International Science Index
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator
Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.
A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method
Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.
Three Tier Indoor Localization System for Digital Forensics
Internet of Things Based Process Model for Smart Parking System
Transportation is an essential need for many people to go to their work, school, and home. In particular, the main common method inside many cities is to drive the car. Driving a car can be an easy job to reach the destination and load all stuff in a reasonable time. However, deciding to find a parking lot for a car can take a long time using the traditional system that can issue a paper ticket for each customer. The old system cannot guarantee a parking lot for all customers. Also, payment methods are not always available, and many customers struggled to find their car among a numerous number of cars. As a result, this research focuses on providing an online smart parking system in order to save time and budget. This system provides a flexible management system for both parking owner and customers by receiving all request via the online system and it gets an accurate result for all available parking and its location.
H∞ Fuzzy Integral Power Control for DFIG Wind Energy System
In order to maximize energy capturing from wind
energy, controlling the doubly fed induction generator to have optimal
power from the wind, generator speed and output electrical power
control in wind energy system have a great importance due to the
nonlinear behavior of wind velocities. In this paper purposes the
design of a control scheme is developed for power control of wind
energy system via H∞ fuzzy integral controller. Firstly, the nonlinear
system is represented in term of a TS fuzzy control design via linear
matrix inequality approach to find the optimal controller to have an
H∞ performance are derived. The proposed control method extract
the maximum energy from the wind and overcome the nonlinearity
and disturbances problems of wind energy system which give good
tracking performance and high efficiency power output of the DFIG.
Aiming at Optimization of Tracking Technology through Seasonally Tilted Sun Trackers: An Indian Perspective
Discussions on concepts of Single Axis Tracker (SAT) are becoming more and more apt for developing countries like India not just as an advancement in racking technology but due to the utmost necessity of reaching at the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) targets. With this increasing competition and significant fall in feed-in tariffs of solar PV projects, developers are under constant pressure to secure investment for their projects and eventually earn profits from them. Moreover, being the second largest populated country, India suffers from scarcity of land because of higher average population density. So, to mitigate the risk of this dual edged sword with reducing trend of unit (kWh) cost at one side and utilization of land on the other, tracking evolved as the call of the hour. Therefore, the prime objectives of this paper are not only to showcase how STT proves to be an effective mechanism to get more gain in Global Incidence in collector plane (Ginc) with respect to traditional mounting systems but also to introduce Seasonally Tilted Tracker (STT) technology as a possible option for high latitude locations.
Sampled-Data Model Predictive Tracking Control for Mobile Robot
In this paper, a sampled-data model predictive tracking
control method is presented for mobile robots which is modeled as
constrained continuous-time linear parameter varying (LPV) systems.
The presented sampled-data predictive controller is designed by linear
matrix inequality approach. Based on the input delay approach, a
controller design condition is derived by constructing a new Lyapunov
function. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the presented method.
MAGNI Dynamics: A Vision-Based Kinematic and Dynamic Upper-Limb Model for Intelligent Robotic Rehabilitation
This paper presents a home-based robot-rehabilitation
instrument, called ”MAGNI Dynamics”, that utilized a vision-based
kinematic/dynamic module and an adaptive haptic feedback
controller. The system is expected to provide personalized
rehabilitation by adjusting its resistive and supportive behavior
according to a fuzzy intelligence controller that acts as an inference
system, which correlates the user’s performance to different stiffness
factors. The vision module uses the Kinect’s skeletal tracking to
monitor the user’s effort in an unobtrusive and safe way, by estimating
the torque that affects the user’s arm. The system’s torque estimations
are justified by capturing electromyographic data from primitive
hand motions (Shoulder Abduction and Shoulder Forward Flexion).
Moreover, we present and analyze how the Barrett WAM generates
a force-field with a haptic controller to support or challenge the
users. Experiments show that by shifting the proportional value,
that corresponds to different stiffness factors of the haptic path, can
potentially help the user to improve his/her motor skills. Finally,
potential areas for future research are discussed, that address how
a rehabilitation robotic framework may include multisensing data, to
improve the user’s recovery process.
Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator
The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.
Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Ballistic Missile Tracking
In the current work, adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is presented for solution of ground radar based ballistic missile (BM) tracking problem in re-entry phase with unknown ballistic coefficient. The estimation of trajectory of any BM in re-entry phase is extremely difficult, because of highly non-linear motion of BM. The estimation accuracy of AEKF has been tested for a typical test target tracking problem adopted from literature. Further, the approach of AEKF is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). The simulation result indicates the superiority of the AEKF in solving joint parameter and state estimation problems.
An Android Geofencing App for Autonomous Remote Switch Control
Geofence is a virtual fence defined by a preset physical radius around a target location. Geofencing App provides location-based services which define the actionable operations upon the crossing of a geofence. Geofencing requires continual location tracking, which can consume noticeable amount of battery power. Additionally, location updates need to be frequent and accurate or order so that actions can be triggered within an expected time window after the mobile user navigate through the geofence. In this paper, we build an Android mobile geofencing Application to remotely and autonomously control a power switch.
Enhanced Planar Pattern Tracking for an Outdoor Augmented Reality System
In this paper, a scalable augmented reality framework for handheld devices is presented. The presented framework is enabled by using a server-client data communication structure, in which the search for tracking targets among a database of images is performed on the server-side while pixel-wise 3D tracking is performed on the client-side, which, in this case, is a handheld mobile device. Image search on the server-side adopts a residual-enhanced image descriptors representation that gives the framework a scalability property. The tracking algorithm on the client-side is based on a gravity-aligned feature descriptor which takes the advantage of a sensor-equipped mobile device and an optimized intensity-based image alignment approach that ensures the accuracy of 3D tracking. Automatic content streaming is achieved by using a key-frame selection algorithm, client working phase monitoring and standardized rules for content communication between the server and client. The recognition accuracy test performed on a standard dataset shows that the method adopted in the presented framework outperforms the Bag-of-Words (BoW) method that has been used in some of the previous systems. Experimental test conducted on a set of video sequences indicated the real-time performance of the tracking system with a frame rate at 15-30 frames per second. The presented framework is exposed to be functional in practical situations with a demonstration application on a campus walk-around.
Coupled Spacecraft Orbital and Attitude Modeling and Simulation in Multi-Complex Modes
This paper presents verification of a modeling and simulation for a Spacecraft (SC) attitude and orbit control system. Detailed formulation of coupled SC orbital and attitude equations of motion is performed in order to achieve accepted accuracy to meet the requirements of multitargets tracking and orbit correction complex modes. Correction of the target parameter based on the estimated state vector during shooting time to enhance pointing accuracy is considered. Time-optimal nonlinear feedback control technique was used in order to take full advantage of the maximum torques that the controller can deliver. This simulation provides options for visualizing SC trajectory and attitude in a 3D environment by including an interface with V-Realm Builder and VR Sink in Simulink/MATLAB. Verification data confirms the simulation results, ensuring that the model and the proposed control law can be used successfully for large and fast tracking and is robust enough to keep the pointing accuracy within the desired limits with considerable uncertainty in inertia and control torque.
Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration
In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.
Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision
This paper discusses the technical challenges in
maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video
streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems
of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are
very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems
of background subtraction and object detection in video streams
are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature
of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small
objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to
the challenges as discussed here.
Systems Engineering Management Using Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle Model
The successful realization of complex systems is dependent not only on the technology issues and the process for implementing them, but on the management issues as well. Managing the systems development lifecycle requires technical management. Systems engineering management is the technical management. Systems engineering management is accomplished by incorporating many activities. The three major activities are development phasing, systems engineering process and lifecycle integration. Systems engineering management activities are performed across the system development lifecycle. Due to the ever-increasing complexity of systems as well the difficulty of managing and tracking the development activities, new ways to achieve systems engineering management activities are required. This paper presents a systematic approach used as a design management tool applied across systems engineering management roles. In this approach, Transdisciplinary System Development Lifecycle (TSDL) Model has been modified and integrated with Quality Function Deployment. Hereinafter, the name of the systematic approach is the Transdisciplinary Quality System Development Lifecycle (TQSDL) Model. The QFD translates the voice of customers (VOC) into measurable technical characteristics. The modified TSDL model is based on Axiomatic Design developed by Suh which is applicable to all designs: products, processes, systems and organizations. The TQSDL model aims to provide a robust structure and systematic thinking to support the implementation of systems engineering management roles. This approach ensures that the customer requirements are fulfilled as well as satisfies all the systems engineering manager roles and activities.
Multi-Agent Coverage Control with Bounded Gain Forgetting Composite Adaptive Controller
In this paper, we present an adaptive controller for decentralized coordination problem of multiple non-holonomic agents. The performance of the presented Multi-Agent Bounded Gain Forgetting (BGF) Composite Adaptive controller is compared against the tracking error criterion with a Feedback Linearization controller. By using the method, the sensor nodes move and reconfigure themselves in a coordinated way in response to a sensed environment. The multi-agent coordination is achieved through Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations and Coverage Control. Also, a consensus protocol is used for synchronization of the parameter vectors. The two controllers are given with their Lyapunov stability analysis and their stability is verified with simulation results. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB and ROS environments. Better performance is obtained with BGF Adaptive Controller.
A Simulated Scenario of WikiGIS to Support the Iteration and Traceability Management of the Geodesign Process
Geodesign is an emergent term related to a new and complex process. Hence, it needs to rethink tools, technologies and platforms in order to efficiently achieve its goals. A few tools have emerged since 2010 such as CommunityViz, GeoPlanner, etc. In the era of Web 2.0 and collaboration, WikiGIS has been proposed as a new category of tools. In this paper, we present WikiGIS functionalities dealing mainly with the iteration and traceability management to support the collaboration of the Geodesign process. Actually, WikiGIS is built on GeoWeb 2.0 technologies —and primarily on wiki— and aims at managing the tracking of participants’ editing. This paper focuses on a simplified simulation to illustrate the strength of WikiGIS in the management of traceability and in the access to history in a Geodesign process. Indeed, a cartographic user interface has been implemented, and then a hypothetical use case has been imagined as proof of concept.
Kuehne + Nagel's PharmaChain: IoT-Enabled Product Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Identification
This case study features the Kuehne + Nagel PharmaChain solution for ‘cold chain’ pharmaceutical and biologic product shipments with IOT-enabled features for shipment temperature and location tracking. Using the case study method and content analysis, this research project investigates the application of the structurational model of technology theory introduced by Orlikowski in order to interpret the firm’s entry and participation in the IOT-impelled marketplace.
Multimedia Firearms Training System
The goal of the article is to present a novel Multimedia Firearms Training System. The system was developed in order to compensate for major problems of existing shooting training systems. The designed and implemented solution can be characterized by five major advantages: algorithm for automatic geometric calibration, algorithm of photometric recalibration, firearms hit point detection using thermal imaging camera, IR laser spot tracking algorithm for after action review analysis, and implementation of ballistics equations. The combination of the abovementioned advantages in a single multimedia firearms training system creates a comprehensive solution for detecting and tracking of the target point usable for shooting training systems and improving intervention tactics of uniformed services. The introduced algorithms of geometric and photometric recalibration allow the use of economically viable commercially available projectors for systems that require long and intensive use without most of the negative impacts on color mapping of existing multi-projector multimedia shooting range systems. The article presents the results of the developed algorithms and their application in real training systems.
Analysis of Urban Population Using Twitter Distribution Data: Case Study of Makassar City, Indonesia
In the past decade, the social networking app has been growing very rapidly. Geolocation data is one of the important features of social media that can attach the user's location coordinate in the real world. This paper proposes the use of geolocation data from the Twitter social media application to gain knowledge about urban dynamics, especially on human mobility behavior. This paper aims to explore the relation between geolocation Twitter with the existence of people in the urban area. Firstly, the study will analyze the spread of people in the particular area, within the city using Twitter social media data. Secondly, we then match and categorize the existing place based on the same individuals visiting. Then, we combine the Twitter data from the tracking result and the questionnaire data to catch the Twitter user profile. To do that, we used the distribution frequency analysis to learn the visitors’ percentage. To validate the hypothesis, we compare it with the local population statistic data and land use mapping released by the city planning department of Makassar local government. The results show that there is the correlation between Twitter geolocation and questionnaire data. Thus, integration the Twitter data and survey data can reveal the profile of the social media users.
Enhancing Transit Trade, Facilitation System and Supply Chain Security for Local, Regional and an International Corridor
Recently, and due to Arab spring and terrorism around the globe, pushing and driving most governments potentially to harmonize their border measures particularly the regional and an international transit trade within and among Customs Unions. The main purpose of this study is to investigate and provide an insight for monitoring and controlling the trade supply chain within and among different countries by using technological advancement (i.e. an electronic tracking system, etc.); furthermore, facilitate the local and intra-regional trade among countries through reviewing the recent trends and practical implementation of an electronic transit traffic and cargo that related to customs measures by introducing and supporting some case studies of several international and landlocked transit trade countries. The research methodology employed in this study was described as qualitative by conducting few interviews with managers, transit truck drivers, and traders and reviewing the related literature to collect qualitative data from secondary sources such as statistical reports, previous studies, etc. The results in this study show that Jordan and other countries around the globe that used an electronic tracking system for monitoring transit trade has led to a significant reduction in cost, effort and time in physical movement of goods internally and crossing through other countries. Therefore, there is no need to escort transit trucks by customs staff; hence, the rate of escort transit trucks is reduced by more than ninety percent, except the bulky and high duty goods. Electronic transit traffic has been increased; the average transit time journey has been reduced by more than seventy percent and has led to decrease in rates of smuggling up to fifty percent. The researcher recommends considering Jordan as regional and international office for tracking electronically and monitoring the transit trade for many considerations.
Milling Simulations with a 3-DOF Flexible Planar Robot
Manufacturing technologies are becoming continuously
more diversified over the years. The increasing use of robots for
various applications such as assembling, painting, welding has also
affected the field of machining. Machining robots can deal with
larger workspaces than conventional machine-tools at a lower cost
and thus represent a very promising alternative for machining
applications. Furthermore, their inherent structure ensures them a
great flexibility of motion to reach any location on the workpiece with
the desired orientation. Nevertheless, machining robots suffer from
a lack of stiffness at their joints restricting their use to applications
involving low cutting forces especially finishing operations. Vibratory
instabilities may also happen while machining and deteriorate the
precision leading to scrap parts. Some researchers are therefore
concerned with the identification of optimal parameters in robotic
machining. This paper continues the development of a virtual robotic
machining simulator in order to find optimized cutting parameters in
terms of depth of cut or feed per tooth for example. The simulation
environment combines an in-house milling routine (DyStaMill)
achieving the computation of cutting forces and material removal
with an in-house multibody library (EasyDyn) which is used to
build a dynamic model of a 3-DOF planar robot with flexible links.
The position of the robot end-effector submitted to milling forces is
controlled through an inverse kinematics scheme while controlling
the position of its joints separately. Each joint is actuated through
a servomotor for which the transfer function has been computed
in order to tune the corresponding controller. The output results
feature the evolution of the cutting forces when the robot structure
is deformable or not and the tracking errors of the end-effector.
Illustrations of the resulting machined surfaces are also presented.
The consideration of the links flexibility has highlighted an increase
of the cutting forces magnitude. This proof of concept will aim
to enrich the database of results in robotic machining for potential
improvements in production.
High Performance of Direct Torque and Flux Control of a Double Stator Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator
In order to have stable and high performance of direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of double star induction motor drive (DSIM), proper on-line adaptation of the stator resistance is very important. This is inevitably due to the variation of the stator resistance during operating conditions, which introduces error in estimated flux position and the magnitude of the stator flux. Error in the estimated stator flux deteriorates the performance of the DTFC drive. Also, the effect of error in estimation is very important especially at low speed. Due to this, our aim is to overcome the sensitivity of the DTFC to the stator resistance variation by proposing on-line fuzzy estimation stator resistance. The fuzzy estimation method is based on an on-line stator resistance correction through the variations of the stator current estimation error and its variations. The fuzzy logic controller gives the future stator resistance increment at the output. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm control is to avoid the drive instability that may occur in certain situations and ensure the tracking of the actual stator resistance. The validity of the technique and the improvement of the whole system performance are proved by the results.
Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton
A repetitive training movement is an efficient method
to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors
and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new
skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF)
exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the
right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with
upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically,
rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the
assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic
uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order
dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle
which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability
of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the
robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with
designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to
reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was
integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need
the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results
confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to
deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the
iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.
Application of Fourier Series Based Learning Control on Mechatronic Systems
A Fourier series based learning control (FSBLC)
algorithm for tracking trajectories of mechanical systems with
unknown nonlinearities is presented. Two processes are introduced to
which the FSBLC with PD controller is applied. One is a simplified
service robot capable of climbing stairs due to special wheels and
the other is a propeller driven pendulum with nearly the same
requirements on control. Additionally to the investigation of learning
the feed forward for the desired trajectories some considerations on
the implementation of such an algorithm on low cost microcontroller
hardware are made. Simulations of the service robot as well as
practical experiments on the pendulum show the capability of the used
FSBLC algorithm to perform the task of improving control behavior
for repetitive task of such mechanical systems.
Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation
This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven
robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented
rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space.
The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals
the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source
to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired
trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint
space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in
this kind of application.
Lyapunov-Based Tracking Control for Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot
This paper presents a tracking control strategy based on Lyapunov approach for nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot. This control strategy consists of two levels. First, a kinematic controller is developed to adjust the right and left wheel velocities. Using this velocity control law, the stability of the tracking error is guaranteed using Lyapunov approach. This kinematic controller cannot be generated directly by the motors. To overcome this problem, the second level of the controllers, dynamic control, is designed. This dynamic control law is developed based on Lyapunov theory in order to track the desired trajectories of the mobile robot. The stability of the tracking error is proved using Lupunov and Barbalat approaches. Simulation results on a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach.