International Science Index
Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant
In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).
Patterns of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions in Hail Region: A Retrospective Study at King Khalid Hospital
Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer of females in Hail region, accounting for 31% of all diagnosed cancer cases followed by thyroid carcinoma (25%) and colorectal carcinoma (13%). Methods: In the present retrospective study, all cases of breast lesions received at the histopathology department in King Khalid Hospital, Hail, during the period from May 2011 to April 2016 have been retrieved from department files. For all cases, a trucut biopsy, lumpectomy, or modified radical mastectomy was available for histopathologic diagnosis, while 105/140 (75%) had, as well, preoperative fine needle aspirates (FNA). Results: 49 cases out of 140 (35%) breast lesions were carcinomas: 44/49 (89.75%) was invasive ductal, 2/49(4.1%) invasive lobular carcinomas, 1/49(2.05%) intracystic low grade papillary carcinoma and 2/49 (4.1%) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Mean age for malignant cases was 45.06 (+/-10.58): 32.6% were below the age of 40 and 30.6 below 50 years, 18.3% below 60 and 16.3% below 70 years. For the benign group, mean age was 32.52 (+/10.5) years. Benign lesions were in order of frequency: 34 fibroadenomas, 14 fibrocystic disease, 12 chronic mastitis, five granulomatous mastitis, three intraductal papillomas, and three benign phyllodes tumor. Tubular adenoma, lipoma, skin nevus, pilomatrixoma, and breast reduction specimens constituted the remaining specimens. Conclusion: Breast lesions are common in our series and invasive carcinoma accounts for more than 1/3rd of the lumps, with 63.2% incidence in pre-menopausal ladies, below the age of 50 years. FNA as a non-invasive procedure, proved to be an effective tool in diagnosing both benign and malignant/suspicious breast lumps and should continue to be used as a first assessment line of palpable breast masses.
A 3-Year Evaluation Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Corresponding Histology
Background and Objectives: Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been increasing world-wide. In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and its efficiency in early detecting neoplastic lesions of thyroid gland over a 3-year period. Methods: Data have been retrieved from pathology files in King Khalid Hospital. For each patient, age, gender, FNA, site & size of nodule and final histopathologic diagnosis were recorded. Results: Study included 490 cases where 419 of them were female and 71 male. Male to female ratio was 1:6. Mean age was 43 years for males and 38 for females. Cases with confirmed histopathology were 131. In 101/131 (77.1%), concordance was found between FNA and histology. In 30/131 (22.9%), there was discrepancy in diagnosis. Total malignant cases were 43, out of which 14 (32.5%) were true positive and 29 (67.44%) were false negative. No false positive cases could be found in our series. Conclusion: FNA could diagnose benign nodules in all cases, however, in malignant cases, ultrasound findings have to be taken into consideration to avoid missing of a microcarcinoma in the contralateral lobe.
Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells
Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.
The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus
Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.
A Four-Year Study of Thyroid Carcinoma in Hail Region: Increased Incidence
Background and Objective: In most areas of the world, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing over the last decade, mostly due to a combination of early detection of the neoplasm resulting from sensitive procedures and increased population exposure to radiation and unrecognized carcinogens. Methods: Cases of thyroid cancer have been retrieved from the cancer registry at King Khalid Hospital during the period from August 2012 to April 2016. Age, gender and histopathologic types have been recorded. Results: Thyroid carcinoma ranked as the second most common malignancy in females (25%) after breast cancer (31%). It constituted 20.8% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. As for males, it ranked the 4th type of malignancy after gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Mean age for females and males was 38.7 +/- 13.2 and 60.25 +/- 11.5 years, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p value = 0.0001). Fifty-five (82%) were papillary carcinomas including 10 follicular variant of papillary (FVPC), and eight papillary micro carcinomas (PMC) and two tall cell/oncocytic variants. Follicular carcinomas constituted two (3.1%), while two (3.1%) were anaplastic, and two (3.1%) were medullary. Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence in Hail is ranking as the 2nd most common female malignancy similar to other regions in the Kingdom. However, this high incidence contrasts with much lower rates worldwide.
Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
We formulate and analyze a mathematical model
describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid
homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce
to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model,
feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay
reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The
influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the
system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical
examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes
normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of
malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).
Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131
Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.
Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with TPO Positive Status after Appropriate Dose Adjustments of Thyroxin: A Prospective Cohort Study
This study aimed to analyse the pregnancy outcomes in patients with TPO positivity after appropriate L-Thyroxin supplementation with close surveillance. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Milann-The Fertility Center, Bangalore, India- from Aug 2013 to Oct 2014 whose booking TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L were included along with those pregnant women with prior hypothyroidism who were TPO positive. Those with TPO positive status were vigorously managed with appropriate thyroxin supplementation and the doses were readjusted every 3 to 4 weeks until delivery. Women with recurrent pregnancy loss were also tested for TPO positivity and if tested positive, were monitored serially with TSH and fT4 levels every 3 to 4 weeks and appropriately supplemented with thyroxin when the levels fluctuated. The testing was done after an informed consent in all these women. The statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, MedCalc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used for the analysis of the data. 460 pregnant women were screened for thyroid dysfunction at booking of which 52% were hypothyroid. Majority of them (31.08%) were subclinically hypothyroid and the remaining were overt. 25% of the total no. of patients screened were TPO positive. The various pregnancy complications that were observed in the TPO positive women were gestational glucose intolerance [60%], threatened abortion [21%], midtrimester abortion [4.3%], premature rupture of membranes [4.3%], cervical funneling [4.3%] and fetal growth restriction [3.5%]. 95.6% of the patients who followed up till the end delivered beyond 30 weeks. 42.6% of these patients had previous history of recurrent abortions or adverse obstetric outcome and 21.7% of the delivered babies required NICU admission. Obstetric outcomes in our study in terms of midtrimester abortions, placental abruption, and preterm delivery improved for the better after close monitoring of the thyroid hormone [TSH and fT4] levels every 3 to 4 weeks with appropriate dose adjustment throughout pregnancy. Euthyroid women with TPO positive status enrolled in the study incidentally were those with recurrent abortions/infertility and required thyroxin supplements due to elevated Thyroid hormone (TSH, fT4) levels during the course of their pregnancy. Significant associations were found with age>30 years and Hyperhomocysteinemia [p=0.017], recurrent pregnancy loss or previous adverse obstetric outcomes [p=0.067] and APLA [p=0.029]. TPO antibody levels >600 I U/ml were significantly associated with development of gestational hypertension [p=0.041] and fetal growth restriction [p=0.082]. Euthyroid women with TPO positivity were also screened periodically to counter fluctuations of the thyroid hormone levels with appropriate thyroxin supplementation. Thus, early identification along with aggressive management of thyroid dysfunction and stratification of these patients based on their TPO status with appropriate thyroxin supplementation beginning in the first trimester will aid risk modulation and also help avert complications.
Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One Humped Camel in Iran (Camelus dromedarius)
The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine
organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant
role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study
was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by
ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the
slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus
dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age
range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’
thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both
longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were
provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light
microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following:
hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular
cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%),
adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%).
Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma
showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased
echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in
follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo
structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or
general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and
heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the
use of sonography and pathology as a screening test in the diagnosis
of complications of thyroid disorders.
Data Mining in Medicine Domain Using Decision Trees and Vector Support Machine
In this paper, we used data mining to extract
biomedical knowledge. In general, complex biomedical data
collected in studies of populations are treated by statistical methods,
although they are robust, they are not sufficient in themselves to
harness the potential wealth of data. For that you used in step two
learning algorithms: the Decision Trees and Support Vector Machine
(SVM). These supervised classification methods are used to make the
diagnosis of thyroid disease. In this context, we propose to promote
the study and use of symbolic data mining techniques.
Case Study: Oncological Management of a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Cancer
The following case study presents the management of
stage III Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC) patient in an NHS
hospital in London, UK during period of 2004-2005.
Thyroids Dose Evaluation and Calculation of Backscatter Factors for Co-60 Irradiations
The aim of the study is evaluation of absorbed doses for thyroids by using neck phantoms. For this purpose, it was arranged the irradiation set with different phantoms. Three different materials were used for phantom materials as, water, parafine and wood. The phantoms were three different dimensions for simulation of different ages and human race for each material. Co-60 gammao source was used for irradiation and the experimental procedure applied rigorously with narrow beam geometry. As the results of the experiments the relative radiation doses are evaluated for therapic applications for thyroids and backscattering factors were calculated and shown that water, parafine and wood can appropriate for phantom material with the converge values of backscattering factors.
Evaluation of Some Prominent Biomarkers in Rural Type – 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cases in Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India
Life is beautiful. But, it is decided by genes, environment and the individual and shattered by the natural and / or the invited problems. Most of the global rural helpless masses are struggling for their survival since; they are neglected in all aspects of life including health. Amidst a countless number of miserable diseases in man, diabetes is becoming a dreaded killer and ramifying the entire globe in a jet speed. Diabetes control continues as a Herculean task to the scientific community and the modern society in the 21st century also. T2DM is not pertaining to any age and it can develop even during the childhood. This multifactorial disease abruptly changes the activities of certain vital biomarkers in the present rural T2DM cases. A remarkable variation in the levels of biomarkers like AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, LDH, HbA1C, C- peptide, fasting sugar, post-prandial sugar, sodium, potassium, BUN, creatinine and insulin show the rampant nature of T2DM in this physically active rural agrarian community.
Long-Term Treatment of Puerariae Radix Extract Ameliorated Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Ovariectomy in Mature Female Rats
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disorder
characterized by the progressive bone loss induced by estrogen
deficiency in postmenopausal women. This imbalance affects
calcium–phosphate metabolism and results in secondary
hyperparathyroidism. Purariae Radix (PR), the root of P. lobata
(Wild.) Ohwi, is one of the earliest medicinal herbs employed in
ancient China. PR contains a high quantity of isoflavones and their
glycosides, which are regarded as phytoestrogen. Few investigations
of PR are related to its osteoprotective effects. The present study is
designed to administer PR water extract to ovariectomized (OVX)
female rats, for the investigation of its possibly protective actions on
bone and to delineate the potential mechanisms involved. Our results
demonstrated that long-term treatment of PR could not significantly
improve bone properties, whereas it greatly ameliorated the condition
of secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by ovariectomy in those
animals. PR might be useful as alternative regimen for protecting
against postmenopausal bone loss.
Investigation of Genetic Epidemiology of
Metabolic Compromises in ß Thalassemia Minor
Mutation: Phenotypic Pleiotropy
Human genome is not only the evolutionary
summation of all advantageous events, but also houses lesions of
deleterious foot prints. A single gene mutation sometimes may
express multiple consequences in numerous tissues and a linear
relationship of the genotype and the phenotype may often be obscure.
ß Thalassemia minor, a transfusion independent mild anaemia,
coupled with environment among other factors may articulate into
phenotypic pleotropy with Hypocholesterolemia, Vitamin D
deficiency, Tissue hypoxia, Hyper-parathyroidism and Psychological
alterations. Occurrence of Pancreatic insufficiency, resultant
steatorrhoea, Vitamin-D (25-OH) deficiency (13.86 ngm/ml) with
Hypocholesterolemia (85mg/dl) in a 30 years old male ß Thal-minor
patient (Hemoglobin 11mg/dl with Fetal Hemoglobin 2.10%, Hb A2
4.60% and Hb Adult 84.80% and altered Hemogram) with increased
Para thyroid hormone (62 pg/ml) & moderate Serum Ca+2
(9.5mg/ml) indicate towards a cascade of phenotypic pleotropy
where the ß Thalassemia mutation ,be it in the 5’ cap site of the
mRNA , differential splicing etc in heterozygous state is effecting
several metabolic pathways. Compensatory extramedulary
hematopoiesis may not coped up well with the stressful life style of
the young individual and increased erythropoietic stress with high
demand for cholesterol for RBC membrane synthesis may have
resulted in Hypocholesterolemia.Oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia
may have caused the pancreatic insufficiency, leading to Vitamin D
deficiency. This may in turn have caused the secondary
hyperparathyroidism to sustain serum Calcium level. Irritability and
stress intolerance of the patient was a cumulative effect of the vicious
cycle of metabolic compromises. From these findings we propose
that the metabolic deficiencies in the ß Thalassemia mutations may
be considered as the phenotypic display of the pleotropy to explain
the genetic epidemiology.
According to the recommendations from the NIH Workshop on
Gene-Environment Interplay in Common Complex Diseases: Forging
an Integrative Model, study design of observations should be
informed by gene-environment hypotheses and results of a study
(genetic diseases) should be published to inform future hypotheses.
Variety of approaches is needed to capture data on all possible
aspects, each of which is likely to contribute to the etiology of
disease. Speakers also agreed that there is a need for development of
new statistical methods and measurement tools to appraise
information that may be missed out by conventional method where
large sample size is needed to segregate considerable effect.
A meta analytic cohort study in future may bring about significant
insight on to the title comment.
Histological Structure of the Thyroid Gland in Duck: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study
The present investigation aimed to study the
histomorphometric characterizations of the thyroid gland of the duck.
Five adult male and five adult female ducks were used in the
experiment. Results showed that the overall histological structure of
the thyroid gland of the duck were similar to those of the other
vertebrae. The gland consisted of roughly spherical randomly
distributed micro and macrofollicles with very little interstitial tissue
between them. Each follicle is lined by a single layer of epithelial
cells enclosing a cavity, the follicular cavity, which is filled with
colloid. Ultrastructural findings showed that the apical surface of the
follicular cells bears a variable number of short, irregularly
distributed microvilli which are apparently more numerous on the
columnar cells than on the lower, relatively inactive cells.
Mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum occupy the
subnuclear region of the follicular cell, whereas the Golgi complex,
free ribosomes and colloid droplets were found in the apical
cytoplasm. At light or electron microscopic levels, there was no sex
difference in histomorphometric characteristics of the thyroid
Sex Differences in Thyroid Gland Structure of Rabbits
The aim of the present investigation was to compare
sex differences in thyroid gland structure of rabbits. Five adult male
and five adult female (3.1-3.5 kg body weight) New Zealand white
rabbits were used in the experiment. Results showed that at light
microscopic level, there was no sex difference in microscopic
appearance of the thyroid glands. At electron microscopic level,
however, the mitochondria and the microvilli of the follicular cells
are more numerous and the Golgi complex is also more extensive in
male rabbits in comparison to females. Results obtained from
micrometric measurements showed that the volume density of the
follicles is higher in males than in females, but the differences are not
statistically significant .The volume density of epithelium and the
height of follicular cells are significantly greater in males than in
females and reverse is true about the volume density of interstitium
Estimating the Absorbed Dose to THYROID during Chest wall Radiotherapy
Thyroid cancer-s overall contribution to the
worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in
environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and
malignant conditions. The Thyroid dose received apparently shielded
by cerrobend blocks was about 8cGy in 100cGy Expose
Status of Thyroid Function and Iron Overload in Adolescents and Young Adults with Beta- Thalassemia Major Treated with Deferoxamine in Jordan
Thyroid dysfunction is one of the most frequently
reported complications of chronic blood transfusion therapy in patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM). However, the occurrence of thyroid dysfunction and its possible association with
iron overload in BTM patients is still under debate. Therefore, this
study aimed to investigate the status of thyroid functions and iron overload in adolescent and young adult patients with BTM in Jordan population. Thirty six BTM patients aged 12-28 years and matched controls were included in this study. All patients have been receiving frequent blood transfusion to maintain pretransfusion hemoglobin
concentration above 10 g dl-1 and deferoxamine at a dose of 45 mg kg-1 day-1 (8 h, 5-7 days/week) by subcutaneous infusion. Blood
samples were drawn from patients and controls. The status of thyroid functions and iron overload was evaluated by measurements of serum
free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and
serum ferritin level. A number of some hematological and
biochemical parameters were also measured. It was found that hematocrit, serum ferritin, hemoglobin, FT3 and zinc, copper mean values were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (P< 0.05). On other hand, leukocyte, FT4 and TSH mean values were
similar to that of the controls. In addition, our data also indicated that
all of the above examined parameters were not significantly affected
by the patient-s age and gender. Deferoxamine approach for removing excess iron from our BTM patient did not normalize the
values of serum ferritin, copper and zinc, suggesting poor compliance
with deferoxamine chelation therapy. Thus, we recommend the use
of a combination of deferoxamine and deferiprone to reduce the risk
of excess of iron in our patients. Furthermore, thyroid dysfunction
appears to be a rare complication, because our patients showed
normal mean levels for serum TSH and FT4. However, high mean
levels of serum ferritin, zinc, copper might be seen as potential risk
factors for initiation and development of thyroid dysfunctions and
other diseases. Therefore, further studies must be carried out at
yearly intervals with large sample number, to detect subclinical
thyroid dysfunction cases.
Text Mining Technique for Data Mining Application
Text Mining is around applying knowledge discovery
techniques to unstructured text is termed knowledge discovery in text
(KDT), or Text data mining or Text Mining. In decision tree
approach is most useful in classification problem. With this
technique, tree is constructed to model the classification process.
There are two basic steps in the technique: building the tree and
applying the tree to the database. This paper describes a proposed
C5.0 classifier that performs rulesets, cross validation and boosting
for original C5.0 in order to reduce the optimization of error ratio.
The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approach are
demonstrated by means of medial data set like hypothyroid. It is
shown that, the performance of a classifier on the training cases from
which it was constructed gives a poor estimate by sampling or using a
separate test file, either way, the classifier is evaluated on cases that
were not used to build and evaluate the classifier are both are large. If
the cases in hypothyroid.data and hypothyroid.test were to be
shuffled and divided into a new 2772 case training set and a 1000
case test set, C5.0 might construct a different classifier with a lower
or higher error rate on the test cases. An important feature of see5 is
its ability to classifiers called rulesets. The ruleset has an error rate
0.5 % on the test cases. The standard errors of the means provide an
estimate of the variability of results. One way to get a more reliable
estimate of predictive is by f-fold –cross- validation. The error rate of
a classifier produced from all the cases is estimated as the ratio of the
total number of errors on the hold-out cases to the total number of
cases. The Boost option with x trials instructs See5 to construct up to
x classifiers in this manner. Trials over numerous datasets, large and
small, show that on average 10-classifier boosting reduces the error
rate for test cases by about 25%.
Training Radial Basis Function Networks with Differential Evolution
In this paper, Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm, a new promising evolutionary algorithm, is proposed to train Radial Basis Function (RBF) network related to automatic configuration of network architecture. Classification tasks on data sets: Iris, Wine, New-thyroid, and Glass are conducted to measure the performance of neural networks. Compared with a standard RBF training algorithm in Matlab neural network toolbox, DE achieves more rational architecture for RBF networks. The resulting networks hence obtain strong generalization abilities.
Analysis of Sonogram Images of Thyroid Gland Based on Wavelet Transform
Sonogram images of normal and lymphocyte thyroid tissues have considerable overlap which makes it difficult to interpret and distinguish. Classification from sonogram images of thyroid gland is tackled in semiautomatic way. While making manual diagnosis from images, some relevant information need not to be recognized by human visual system. Quantitative image analysis could be helpful to manual diagnostic process so far done by physician. Two classes are considered: normal tissue and chronic lymphocyte thyroid (Hashimoto's Thyroid). Data structure is analyzed using K-nearest-neighbors classification. This paper is mentioned that unlike the wavelet sub bands' energy, histograms and Haralick features are not appropriate to distinguish between normal tissue and Hashimoto's thyroid.