International Science Index
Field-Programmable Gate Array Based Tester for Protective Relay
The reliability of the power grid depends on the successful operation of thousands of protective relays. The failure of one relay to operate as intended may lead the entire power grid to blackout. In fact, major power system failures during transient disturbances may be caused by unnecessary protective relay tripping rather than by the failure of a relay to operate. Adequate relay testing provides a first defense against false trips of the relay and hence improves power grid stability and prevents catastrophic bulk power system failures. The goal of this research project is to design and enhance the relay tester using a technology such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card NI 7851. A PC based tester framework has been developed using Simulink power system model for generating signals under different conditions (faults or transient disturbances) and LabVIEW for developing the graphical user interface and configuring the FPGA. Besides, the interface system has been developed for outputting and amplifying the signals without distortion. These signals should be like the generated ones by the real power system and large enough for testing the relay’s functionality. The signals generated that have been displayed on the scope are satisfactory. Furthermore, the proposed testing system can be used for improving the performance of protective relay.
Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate
The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.
A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures
Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.
Application of Recycled Tungsten Carbide Powder for Fabrication of Iron Based Powder Metallurgy Alloy
Tungsten carbide is widely used as a tool material in metal manufacturing process. Since tungsten is typical rare metal, establishment of recycle process of tungsten carbide tools and restore into cemented carbide material bring great impact to metal manufacturing industry. Recently, recycle process of tungsten carbide has been developed and established gradually. However, the demands for quality of cemented carbide tool are quite severe because hardness, toughness, anti-wear ability, heat resistance, fatigue strength and so on should be guaranteed for precision machining and tool life. Currently, it is hard to restore the recycled tungsten carbide powder entirely as raw material for new processed cemented carbide tool. In this study, to suggest positive use of recycled tungsten carbide powder, we have tried to fabricate a carbon based sintered steel which shows reinforced mechanical properties with recycled tungsten carbide powder. We have made set of newly designed sintered steels. Compression test of sintered specimen in density ratio of 0.85 (which means 15% porosity inside) has been conducted. As results, at least 1.7 times higher in nominal strength in the amount of 7.0 wt.% was shown in recycled WC powder. The strength reached to over 600 MPa for the Fe-WC-Co-Cu sintered alloy. Wear test has been conducted by using ball-on-disk type friction tester using 5 mm diameter ball with normal force of 2 N in the dry conditions. Wear amount after 1,000 m running distance shows that about 1.5 times longer life was shown in designed sintered alloy. Since results of tensile test showed that same tendency in previous testing, it is concluded that designed sintered alloy can be used for several mechanical parts with special strength and anti-wear ability in relatively low cost due to recycled tungsten carbide powder.
Influence of Boron Doping and Thermal Treatment on Internal Friction of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) Alloys
The impact of boron doping on the internal friction (IF) and shear modulus temperature spectra of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) monocrsytals has been investigated by reverse torsional pendulum oscillations characteristics testing. At room temperatures, microhardness and indentation modulus of the same specimens have been measured by dynamic ultra microhardness tester. It is shown that boron doping causes two kinds effect: At low boron concentration (~1015 cm-3) significant strengthening is revealed, while at the high boron concentration (~1019 cm-3) strengthening effect and activation characteristics of relaxation origin IF processes are reduced.
Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace
In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina
powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of
matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been
discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis
and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites
were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills,
as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different
types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON
furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550-
1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics
samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and
fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion
resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work,
the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum
furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning
Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-
800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu
Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12
Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities
The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.
Tribological Behaviour Improvement of Lubricant Using Copper (II) Oxide Nanoparticles as Additive
Tribological properties that include nanoparticles are an alternative to improve the tribological behaviour of lubricating oil, which has been investigated by many researchers for the past few decades. Various nanostructures can be used as additives for tribological improvement. However, this also depends on the characteristics of the nanoparticles. In this study, tribological investigation was performed to examine the effect of CuO nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of Syntium 800 SL 10W−30. Three parameters used in the analysis using the wear tester (piston ring) were load, revolutions per minute (rpm), and concentration. The specifications of the nanoparticles, such as size, concentration, hardness, and shape, can affect the tribological behaviour of the lubricant. The friction and wear experiment was conducted using a tribo-tester and the Response Surface Methodology method was used to analyse any improvement of the performance. Therefore, two concentrations of 40 nm nanoparticles were used to conduct the experiments, namely, 0.005 wt % and 0.01 wt % and compared with base oil 0 wt % (control). A water bath sonicator was used to disperse the nanoparticles in base oil, while a tribo-tester was used to measure the coefficient of friction and wear rate. In addition, the thermal properties of the nanolubricant were also measured. The results have shown that the thermal conductivity of the nanolubricant was increased when compared with the base oil. Therefore, the results indicated that CuO nanoparticles had improved the tribological behaviour as well as the thermal properties of the nanolubricant oil.
Driving Innovation by Enhancing Employee Roles: The Balancing Act of Employee-Driven Innovation
Our purpose is to investigate how the relationship
between employees and innovation management processes can drive
organizations to successful innovations. This research is deeply
related to a new way of thinking about human resources management
practices. It’s not simply about improving the employees’
engagement, but rather about a different and more radical
commitment: the employee can take on the role traditionally played
by the customer, namely to become the first tester of an innovative
product or service, the first user/customer and eventually the first
investor in the innovation. This new perception of employees could
create the basis of a novelty in the innovation process where
innovation is taken to a next level when the problems with customer
driven innovation on the one hand, and employees driven innovation
on the other can be balanced. This research identifies an effective
approach to innovation where the employees will participate
throughout the whole innovation process, not only in the idea
creation but also in the idea definition and development by giving
feedback in parallel to that provided by customers and lead-users.
Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate
Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming
tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness,
strength, and corrosion resistance. The coating properties are
influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited
on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as
substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C
planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed
using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro
hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was
developed and the optimum response was determined using Response
Surface Methodology (RSM).
Investigation of Moisture Management Properties of Cotton and Blended Knitted Fabrics
The main idea of this work is to investigate the effect
of knitted fabrics characteristics on moisture management properties.
Wetting and transport properties of single jersey, Rib 1&1 and
English Rib fabrics made out of cotton and blended Cotton/Polyester
yarns were studied. The dynamic water sorption of fabrics was
investigated under same isothermal and terrestrial conditions at
20±2°C-65±4% by using the Moisture Management Tester (MMT)
which can be used to quantitatively measure liquid moisture transfer
in one step in a fabric in multidirections: Absorption rate, moisture
absorbing time of the fabric's inner and outer surfaces, one-way
transportation capability, the spreading/drying rate, the speed of
liquid moisture spreading on fabric's inner and outer surfaces are
measured, recorded and discussed. The results show that fabric’s
composition and knit’s structure have a significant influence on those
Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex (x≤0,02) Solid Solutions
Si-Ge solid solutions (bulk poly- and mono-crystalline
samples, thin films) are characterized by high perspectives for
application in semiconductor devices, in particular, optoelectronics
and microelectronics. From this point of view, complex studying of
structural state of the defects and structural-sensitive physical
properties of Si-Ge solid solutions depending on the contents of Si
and Ge components is very important. Present work deals with the
investigations of microstructure, microhardness, internal friction and
shear modulus of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) bulk monocrystals conducted at
room temperature. Si-Ge bulk crystals were obtained by Czochralski
method in  crystallographic direction. Investigated
monocrystalline Si-Ge samples are characterized by p-type
conductivity and carriers’ concentration 5.1014-1.1015cm-3.
Microhardness was studied on Dynamic Ultra Micro hardness Tester
DUH-201S with Berkovich indenter. Investigate samples are characterized with 0,5x0,5x(10-15)mm3
sizes, oriented along  direction at torsion oscillations ≈1Hz,
multistage changing of internal friction and shear modulus has been
revealed in an interval of strain amplitude of 10-5-5.10-3. Critical
values of strain amplitude have been determined at which hysteretic
changes of inelastic characteristics and microplasticity are observed. The critical strain amplitude and elasticity limit values are also
determined. Dynamic mechanical characteristics decreasing trend is
shown with increasing Ge content in Si-Ge solid solutions. Observed
changes are discussed from the point of view of interaction of various
dislocations with point defects and their complexes in a real structure
of Si-Ge solid solutions.
Transformation of Aluminum Unstable Oxyhydroxides in Ultrafine α-Al2O3 in Presence of Various Seeds
Ceramic obtained on the base of aluminum oxide has
wide application range, because it has unique properties, for example,
wear-resistance, dielectric characteristics, and exploitation ability at
high temperatures and in corrosive atmosphere. Low temperature
synthesis of α-Al2O3 is energo-economical process and it is topical
for developing technologies of corundum ceramics fabrication. In the present work possibilities of low temperature transformation
of oxyhydroxides in α-Al2O3, during the presence of small amount of
rare–earth elements compounds (also Th, Re), have been discussed.
Aluminum unstable oxyhydroxides have been obtained by hydrolysis
of aluminium isopropoxide, nitrates, sulphate, and chloride in
alkaline environment at 80-90ºC temperatures. β-Al(OH)3 has been
received from aluminum powder by ultrasonic development. Drying
of oxyhydroxide sol has been conducted with presence of various
types seeds, which amount reaches 0,1-0,2% (mas). Neodymium,
holmium, thorium, lanthanum, cerium, gadolinium, disprosium
nitrates and rhenium carbonyls have been used as seeds and they
have been added to the sol specimens in amount of 0.1-0.2% (mas)
calculated on metals. Annealing of obtained gels is carried out at 70–
1100ºC for 2 hrs. The same specimen transforms in α-Al2O3 at
1100ºC. At this temperature in case of presence of lanthanum and
gadolinium transformation takes place by 70-85%. In case of
presence of thorium stabilization of γ-and θ-phases takes place. It is
established, that thorium causes inhibition of α-phase generation at
1100ºC, and at the time when in all other doped specimens α-phase is
generated at lower temperatures (1000-1050ºC). Synthesis of various
type compounds and simultaneous consolidation has developed in the
furnace of OXY-GON. Composite materials containing oxide and
non-oxide components close to theoretical data have been obtained in
this furnace respectively. During the work the following devices have
been used: X-ray diffractometer DRON-3M (Cu-Kα, Ni filter,
2º/min), High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON, electronic
scanning microscopes Nikon ECLIPSE LV 150, NMM-800TRF,
planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, SHIMADZU Dynamic
Ultra Micro Hardness Tester, DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dyna sizer.
Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
Optimization of End Milling Process Parameters for Minimization of Surface Roughness of AISI D2 Steel
The present work analyses different parameters of end
milling to minimize the surface roughness for AISI D2 steel. D2 Steel
is generally used for stamping or forming dies, punches, forming
rolls, knives, slitters, shear blades, tools, scrap choppers, tyre
shredders etc. Surface roughness is one of the main indices that
determines the quality of machined products and is influenced by
various cutting parameters. In machining operations, achieving
desired surface quality by optimization of machining parameters, is a
challenging job. In case of mating components the surface roughness
become more essential and is influenced by the cutting parameters,
because, these quality structures are highly correlated and are
expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of
process parameters or their interactive effects (i.e. on process
environment). In this work, the effects of selected process parameters
on surface roughness and subsequent setting of parameters with the
levels have been accomplished by Taguchi’s parameter design
approach. The experiments have been performed as per the
combination of levels of different process parameters suggested by
L9 orthogonal array. Experimental investigation of the end milling of
AISI D2 steel with carbide tool by varying feed, speed and depth of
cut and the surface roughness has been measured using surface
roughness tester. Analyses of variance have been performed for mean
and signal-to-noise ratio to estimate the contribution of the different
process parameters on the process.
Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber
Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %)
silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method.
Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have
been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to
PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of
silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by
hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt
was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite
nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount
of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web
was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties,
thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370
(0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter
DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test
(ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus
bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity,
antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of
silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.
Social Movements and the Diffusion of Tactics and Repertoires: Activists' Network in Anti-globalism Movement
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs), Social Enterprises and other actors play an important role in political decisions in governments at the international levels. Especially, such organizations’ and activists’ network in civil society is quite important to effect to the global politics. To solve the complex social problems in global era, diverse actors should corporate each other. Moreover, network of protesters is also contributes to diffuse tactics, information and other resources of social movements.
Based on the findings from the study of International Trade Fairs (ITFs), the author analyzes the network of activists in anti-globalism movement. This research focuses the transition of 54 activists’ whole network in the “protest event” against 2008 G8 summit in Japan. Their network is examined at the three periods: Before protest event phase, during protest event phase and after event phase. A mixed method is used in this study: the author shows the hypothesis from social network analysis and evaluates that with interview data analysis.
This analysis gives the two results. Firstly, the more protesters participate to the various events during the protest event, the more they build the network. After that, active protesters keep their network as well. From interview data, we can understand that the active protesters can build their network and diffuse the information because they communicate with other participants and understand that diverse issues are related.
This paper comes to same conclusion with previous researches: protest events activate the network among the political activists. However, some participants succeed to build their network, others do not. “Networked” activists are participated in the various events for short period of time and encourage the diffusion of information and tactics of social movements.
Improved Dynamic Bayesian Networks Applied to Arabic on Line Characters Recognition
Work is in on line Arabic character recognition and the principal motivation is to study the Arab manuscript with on line technology.
This system is a Markovian system, which one can see as like a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). One of the major interests of these systems resides in the complete models training (topology and parameters) starting from training data.
Our approach is based on the dynamic Bayesian Networks formalism. The DBNs theory is a Bayesians networks generalization to the dynamic processes. Among our objective, amounts finding better parameters, which represent the links (dependences) between dynamic network variables.
In applications in pattern recognition, one will carry out the fixing of the structure, which obliges us to admit some strong assumptions (for example independence between some variables). Our application will relate to the Arabic isolated characters on line recognition using our laboratory database: NOUN. A neural tester proposed for DBN external optimization.
The DBN scores and DBN mixed are respectively 70.24% and 62.50%, which lets predict their further development; other approaches taking account time were considered and implemented until obtaining a significant recognition rate 94.79%.
The Effect of Cyclic Speed on the Wear Properties of Molybdenum Disulfide Greases under Extreme Pressure Loading Using 4 Balls Wear Tests
The relationship between different types of Molybdenum disulfide greases under extreme pressure loading and different speed situations have been studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) under 1200rpm steady state rotational speed and cyclic frequencies between 2400 and 1200rpm using a Plint machine software to set up the different rotational speed situations.
Research described here is aimed at providing good friction and wear performance while optimizing cyclic frequencies and MoS2 concentration due to the recent concern about grease behavior in extreme pressure applications. Extreme load of 785 Newton was used in conjunction with different cyclic frequencies (2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min, 2400rpm -3.75min, 1200rpm -7.5min), to examine lithium based grease with and without MoS2 for equal number of revolutions, and a total run of 36000 revolutions; then compared to 1200rpm steady speed for the same total number of revolutions. 4 Ball wear tester was utilized to run large number of experiments randomly selected by the DOE software. The grease was combined with fine grade MoS2 or technical grade then heated to 750C and the wear scar width was collected at the end of each test. DOE model validation results verify that the data were very significant and can be applied to a wide range of extreme pressure applications. Based on simulation results and Scanning Electron images (SEM), it has been found that wear was largely dependent on the cyclic frequency condition. It is believed that technical grade MoS2 greases under faster cyclic speeds perform better and provides antiwear film that can resist extreme pressure loadings. Figures showed reduced wear scars width and improved frictional values.
Developing Examination Management System: Senior Capstone Project, a Case Study
This paper presents the result of three senior capstone
projects at the Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of
Songkla University, Thailand. These projects focus on developing an
examination management system for the Faculty of Engineering in
order to manage the examination both the examination room
assignments and the examination proctor assignments in each room.
The current version of the software is a web-based application. The
developed software allows the examination proctors to select their
scheduled time online while each subject is assigned to each available
examination room according to its type and the room capacity. The
developed system is evaluated using real data by prospective users of
the system. Several suggestions for further improvements are given
by the testers. Even though the features of the developed software are
not superior, the developing process can be a case study for a projectbased
teaching style. Furthermore, the process of developing this
software can show several issues in developing an educational
Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Software Vulnerabilities Testing Techniques
Software and applications are subjected to serious and damaging security threats, these threats are increasing as a result of increased number of potential vulnerabilities. Security testing is an indispensable process to validate software security requirements and to identify security related vulnerabilities. In this paper we analyze and compare different available vulnerabilities testing techniques based on a pre defined criteria using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). We have selected five testing techniques which includes Source code analysis, Fault code injection, Robustness, Stress and Penetration testing techniques. These testing techniques have been evaluated against five criteria which include cost, thoroughness, Ease of use, effectiveness and efficiency. The outcome of the study is helpful for researchers, testers and developers to understand effectiveness of each technique in its respective domain. Also the study helps to compare the inner working of testing techniques against a selected criterion to achieve optimum testing results.
Evaluating and Measuring the Performance Parameters of Agricultural Wheels
Evaluating and measuring the performance parameters of wheels and tillage equipments under controlled conditions obligates the use of soil bin facility. In this research designing, constructing and evaluating a single-wheel tester has been studied inside a soil bin. The tested wheel was directly driven by the electric motor. Vertical load was applied by a power bolt on wheel. This tester can measure required draft force, the depth of tire sinkage, contact area between wheel and soil, and soil stress at different depths and in the both alongside and perpendicular to the direction of traversing. In order to evaluate the system preparation, traction force was measured by the connected S-shaped load cell as arms between the wheel-tester and carriage. Treatments of forward speed, slip, and vertical load at a constant pressure were investigated in a complete randomized block design. The results indicated that the traction force increased at constant wheel load. The results revealed that the maximum traction force was observed within the %15 of slip.
Process and Supply-Chain Optimization for Testing and Verification of Formation Tester/Pressure-While- Drilling Tools
Applying a rigorous process to optimize the elements
of a supply-chain network resulted in reduction of the waiting time
for a service provider and customer. Different sources of downtime
of hydraulic pressure controller/calibrator (HPC) were causing
interruptions in the operations. The process examined all the issues to
drive greater efficiencies. The issues included inherent design issues
with HPC pump, contamination of the HPC with impurities, and the
lead time required for annual calibration in the USA.
HPC is used for mandatory testing/verification of formation
tester/pressure measurement/logging-while drilling tools by oilfield
service providers, including Halliburton.
After market study andanalysis, it was concluded that the current
HPC model is best suited in the oilfield industry. To use theexisting
HPC model effectively, design andcontamination issues were
addressed through design and process improvements. An optimum
network is proposed after comparing different supply-chain models
for calibration lead-time reduction.
Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys
A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration
of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The
hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage
equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear
resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer
with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity
up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness
and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room
temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite
alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and
also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high
temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more
complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between
chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of
these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these
Objectivity, Reliability and Validity of the 90º
Push-Ups Test Protocol Among Male and
Female Students of Sports Science Program
This study was conducted to determine the
objectivity, reliability and validity of the 90º push-ups test protocol
among male and female students of Sports Science Program, Faculty
of Sports Science and Coaching Sultan Idris University of Education.
Samples (n = 300), consisted of males (n = 168) and females (n =
132) students were randomly selected for this study. Researchers
tested the 90º push-ups on the sample twice in a single trial, test and
re-test protocol in the bench press test. Pearson-Product Moment
Correlation method's was used to determine the value of objectivity,
reliability and validity testing. The findings showed that the 900 pushups
test protocol showed high consistency between the two testers
with a value of r = .99. Likewise, The reliability value between test
and re-test for the 90º push-ups test for the male (r=.93) and female
(r=.93) students was also high. The results showed a correlation
between 90º push-ups test and bench press test for boys was r = .64
and girls was r = .28. This finding indicates that the use of the 90º
push-ups to test muscular strength and endurance in the upper body
of males has a higher validity values than female students.
An Experiment for Assessment of a “Functional Scenario-based“ Test Case Generation Method
Specification-based testing enables us to detect errors
in the implementation of functions defined in given specifications.
Its effectiveness in achieving high path coverage and efficiency in
generating test cases are always major concerns of testers. The automatic
test cases generation approach based on formal specifications
proposed by Liu and Nakajima is aimed at ensuring high effectiveness
and efficiency, but this approach has not been empirically assessed.
In this paper, we present an experiment for assessing Liu-s testing
approach. The result indicates that this testing approach may not be
effective in some circumstances. We discuss the result, analyse the
specific causes for the ineffectiveness, and describe some suggestions
Investigation of New Method to Achieve Well Dispersed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites
Nanostructured materials have attracted many
researchers due to their outstanding mechanical and physical
properties. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon
nanofibres (CNFs) are considered to be attractive reinforcement
materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites.
These composites are being projected for use in structural
applications for their high specific strength as well as functional
materials for their exciting thermal and electrical characteristics. The
critical issues of CNT-reinforced MMCs include processing
techniques, nanotube dispersion, interface, strengthening mechanisms
and mechanical properties. One of the major obstacles to the effective
use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements in metal matrix
composites is their agglomeration and poor distribution/dispersion
within the metallic matrix. In order to tap into the advantages of the
properties of CNTs (or CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of
CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues
which are still challenging. Processing techniques used for synthesis
of the composites have been studied with an objective to achieve
homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix.
Modified mechanical alloying (ball milling) techniques have emerged
as promising routes for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT)
reinforced metal matrix composites. In order to obtain a
homogeneous product, good control of the milling process, in
particular control of the ball movement, is essential. The control of
the ball motion during the milling leads to a reduction in grinding
energy and a more homogeneous product. Also, the critical inner
diameter of the milling container at a particular rotational speed can
be calculated. In the present work, we use conventional and modified
mechanical alloying to generate a homogenous distribution of 2 wt.
% CNT within Al powders. 99% purity Aluminium powder (Acros,
200mesh) was used along with two different types of multiwall
carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) having different aspect ratios to
produce Al-CNT composites. The composite powders were processed
into bulk material by compaction, and sintering using a cylindrical
compaction and tube furnace. Field Emission Scanning electron
microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman
spectroscopy and Vickers macro hardness tester were used to
evaluate CNT dispersion, powder morphology, CNT damage, phase
analysis, mechanical properties and crystal size determination.
Despite the success of ball milling in dispersing CNTs in Al powder,
it is often accompanied with considerable strain hardening of the Al
powder, which may have implications on the final properties of the
composite. The results show that particle size and morphology vary
with milling time. Also, by using the mixing process and sonication
before mechanical alloying and modified ball mill, dispersion of the
CNTs in Al matrix improves.
Manual Testing of Web Software Systems Supported by Direct Guidance of the Tester Based On Design Model
Software testing is important stage of software development cycle. Current testing process involves tester and electronic documents with test case scenarios. In this paper we focus on new approach to testing process using automated test case generation and tester guidance through the system based on the model of the system. Test case generation and model-based testing is not possible without proper system model. We aim on providing better feedback from the testing process thus eliminating the unnecessary paper work.
Testing Object-Oriented Framework Applications Using FIST2 Tool: A Case Study
An application framework provides a reusable design
and implementation for a family of software systems. Frameworks
are introduced to reduce the cost of a product line (i.e., a family of
products that shares the common features). Software testing is a timeconsuming
and costly ongoing activity during the application
software development process. Generating reusable test cases for the
framework applications during the framework development stage,
and providing and using the test cases to test part of the framework
application whenever the framework is used reduces the application
development time and cost considerably. This paper introduces the
Framework Interface State Transition Tester (FIST2), a tool for
automated unit testing of Java framework applications. During the
framework development stage, given the formal descriptions of the
framework hooks, the specifications of the methods of the
framework-s extensible classes, and the illegal behavior description
of the Framework Interface Classes (FICs), FIST2 generates unitlevel
test cases for the classes. At the framework application
development stage, given the customized method specifications of
the implemented FICs, FIST2 automates the use, execution, and
evaluation of the already generated test cases to test the implemented
FICs. The paper illustrates the use of the FIST2 tool for testing
several applications that use the SalesPoint framework.
Microstructural and In-Vitro Characterization of Glass-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Composites
Commercial hydroxyapatite (HA) was reinforced by
adding 2, 5, and 10 wt % of 28.5%CaO-28.5%P2O5-38%Na2 O-
5%CaF2 based glass and then sintered. Although HA shows good
biocompatibility with the human body, its applications are limited to
non load-bearing areas and coatings due to its poor mechanical
properties. These mechanical properties can be improved
substantially with addition of glass ceramics by sintering. In this
study, the effects of sintering hydroxyapatite with above specified
phosphate glass additions are quantified. Each composition was
sintered over a range of temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy
and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the microstructure and
phases of the composites. The density, microhardness, and
compressive strength were measured using Archimedes Principle,
Vickers Microhardness Tester (at 0.98 N), and Instron Universal
Testing Machine (cross speed of 0.5 mm/min) respectively. These
results were used to indicate which composition provided suitable
material for use in hard tissue replacement. Composites containing 10
wt % glass additions formed dense HA/TCP (tricalcium phosphate)
composite materials possessing good compressive strength and
hardness than HA. In-vitro bioactivity was assessed by evaluating
changes in pH and Ca2+ ion concentration of SBF-simulated body
fluid on immersion of these composites in it for two weeks.