irrigation Use in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India
This study was conducted to evaluate factors
regulating groundwater quality in an area with agriculture as main
use. Under this study twelve groundwater samples have been
collected from Padra taluka, Dabhoi taluka and Savli taluka of
Vadodara district. Groundwater samples were chemically analyzed
for major physicochemical parameter in order to understand the
different geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality.
The analytical results shows higher concentration of total dissolved
solids (16.67%), electrical conductivity (25%) and magnesium
(8.33%) for pre monsoon and total dissolved solids (16.67%),
electrical conductivity (33.3%) and magnesium (8.33%) for post
monsoon which indicates signs of deterioration as per WHO and BIS
standards. On the other hand, 50% groundwater sample is unsuitable
for irrigation purposes based on irrigation quality parameters. The
study revealed that application of fertilizer for agricultural
contributing the higher concentration of ions in aquifer of Vadodara
Seasonal Variations in Surface Water Quality, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand
The research aims to study the quality of surface water
for consumer in Samut Songkram province. Water sample were
collected from 217 sampling sites conclude 72 sampling sites in
Amphawa, 67 sampling sites in Bangkhonthee and 65 sampling sites
in Muang. Water sample were collected in December 2011 for
winter, March 2012 for summer and August 2012 for rainy season.
From the investigation of surface water quality in Mae Klong
River, main and tributaries canals in Samut Songkram province, we
found that water quality meet the type III of surface water quality
standard issued by the National Environmental Quality Act B.E.
1992. Seasonal variations of pH, Temperature, nitrate, lead and
cadmium have statistical differences between 3 seasons.
Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods
An experiment was conducted using two aeration
methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration
processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of
groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal
concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives
of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii)
to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in
removing iron and manganese concentration in groundwater. Results
showed that final pH for all samples after treatment are in range from
7.40 and 8.40. Both aeration methods increased the dissolved oxygen
content. Final turbidity for groundwater samples are between 3 NTU
to 29 NTU. Only three out of eight samples achieved iron
concentration of 0.3mg/L and less and all samples reach manganese
concentration of 0.1mg/L and less. Air-into-water aeration method
gives higher percentage of iron and manganese removal compare to
Structure and Functions of Urban Surface Water System in Coastal Areas: The Case of Almere
In the context of global climate change, flooding and sea level rise is increasingly threatening coastal urban areas, in which large population is continuously concentrated. Dutch experiences in urban water system management provide high reference value for sustainable coastal urban development projects. Preliminary studies shows the urban water system in Almere, a typical Dutch polder city, have three kinds of operational modes, achieving functions as: (1) coastline control – strong multiple damming system prevents from storm surges and maintains sufficient capacity upon risks; (2) high flexibility – large area and widely scattered open water system greatly reduce local runoff and water level fluctuation; (3) internal water maintenance – weir and sluice system maintains relatively stable water level, providing excellent boating and landscaping service, coupling with water circulating model maintaining better water quality. Almere has provided plenty of hints and experiences for ongoing development of coastal cities in emerging economies.
Runoff Quality and Pollution Loading from a Residential Catchment in Miri, Sarawak
Urban non-point source (NPS) pollution for a
residential catchment in Miri, Sarawak was investigated for two storm events in 2011. Runoff from two storm events were sampled and tested for water quality parameters including TSS, BOD5, COD,
NH3-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, P and Pb. Concentration of the water quality
parameters was found to vary significantly between storms and the pollutant of concern was found to be NO3-N, TSS, COD and Pb. Results were compared to the Interim National Water Quality
Standards for Malaysia (INWQS),and the stormwater runoff from the
study can be classified as polluted, exceeding class III water quality,
especially in terms of TSS, COD, and NH3-N with maximum EMCs
of 158, 135, and 2.17 mg/L, respectively.
Application of Artificial Neural Network to Classification Surface Water Quality
Water quality is a subject of ongoing concern.
Deterioration of water quality has initiated serious management
efforts in many countries. This study endeavors to automatically
classify water quality. The water quality classes are evaluated using 6
factor indices. These factors are pH value (pH), Dissolved Oxygen
(DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrate Nitrogen
(NO3N), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH3N) and Total Coliform (TColiform).
The methodology involves applying data mining
techniques using multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network
models. The data consisted of 11 sites of canals in Dusit district in
Bangkok, Thailand. The data is obtained from the Department of
Drainage and Sewerage Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
during 2007-2011. The results of multilayer perceptron neural
network exhibit a high accuracy multilayer perception rate at 96.52%
in classifying the water quality of Dusit district canal in Bangkok
Subsequently, this encouraging result could be applied with plan and
management source of water quality.
Evaluation Biofilm Sewage Treatment Plant
The research study is carried out to determine the efficiency of the Biofilm sewage treatment plant which is located at the Engineering Complex-s. Wastewater analyses have been carried out at the Environmental Engineering laboratory to study the six parameters: Biochemical Oxygen Demand BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand COD l, and Total Suspended Solids TSS, Ammoniac Nitrogen NH3-N and Phosphorous P which have been selected to determine the wastewater quality. The plant was designed to treat 750 Pe (population equivalent) at hydraulic retention time of 5 hours in the aerobic zone. The results show that Biofilm wastewater treatment plant was able to treat sewage successfully at different flow condition. The discharge has fulfilled the Malaysia Environmental of Standard A water quality. The achieved BOD removal is more than 85%, COD is more than 80%, TSS is more than 80%, NH3-N is more than 70%, and P was more than 70%. The Biofilm system provides a very efficient process for sewage treatment and it is compact in structure thus minimizes the required land area.
Water Quality from a Mixed Land-Use Catchment in Miri, Sarawak
Urbanization has been found to impact stormwater
runoff quantity and quality. A study catchment with mixed land use,
residential and industrial were investigated and the water quality
discharged from the catchment were sampled and tested for four
basic water quality parameters; BOD5, NH3-N, NO3-N and P. One
dry weather flow and several stormwater runoff were sampled.
Results were compared to the USEPA stormwater quality benchmark
values and the Interim National Water Quality Standards for
Malaysia (INWQS). The concentration of the parameters was found
to vary significantly between storms and the pollutant of concern was
found to be NO3-N.
Development of Storm Water Quality Improvement Strategy Plan for Local City Councils in Western Australia
The aim of this study was to develop a storm water quality improvement strategy plan (WQISP) which assists managers and decision makers of local city councils in enhancing their activities to improve regional water quality. City of Gosnells in Western Australia has been considered as a case study. The procedure on developing the WQISP consists of reviewing existing water quality data, identifying water quality issues in the study areas and developing a decision making tool for the officers, managers and decision makers. It was found that land use type is the main factor affecting the water quality. Therefore, activities, sources and pollutants related to different land use types including residential, industrial, agricultural and commercial are given high importance during the study. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with coordinators of different management sections of the regional councils in order to understand the associated management framework and issues. The issues identified from these interviews were used in preparing the decision making tool. Variables associated with the defined “value versus threat" decision making tool are obtained from the intensive literature review. The main recommendations provided for improvement of water quality in local city councils, include non-structural, structural and management controls and potential impacts of climate change.
Application of Build-up and Wash-off Models for an East-Australian Catchment
Estimation of stormwater pollutants is a pre-requisite
for the protection and improvement of the aquatic environment and
for appropriate management options. The usual practice for the
stormwater quality prediction is performed through water quality
modeling. However, the accuracy of the prediction by the models
depends on the proper estimation of model parameters. This paper
presents the estimation of model parameters for a catchment water
quality model developed for the continuous simulation of stormwater
pollutants from a catchment to the catchment outlet. The model is
capable of simulating the accumulation and transportation of the
stormwater pollutants; suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN) and
total phosphorus (TP) from a particular catchment. Rainfall and water
quality data were collected for the Hotham Creek Catchment (HTCC),
Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff calculations from the developed model
were compared with the calculated discharges from the widely used
hydrological models, WBNM and DRAINS. Based on the measured
water quality data, model water quality parameters were calibrated
for the above-mentioned catchment. The calibrated parameters are
expected to be helpful for the best management practices (BMPs)
of the region. Sensitivity analyses of the estimated parameters were
performed to assess the impacts of the model parameters on overall
model estimations of runoff water quality.
An Investigation into the Effect of Water Quality on Flotation Performance
A study was carried out to determine the effect of water quality on flotation performance. The experimental test work comprised of batch flotation tests using Denver lab cell for a period of 10 minutes. Nine different test runs were carried out in triplicates to ensure reproducibility using different water types from different thickener overflows, return and sewage effluent water (process water) and portable water. The water sources differed in pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and conductivity. Process water was found to reduce the concentrate recovery and mass pull, while portable water increased the concentrate recovery and mass pull. Portable water reduced the concentrate grade while process water increased the concentrate grade. It is proposed that a combination of process water and portable water supply be used in flotation circuits to balance the different effects that the different water types have on the flotation efficiency.
Annual Changes in Some Qualitative Parameters of Groundwater in Shirvan Plain North East of Iran
Shirvan is located in plain in Northern Khorasan province north east of Iran and has semiarid to temperate climate. To investigate the annual changes in some qualitative parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and chloride concentrations which have increased during ten continuous years. Fourteen groundwater sources including deep as well as semi-deep wells were sampled and were analyzed using standard methods. The trends of obtained data were analyzed during these years and the effects of different factors on the changes in electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride and total dissolved solids were clarified. The results showed that the amounts of some qualitative parameters have been increased during 10 years time which has led to decrease in water quality. The results also showed that increased in urban populations as well as extensive industrialization in the studied area are the most important reasons to influence underground water quality. Furthermore decrease in water quantity is also evident due to more water utilization and occurrence of recent droughts in the region during recent years.
The Impact of Fish Cages on Water Quality in One Fish Farm in Croatia
In Croatia, the majority of cultured marine fish species are reared in net cages. The intensive production of the fish in net cages may generate the considerable amount of bio waste and change water quality especially in enclosed and semi-enclosed coastal areas. The aim of this paper is to assess the potential impact of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) cage farm on water quality. The weak relationship between food supply and water quality parameters (nutrient content and phytoplankton biomass) was found, but significant changes in oxygen saturation was observed in the cages during the warmer period of a year especially in the morning (occasionally it dropped below 70 %). Despite of, satisfactory results of water quality parameters, it is necessary to establish comprehensive monitoring process, especially to include quality assessment of fouling communities.
Water and Soil Environment Pollution Reduction by Filter Strips
Contour filter strips planted with perennial vegetation
can be used to improve surface and ground water quality by reducing
pollutant, such as NO3-N, and sediment outflow from cropland to a
river or lake. Meanwhile, the filter strips of perennial grass with biofuel
potentials also have economic benefits of producing ethanol. In
this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was
applied to the Walnut Creek Watershed to examine the effectiveness
of contour strips in reducing NO3-N outflows from crop fields to the
river or lake. Required input data include watershed topography,
slope, soil type, land-use, management practices in the watershed and
climate parameters (precipitation, maximum/minimum air
temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity).
Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential
subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and
to examine the effects of strip size and location on NO3-N reduction
in the subbasins under various meteorological conditions (dry,
average and wet). Variable sizes of contour strips (10%, 20%, 30%
and 50%, respectively, of a subbasin area) planted with perennial
switchgrass were selected for simulating the effects of strip size and
location on stream water quality. Simulation results showed that a
filter strip having 10%-50% of the subbasin area could lead to 55%-
90% NO3-N reduction in the subbasin during an average rainfall
year. Strips occupying 10-20% of the subbasin area were found to be
more efficient in reducing NO3-N when placed along the contour
than that when placed along the river. The results of this study can
assist in cost-benefit analysis and decision-making in best water
resources management practices for environmental protection.
The Potential Use of Nanofilters to Supply Potable Water in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Watershed Basin
In a world worried about water resources with the
shadow of drought and famine looming all around, the quality of
water is as important as its quantity. The source of all concerns is the
constant reduction of per capita quality water for different uses.
Iran With an average annual precipitation of 250 mm compared to
the 800 mm world average, Iran is considered a water scarce country
and the disparity in the rainfall distribution, the limitations of
renewable resources and the population concentration in the margins
of desert and water scarce areas have intensified the problem.
The shortage of per capita renewable freshwater and its poor
quality in large areas of the country, which have saline, brackish or
hard water resources, and the profusion of natural and artificial
pollutant have caused the deterioration of water quality.
Among methods of treatment and use of these waters one can refer
to the application of membrane technologies, which have come into
focus in recent years due to their great advantages. This process is
quite efficient in eliminating multi-capacity ions; and due to the
possibilities of production at different capacities, application as
treatment process in points of use, and the need for less energy in
comparison to Reverse Osmosis processes, it can revolutionize the
water and wastewater sector in years to come. The article studied the
different capacities of water resources in the Persian Gulf and Oman
Sea watershed basins, and processes the possibility of using
nanofiltration process to treat brackish and non-conventional waters
in these basins.
Heavy Metals Transport in the Soil Profiles under the Application of Sludge and Wastewater
Heavy metal transfer in soil profiles is a major
environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil
may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. The use
of sewage sludge and effluents from wastewater treatment plants for
irrigation of agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban
area of developing countries. In this study soil samples under sludge
application and wastewater irrigation were studied and soil samples
were collected in the soil profiles from the surface to 100 cm in
depth. For this purpose, three plots were made in a treatment plant in
south of Tehran-Iran. First plot was irrigated just with effluent from
wastewater treatment plant, second plot with simulated heavy metals
concentration equal 50 years irrigation and in third plot sewage
sludge and effluent was used. Trace metals concentration (Cd, Cu)
were determined for soil samples. The results indicate movement of
metals was observed, but the most concentration of metals was found
in topsoil samples. The most of Cadmium concentration was
measured in the topsoil of plot 3, 4.5mg/kg and Maximum cadmium
movement was observed in 0-20 cm. The most concentration of
copper was 27.76mg/kg, and maximum percolation in 0-20 cm.
Metals (Cd, Cu) were measured in leached water. Preferential flow
and metal complexation with soluble organic apparently allow
leaching of heavy metals.
The Micro Ecosystem Restoration Mechanism Applied for Feasible Research of Lakes Eutrophication Enhancement
The technique of inducing micro ecosystem
restoration is one of aquatic ecology engineering methods used to
retrieve the polluted water. Batch scale study, pilot plant study, and
field study were carried out to observe the eutrophication using the
Inducing Ecology Restorative Symbiosis Agent (IERSA) consisting
mainly degraded products by using lactobacillus, saccharomycete,
and phycomycete. The results obtained from the experiments of the
batch scale and pilot plant study allowed us to development the
parameters for the field study. A pond, 5 m to the outlet of a lake,
with an area of 500 m2 and depth of 0.6-1.2 m containing about 500
tons of water was selected as a model. After the treatment with 10
mg IERSA/L water twice a week for 70 days, the micro restoration
mechanisms consisted of three stages (i.e., restoration, impact
maintenance, and ecology recovery experiment after impact). The
COD, TN, TKN, and chlorophyll a were reduced significantly in the
first week. Although the unexpected heavy rain and contaminate
from sewage system might slow the ecology restoration. However,
the self-cleaning function continued and the chlorophyll a reduced
for 50% in one month. In the 4th week, amoeba, paramecium, rotifer,
and red wriggle worm reappeared, and the number of fish flies
appeared up to1000 fish fries/m3. Those results proved that inducing
restorative mechanism can be applied to improve the eutrophication
and to control the growth of algae in the lakes by gaining the selfcleaning
through inducing and competition of microbes. The
situation for growth of fishes also can reach an excellent result due to
the improvement of water quality.