International Science Index
Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders
National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.
A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction
In this study, a new constitutive model is developed
to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a
parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons.
The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating
the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers,
proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical
contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix
is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change
of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to
describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the
constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity
which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This
study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix
contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model
may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms
of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam with External Prestressing
This paper deals with a nonlinear finite element analysis to examine the behavior up to failure of cantilever composite steel-concrete beams which are prestressed externally. 'Pre-' means stressing the high strength external tendons in the steel beam section before the concrete slab is added. The composite beam contains a concrete slab which is connected together with steel I-beam by means of perfect shear connectors between the concrete slab and the steel beam which is subjected to static loading. A finite element analysis will be done to study the effects of external prestressed tendons on the composite steel-concrete beams by locating the tendons in different locations (profiles). ANSYS version 12.1 computer program is being used to analyze the represented three-dimensional model of the cantilever composite beam. This model gives all these outputs, mainly load-displacement behavior of the cantilever end and in the middle span of the simple support part.
The Applications of Four Fingers Theory: The Proof of 66 Acupoints under the Human Elbow and Knee
Through experiences of clinical practices, it is discovered that locations on the body at a level of four fingerbreadth above and below the joints are the points at which muscles connect to tendons, and since the muscles and tendons possess opposite characteristics, muscles are full of blood but lack qi, while tendons are full of qi but lack blood, these points on our body become easily blocked. It is proposed that through doing acupuncture or creating localized pressure to the areas four fingerbreadths above and below our joints, with an elastic bandage, we could help the energy, also known as qi, to flow smoothly in our body and further improve our health. Based on the Four Fingers Theory, we understand that human height is 22 four fingerbreadths. In addition, qi and blood travel through 24 meridians, 50 times each day, and they flow through 6 cun with every human breath. We can also understand the average number of human heartbeats is 75 times per minute. And the function of qi-blood circulation system in Traditional Chinese Medicine is the same as the blood circulation in Western Medical Science. Informed by Four Fingers Theory, this study further examined its applications in acupuncture practices. The research question is how Four Fingers Theory proves what has been mentioned in Nei Jing that there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. In responding to the research question, there are 66 acupoints under a human’s elbow and knee. Four Fingers Theory facilitated the creation of the acupuncture naming and teaching system. It is expected to serve as an approachable and effective way to deliver knowledge of acupuncture to the public worldwide.
Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach
Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.
Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-bearing Biological Materials
Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone,
mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both
organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This
amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed
hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with
regard to their weak components from which they are formed.
Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions
have been done to study the biological materials failure. However,
most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing
biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed
to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be
answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and
architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their
dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been
developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic
behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to
answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to
make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials.
The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently
attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure.
Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of
utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and
shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model
like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected
from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes
and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and
mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with
existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize
on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural
evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists
to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.
Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials
Below-knee amputees commonly experience
asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is
related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution
of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition.
Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading
conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide
clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension
along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be
influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of
blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being
shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were
investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of
Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure
at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight
polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The
pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is
involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort
and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole
between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would
decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where
flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy
storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and
prosthetic design integrity.
Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand
The Ambidextrous Robot Hand is a robotic device with the purpose to mimic either the gestures of a right or a left hand. The symmetrical behavior of its fingers allows them to bend in one way or another keeping a compliant and anthropomorphic shape. However, in addition to gestures they can reproduce on both sides, an asymmetrical mechanical design with a three tendons routing has been engineered to reduce the number of actuators. As a consequence, control algorithms must be adapted to drive efficiently the ambidextrous fingers from one position to another and to include grasping features. These movements are controlled by pneumatic muscles, which are nonlinear actuators. As their elasticity constantly varies when they are under actuation, the length of pneumatic muscles and the force they provide may differ for a same value of pressurized air. The control algorithms introduced in this paper take both the fingers asymmetrical design and the pneumatic muscles nonlinearity into account to permit an accurate control of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand. The finger motion is achieved by combining a classic PID controller with a phase plane switching control that turns the gain constants into dynamic values. The grasping ability is made possible because of a sliding mode control that makes the fingers adapt to the shape of an object before strengthening their positions.
Guidelines for Selecting the Appropriate Heel Insert for Long-Standing Ladies
Feet and ankles are parts of human body that receive high-pressure in every day. Feet disorders such as ankle sprain, achilles tendonitis, heel pain, and plantar fasciitis are very common. There are many causes for these feet disorders such as wearing high heels, obesity, sports activity, and standing for a long time. There are many reliefs for feet disorders such as heel insert. However, they come in various shapes and use different materials. There are no specifications in which type is suitable for specific user. This has led to the proposed research to provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate heel insert for ladies who face with long-standing carriers. This research uses contact-measuring techniques to test forces, contact area, and pressure acting on a person’s feet in various standing positions with different insert materials and shapes. The proper material for making insert will be presented and discussed.
Predictive Functional Control with Disturbance Observer for Tendon-Driven Balloon Actuator
In recent years, Japanese society has been aging, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to perform tasks such as rehabilitation, nursing elderly people, and day-to-day work support for elderly people. The pneumatic balloon actuator is a rubber artificial muscle developed for use in a robot hand in such environments. This actuator has a long stroke and a high power-to-weight ratio compared with the present pneumatic artificial muscle. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of this actuator resemble those of human muscle. This study evaluated characteristics of force control of balloon actuator using a predictive functional control (PFC) system with disturbance observer. The predictive functional control is a model-based predictive control (MPC) scheme that predicts the future outputs of the actual plants over the prediction horizon and computes the control effort over the control horizon at every sampling instance. For this study, a 1-link finger system using a pneumatic balloon actuator is developed. Then experiments of PFC control with disturbance observer are performed. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of its control of a pneumatic balloon actuator for a robot hand.
A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons
CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.
Development of UiTM Robotic Prosthetic Hand
The study of human hand morphology reveals that developing an artificial hand with the capabilities of human hand is an extremely challenging task. This paper presents the development of a robotic prosthetic hand focusing on the improvement of a tendon driven mechanism towards a biomimetic prosthetic hand. The design of this prosthesis hand is geared towards achieving high level of dexterity and anthropomorphism by means of a new hybrid mechanism that integrates a miniature motor driven actuation mechanism, a Shape Memory Alloy actuated mechanism and a passive mechanical linkage. The synergy of these actuators enables the flexion-extension movement at each of the finger joints within a limited size, shape and weight constraints. Tactile sensors are integrated on the finger tips and the finger phalanges area. This prosthesis hand is developed with an exact size ratio that mimics a biological hand. Its behavior resembles the human counterpart in terms of working envelope, speed and torque, and thus resembles both the key physical features and the grasping functionality of an adult hand.
Analysis and Preservation of Lime-Kilns in Corsica
The aim of this paper is the analysis and preservation of lime kilns, focusing on the structure, construction, and functionality of vertical shaft lime kilns of the Cap Corse in Corsica. Plans and sections of two lime kilns are presented in detail, providing an overall picture of this specific industrial heritage. The potential damage areas are identified performing structural analysis of a lime kiln using the finite element method. A restoration and strengthening technique that satisfies the directions of the Charter of Venice is presented using post-tensioning tendons. Recommendations are given to preserve and promote these important historical structures integrating them into the custom footpath.
Comparison of Alternative Models to Predict Lean Meat Percentage of Lamb Carcasses
The objective of this study was to develop and compare alternative prediction equations of lean meat proportion (LMP) of lamb carcasses. Forty (40) male lambs, 22 of Churra Galega Bragançana Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcasses weighed approximately 30 min later in order to obtain hot carcass weight (HCW). After cooling at 4º C for 24-h a set of seventeen carcass measurements was recorded. The left side of carcasses was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, inter-muscular fat, bone, and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with muscles), and the LMP was evaluated as the dissected muscle percentage. Prediction equations of LMP were developed, and fitting quality was evaluated through the coefficient of determination of estimation (R2 e) and standard error of estimate (SEE). Models validation was performed by k-fold crossvalidation and the coefficient of determination of prediction (R2 p) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were computed. The BT2 measurement was the best single predictor and accounted for 37.8% of the LMP variation with a SEP of 2.30%. The prediction of LMP of lamb carcasses can be based simple models, using as predictors the HCW and one fat thickness measurement.
Injuries Related to Kitesurfing
Participation in sporting activities can lead to injury.
Sport injuries have been widely studied in many sports including the
more extreme categories of aquatic board sports. Kitesurfing is a
relatively new water surface action sport, and has not yet been
widely studied in terms of injuries and stress on the body. The aim of
this study was to get information about which injuries that are most
common among kitesurfing participants, where they occur, and their
causes. Injuries were studied using an international open web
The results showed that many respondents reported injuries, in
total 251 injuries to knee (24%), ankle (17%), trunk (16%) and
shoulders (10%), often sustained while doing jumps and tricks
(40%). Among the reported injuries were joint injuries (n=101),
muscle/tendon damages (n=47), wounds and cuts (n=36) and bone
fractures (n=28). Also environmental factors and equipment can
influence the risk of injury, or the extent of injury in a hazardous
situation. Conclusively, the information from this retrospective study
supports earlier studies in terms of prevalence and site of injuries.
Suggestively, this information should be used for to build a
foundation of knowledge about the sport for development of
applications for physical training and product development.
Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Actuator Saturation Effect on Nonlinear Controllers
In the real application of active control systems to
mitigate the response of structures subjected to sever external
excitations such as earthquake and wind induced vibrations, since the
capacity of actuators is limited then the actuators saturate. Hence, in
designing controllers for linear and nonlinear structures under sever
earthquakes, the actuator saturation should be considered as a
constraint. In this paper optimal design of active controllers for
nonlinear structures by considering the actuator saturation has been
studied. To this end a method has been proposed based on defining
an optimization problem which considers the minimizing of the
maximum displacement of the structure as objective when a limited
capacity for actuator has been used as a constraint in optimization
problem. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a
single degree of freedom (SDF) structure with a bilinear hysteretic
behavior has been simulated under a white noise ground acceleration
of different amplitudes. Active tendon control mechanism, comprised
of pre-stressed tendons and an actuator, and extended nonlinear
Newmark method based instantaneous optimal control algorithm
have been used as active control mechanism and algorithm. To
enhance the efficiency of the controllers, the weights corresponding
to displacement, velocity, acceleration and control force in the
performance index have been found by using the Distributed Genetic
Algorithm (DGA). According to the results it has been concluded
that the proposed method has been effective in considering the
actuator saturation in designing optimal controllers for nonlinear
frames. Also it has been shown that the actuator capacity and the
average value of required control force are two important factors in
designing nonlinear controllers for considering the actuator
Experimental Inspection of Damage and Performance Evaluation after Repair and Strengthening of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China
The main objectives of this study are to inspect and
identify any damage of jaimusi highway prestressed concrete bridge
after repair and strengthening of damaged structural members and to
evaluate the performance of the bridge structural members by
adopting static load test. Inspection program after repair and
strengthening includes identifying and evaluating the structural
members of bridge such as T-shape cantilever structure, hanging
beams, corbels, external tendons, anchor beams, sticking steel plate,
and piers. The results of inspection show that the overall state of the
bridge structural member after repair and strengthening is good. The
results of rebound test of concrete strength show that the average
strength of concrete is 46.31Mpa. Whereas, the average value of
concrete strength of anchor beam is 49.82Mpa. According to the
results of static load test, the experimental values are less than
theoretical values of internal forces, deflection, and strain, indicating
that the stiffness of the experimental structure, overall deformation
and integrity satisfy the designed standard and the working
performance is good, and the undertaking capacity has a certain
surplus. There is not visible change in the length and width of cracks
and there are not new cracks under experimental load.
Efficiency of Post-Tensioning Method for Seismic Retrofitting of Pre-Cast Cylindrical Concrete Reservoirs
Cylindrical concrete reservoirs are appropriate choice
for storing liquids as water, oil and etc. By using of the pre-cast
concrete reservoirs instead of the in-situ constructed reservoirs, the
speed and precision of the construction would considerably increase.
In this construction method, wall and roof panels would make in
factory with high quality materials and precise controlling. Then,
pre-cast wall and roof panels would carry out to the construction site
for assembling. This method has a few faults such as: the existing
weeks in connection of wall panels together and wall panels to
foundation. Therefore, these have to be resisted under applied loads
such as seismic load. One of the innovative methods which was
successfully applied for seismic retrofitting of numerous pre-cast
cylindrical water reservoirs in New Zealand, using of the high tensile
cables around the reservoirs and post-tensioning them. In this paper,
analytical modeling of wall and roof panels and post-tensioned
cables are carried out with finite element method and the effect of
height to diameter ratio, post-tensioning force value, liquid level in
reservoir, installing position of tendons on seismic response of
reservoirs are investigated.
Detente and Power - Conceptual Determination, Forms and Means of Education at the Preteen Age
The scientific perspective, the practice area of physical education and sports activities improve power capacity in all its forms of expression, being a generator of the research topics. Today theories that strength training athletes and slow down development progress will affect the strength and flexibility are discredited. On the other hand there are sectors and / or samples whose results are sports of the way higher manifestation of power as a result of the composition of the force and velocity, being based in this respect on the systematic and continuous development of both bio-motric capacities said. Training of force for children was and is controversial. Teama de accidentări sau a stopării premature a procesului de creştere a făcut ca în trecut copiii să fie ţinuţi departe de lucrul cu diferite greutăţi.Fear of injury or premature stop the growth process in the past made the children to be kept away from working with different weights. Recent studies have shown that the risk of accidents is relatively small and the strength training can help prevent them. For example, most accidents occur at the level of athletics ligaments and tendons. From this point of view, it can be said that a progressive intervention of force training, optimal design, will help enhancing their process, such as athlete much better prepared to meet training requests and competitions. Preparation of force provides a solid basis for further phases in the highest performance.
Active Tendons for Seismic Control of Buildings
In this study, active tendons with Proportional Integral
Derivation type controllers were applied to a SDOF and a MDOF
building model. Physical models of buildings were constituted with
virtual springs, dampers and rigid masses. After that, equations of
motion of all degrees of freedoms were obtained. Matlab Simulink
was utilized to obtain the block diagrams for these equations of
motion. Parameters for controller actions were found by using a trial
method. After earthquake acceleration data were applied to the
systems, building characteristics such as displacements, velocities,
accelerations and transfer functions were analyzed for all degrees of
freedoms. Comparisons on displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time,
acceleration vs. time and transfer function (Db) vs. frequency (Hz)
were made for uncontrolled and controlled buildings. The results
show that the method seems feasible.
Optimal Controllers with Actuator Saturation for Nonlinear Structures
Since the actuator capacity is limited, in the real
application of active control systems under sever earthquakes it is
conceivable that the actuators saturate, hence the actuator saturation
should be considered as a constraint in design of optimal controllers.
In this paper optimal design of active controllers for nonlinear
structures by considering actuator saturation, has been studied. The
proposed method for designing optimal controllers is based on
defining an optimization problem which the objective has been to
minimize the maximum displacement of structure when a limited
capacity for actuator has been used. To this end a single degree of
freedom (SDF) structure with a bilinear hysteretic behavior has been
simulated under a white noise ground acceleration of different
amplitudes. Active tendon control mechanism, comprised of prestressed
tendons and an actuator, and extended nonlinear Newmark
method based instantaneous optimal control algorithm have been
used. To achieve the best results, the weights corresponding to
displacement, velocity, acceleration and control force in the
performance index have been optimized by the Distributed Genetic
Algorithm (DGA). Results show the effectiveness of the proposed
method in considering actuator saturation. Also based on the
numerical simulations it can be concluded that the actuator capacity
and the average value of required control force are two important
factors in designing nonlinear controllers which consider the actuator