International Science Index
Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex
The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.
An Investigation of Surface Texturing by Ultrasonic Impingement of Micro-Particles
Surface topography plays a significant role in the functional performance of engineered parts. It is important to have a control on the surface geometry and understanding on the surface details to get the desired performance. Hence, in the current research contribution, a non-contact micro-texturing technique has been explored and developed. The technique involves ultrasonic excitation of a tool as a prime source of surface texturing for aluminum alloy workpieces. The specimen surface is polished first and is then immersed in a liquid bath containing 10% weight concentration of Ti6Al4V grade 5 spherical powders. A submerged slurry jet is used to recirculate the spherical powders under the ultrasonic horn which is excited at an ultrasonic frequency and amplitude of 40 kHz and 70 µm respectively. The distance between the horn and workpiece surface was remained fixed at 200 µm using a precision control stage. Texturing effects were investigated for different process timings of 1, 3 and 5 s. Thereafter, the specimens were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath for 5 mins to remove loose debris on the surface. The developed surfaces are characterized by optical and contact surface profiler. The optical microscopic images show a texture of circular spots on the workpiece surface indented by titanium spherical balls. Waviness patterns obtained from contact surface profiler supports the texturing effect produced from the proposed technique. Furthermore, water droplet tests were performed to show the efficacy of the proposed technique to develop hydrophilic surfaces and to quantify the texturing effect produced.
Effect of the Polymer Modification on the Cytocompatibility of Human and Rat Cells
Tissue engineering includes combination of materials and techniques used for the improvement, repair or replacement of the tissue. Scaffolds, permanent or temporally material, are used as support for the creation of the "new cell structures". For this important component (scaffold), a variety of materials can be used. The advantage of some polymeric materials is their cytocompatibility and possibility of biodegradation. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable, semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. PLLA can be fully degraded into H2O and CO2. In this experiment, the effect of the surface modification of biodegradable polymer (performed by plasma treatment) on the various cell types was studied. The surface parameters and changes of the physicochemical properties of modified PLLA substrates were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was determined by goniometry, surface morphology and roughness study were performed with atomic force microscopy and chemical composition was determined using photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties were studied in relation to cytocompatibility of human osteoblast (MG 63 cells), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and human stem cells (ASC) of the adipose tissue in vitro. A fluorescence microscopy was chosen to study and compare cell-material interaction. Important parameters of the cytocompatibility like adhesion, proliferation, viability, shape, spreading of the cells were evaluated. It was found that the modification leads to the change of the surface wettability depending on the time of modification. Short time of exposition (10-120 s) can reduce the wettability of the aged samples, exposition longer than 150 s causes to increase of contact angle of the aged PLLA. The surface morphology is significantly influenced by duration of modification, too. The plasma treatment involves the formation of the crystallites, whose number increases with increasing time of modification. On the basis of physicochemical properties evaluation, the cells were cultivated on the selected samples. Cell-material interactions are strongly affected by material chemical structure and surface morphology. It was proved that the plasma treatment of PLLA has a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and viability of all cultivated cells. This effect was even more apparent for the VSMCs and ASCs which homogeneously covered almost the whole surface of the substrate after 7 days of cultivation. The viability of these cells was high (more than 98% for VSMCs, 89-96% for ASCs). This experiment is one part of the basic research, which aims to easily create scaffolds for tissue engineering with subsequent use of stem cells and their subsequent "reorientation" towards the bone cells or smooth muscle cells.
Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance
Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.
Cold Plasma Surface Modified Electrospun Microtube Array Membrane for Chitosan Immobilization and Their Properties
Electrospun microtube array membranes (MTAMs) made of PLLA (poly-L-lactic acid) have wide potential applications in tissue engineering. However, their surface hydrophobicity and poor biocompatability have limited their further usage. In this study, the surface of PLLA MTAMs were made hydrophilic by introducing extra functional groups, such as peroxide, via an acetic acid plasma (AAP). UV-graft polymerization of acrylic acid (G-AAc) was then used to produce carboxyl group on MTAMs surface, which bonded covalently with chitosan through EDC / NHS crosslinking agents. To evaluate the effects of the surface modification on PLLA MTAMs, water contact angle (WCA) measurement and cell compatibility tests were carried out. We found that AAP treated electrospun PLLA MTAMs grafted with AAc and, finally, with chitosan immobilized via crosslinking agent, exhibited improved hydrophilic and cell compatibility.
Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment
This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS
plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface
hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment
at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the
ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to
65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of
plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic
functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after
heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150
rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of
ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100%
of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed
mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also
investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective,
and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.
Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels
Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to
enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries.
Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used
materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low
weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened
composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered
in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the
top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components,
which are used here. Although there are a good number of published
surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little
systematic work has been reported on their material modification to
improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification
using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural
properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling
agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was
introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects
on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy
composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS
coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2
nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an
improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and
energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-
GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning
that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed
after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3-
GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural
behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this
study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a
promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened
fibrous composite structures.
Surface Characteristics of Bacillus megaterium and Its Adsorption Behavior onto Dolomite
Surface characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain
were investigated; zeta potential, FTIR and contact angle were
measured. Surface energy components including Lifshitz-van der
Waals, Hamaker constant, and acid/base components (Lewis
acid/Lewis base) were calculated from the contact angle data. The
results showed that the microbial cells were negatively charged over
all pH regions with high values at alkaline region. A hydrophilic
nature for the strain was confirmed by contact angle and free energy
of adhesion between microbial cells. Adsorption affinity of the strain
toward dolomite was studied at different pH values. The results
showed that the cells had a high affinity to dolomite at acid pH
comparing to neutral and alkaline pH. Extended DLVO theory was
applied to calculate interaction energy between B. megaterium cells
and dolomite particles. The adsorption results were in agreement with
the results of Extended DLVO approach. Surface changes occurred
on dolomite surface after the bio-treatment were monitored; contact
angle decreased from 69° to 38° and the mineral’s floatability
decreased from 95% to 25% after the treatment.
Surface Modification of Cotton Using Slaughterhouse Wastes
Cotton dyeing using reactive dyes is one of the major water polluter; this is due to large amount of dye and salt remaining in effluent. Recent adverse climate change and its associated effect to human life have lead to search for more sustainable industrial production. Cationization of cotton to improve its affinity for reactive dye has been earmarked as a major solution for dyeing of cotton with no or less salt. Synthetic cationizing agents of ammonium salt have already been commercialized. However, in nature there are proteinous products which are rich in amino and ammonium salts which can be carefully harnessed to be used as cationizing agent for cotton. The hoofs and horns have successfully been used to cationize cotton so as to improve cotton affinity to the dye. The cationization action of the hoof and horn extract on cotton was confirmed by dyeing the pretreated fabric without salt and comparing it with conventionally dyed and untreated salt free dyed fabric. UV-VIS absorption results showed better dye absorption (62.5% and 50% dye bath exhaustion percentage for cationized and untreated respectively) while K/S values of treated samples were similar to conventional sample.
Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric
Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.
Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon
Surface modification and functionalization has been
an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in
nanoscience and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for
the intended applications can be achieved with surface
In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption
capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized
from German beech wood was investigated. Sodium borohydride
(NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands.
Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average
sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous
media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These
particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they
were mixed together and shaken in distilled water.
Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by
NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of
aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver
nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4
and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag
NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with
larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In
addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated
in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed
on the AC surface in distilled water.
Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination
In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-
Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit
excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing
process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be
reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was
developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitchfree
method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic
methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve
adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the
adhesive, oxy-fluorination was used. The modification of carbonfibres
by oxy-fluorination was investigated via scanning electron
microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and single fibre
tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the
maximum force required for detachment.
Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Poly (Ethylene Imine) Nanolayers on Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabric. Electrostatic and Thermal Properties
The surface properties of many materials can be readily and predictably modified by the controlled deposition of thin layers containing appropriate functional groups and this research area is now a subject of widespread interest. The layer-by-layer (lbl) method involves depositing oppositely charged layers of polyelectrolytes onto the substrate material which are stabilized due to strong electrostatic forces between adjacent layers. This type of modification affords products that combine the properties of the original material with the superficial parameters of the new external layers. Through an appropriate selection of the deposited layers, the surface properties can be precisely controlled and readily adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the intended application. In the presented paper a variety of anionic (poly(acrylic acid)) and cationic (linear poly(ethylene imine), polymers were successfully deposited onto the polypropylene nonwoven using the lbl technique. The chemical structure of the surface before and after modification was confirmed by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, volumetric analysis and selective dyeing tests. As a direct result of this work, new materials with greatly improved properties have been produced. For example, following a modification process significant changes in the electrostatic activity of a range of novel nanocomposite materials were observed. The deposition of polyelectrolyte nanolayers was found to strongly accelerate the loss of electrostatically generated charges and to increase considerably the thermal resistance properties of the modified fabric (the difference in T50% is over 20oC). From our results, a clear relationship between the type of polyelectrolyte layer deposited onto the flat fabric surface and the properties of the modified fabric was identified.
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Modified CaCO3 /PP Nanocomposites
Inorganic nanoparticles filled polymer composites
have extended their multiple functionalities to various applications,
including mechanical reinforcement, gas barrier, dimensional
stability, heat distortion temperature, flame-retardant, and thermal
conductivity. Sodium stearate-modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
nanoparticles were prepared using surface modification method. The
results showed that sodium stearate attached to the surface of CaCO3
nanoparticles with the chemical bond. The effect of modified CaCO3
nanoparticles on thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) was
studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that CaCO3
significantly affected the crystallization temperature and
crystallization degree of PP. Effect of the modified CaCO3 content on
mechanical properties of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites was also
studied. The results showed that the modified CaCO3 can effectively
improve the mechanical properties of PP. In comparison with PP, the
impact strength of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites increased by about
65% and the hardness increased by about 5%.
Surface Modification by EUV laser Beam based on Capillary Discharge
Many applications require surface modification and
micro-structuring of polymers. For these purposes is mainly used
ultraviolet (UV) radiation from excimer lamps or excimer lasers.
However, these sources have a decided disadvantage - degrading the
polymer deep inside due to relatively big radiation penetration depth
which may exceed 100 μm. In contrast, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
radiation is absorbed in a layer approximately 100 nm thick only. In
this work, the radiation from a discharge-plasma EUV source (with
wavelength 46.9 nm) based on a capillary discharge driver is focused
with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror for surface modification of
PMMA sample or thin gold layer (thickness about 40 nm). It was
found that the focused EUV laser beam is capable by one shot to
ablate PMMA or layer of gold, even if the focus is significantly
influenced by astigmatism.
Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thin Films Modified by Ag Nanoclusters Synthesized by SILD Method
The effect of SnO2 surface modification by Ag nanoclusters, synthesized by SILD method, on the operating characteristics of thin film gas sensors was studied and models for the promotional role of Ag additives were discussed. It was found that mentioned above approach can be used for improvement both the sensitivity and the rate of response of the SnO2-based gas sensors to CO and H2. At the same time, the presence of the Ag clusters on the surface of SnO2 depressed the sensor response to ozone.
A CFD Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Pipe Flow with Al2O3 Nanofluid
Fluids are used for heat transfer in many engineering
equipments. Water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are some
of the common heat transfer fluids. Over the years, in an attempt to
reduce the size of the equipment and/or efficiency of the process,
various techniques have been employed to improve the heat transfer
rate of these fluids. Surface modification, use of inserts and
increased fluid velocity are some examples of heat transfer
enhancement techniques. Addition of milli or micro sized particles
to the heat transfer fluid is another way of improving heat transfer
rate. Though this looks simple, this method has practical problems
such as high pressure loss, clogging and erosion of the material of
construction. These problems can be overcome by using nanofluids,
which is a dispersion of nanosized particles in a base fluid.
Nanoparticles increase the thermal conductivity of the base fluid
manifold which in turn increases the heat transfer rate. In this work,
the heat transfer enhancement using aluminium oxide nanofluid has
been studied by computational fluid dynamic modeling of the
nanofluid flow adopting the single phase approach.
Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.
Performance Enhancement of Membrane Distillation Process in Fruit Juice Concentration by Membrane Surface Modification
In this work Membrane Distillation is applied to
concentrate orange Juice. Clarified orange juice (11o Brix) obtained
from fresh fruits and a sugar solution was subjected to membrane
distillation. The experiments were performed on a flat sheet module
using orange juice and sucrose solution as feeds. The concentration
of a sucrose solution, used as a model fruit juice and also orange
juice, was carried out in a direct contact membrane distillation using
hydrophobic PTFE membrane of pore size 0.2 μm and porosity 70%.
Surface modification of PTFE membrane has been carried out by
treating membrane with alcohol and water solution to make it
hydrophilic and then hydrophobicity was regained by drying. The
influences of the feed temperature, feed concentration, flow rate,
operating time on the permeate flux were studied for treated and non
treated membrane. In this work treated and non treated membrane
were compared in terms of water flux, Within the tested range, MD
with surface modified membrane the water flux has been
significantly improved by treating the membrane surface.
Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene and High Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Surface Modified Nano Sized TiO2 Particles
Plastics occupy wide place in the applications of
automotive, electronics and house goods. Especially reinforced
plastics become popular because of their high strength besides their
advantages of low weight and easy manufacturability. In this study,
mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP) and
high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix composites reinforced with
surface modified nano titan dioxide (TiO2) particles were
investigated. Surface modification was made by coating the nano
powders with maleic anhydride grafted styrene ethylene butylene
styrene (SEBS-g-MA) and silane, respectively. After surface
modification, PP/TiO2 and HDPE/TiO2 composites were obtained by
using twin screw extruder at titan dioxide loading of 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%
and 5 wt.%. Effects of surface modification were determined by
thermal and morphological analysis. SEBS-g-MA provided bridging
effect between TiO2 particles and polymer matrix while silane was
effective as a dispersant. Depending on that, homogenous structures
without agglomeration were obtained. Mechanical tests were
performed on the injection moldings of the composites for obtaining
the impact strength, tensile strength, stress at break, elongation and
elastic modulus. Reinforced HDPE and PP moldings gave higher
tensile strength and elastic modulus due to the rigid structure of TiO2.
Slight increment was seen in stress at break. Elongation and impact
strength decreased due to the stiffness of the nano titan dioxide.
Effect of Cold Plasma-Surface Modification on Surface Wettability and Initial Cell Attachment
A thin coating of hexamethyldisiloxane and subsequent O2-plasma treatment was performed on mirror-polished titanium in order to regulate the wide range of wettability including 106 and almost 0 degrees of contact angles. The adsorption behavior of
fibronectin and albumin in both individual and competitive mode,
and initial attachment of fibroblasts and osteoblasts were investigated.
Individually, fibronectin adsorption showed a biphasic inclination, whereas albumin showed greater adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces.
In competitive mode, in solution containing both fibronectin and albumin, fibronectin showed greater adsorption on hydrophilic
surfaces, whereas Alb predominantly adsorbed on hydrophobic
surfaces. Initial attachment of both cells increased with increase in
surface wettability, in particular, on super-hydrophilic surface, which
correlated well with fibronectin adsorption in competitive mode.
These results suggest that a cold plasma-surface modification enabled
to regulate the surface wettability, and fibronectin adsorption may be
responsible for increasing cell adhesion on hydrophilic surfaces in a
A Novel Strategy for Oriented Protein Immobilization
A new strategy for oriented immobilization of proteins was proposed. The strategy contains two steps. The first step is to search for a docking site away from the active site on the protein surface. The second step is trying to find a ligand that is able to grasp the targeted site of the protein. To avoid ligand binding to the active site of protein, the targeted docking site is selected to own opposite charges to those near the active site. To enhance the ligand-protein binding, both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions need to be included. The targeted docking site should therefore contain hydrophobic amino acids. The ligand is then selected through the help of molecular docking simulations. The enzyme α-amylase derived from Aspergillus oryzae (TAKA) was taken as an example for oriented immobilization. The active site of TAKA is surrounded by negatively charged amino acids. All the possible hydrophobic sites on the surface of TAKA were evaluated by the free energy estimation through benzene docking. A hydrophobic site on the opposite side of TAKA-s active site was found to be positive in net charges. A possible ligand, 3,3-,4,4- – Biphenyltetra- carboxylic acid (BPTA), was found to catch TAKA by the designated docking site. Then, the BPTA molecules were grafted onto silica gels and measured the affinity of TAKA adsorption and the specific activity of thereby immobilized enzymes. It was found that TAKA had a dissociation constant as low as 7.0×10-6 M toward the ligand BPTA on silica gel. The increase in ionic strength has little effect on the adsorption of TAKA, which indicated the existence of hydrophobic interaction between ligands and proteins. The specific activity of the immobilized TAKA was compared with the randomly adsorbed TAKA on primary amine containing silica gel. It was found that the orderly immobilized TAKA owns a specific activity twice as high as the one randomly adsorbed by ionic interaction.
Analysis of Polymer Surface Modifications due to Discharges Initiated by Water Droplets under High Electric Fields
This paper investigates the influence of various
parameters on the behaviour of water droplets on polymeric surfaces
under high electric fields. An inclined plane test was carried out to
understand the droplet behaviour in strong electric field. Parameters
such as water droplet conductivity, droplet volume, polymeric
surface roughness and droplet positioning with respect to the
electrodes were studied. The flashover voltage is affected by all
aforementioned parameters. The droplet positioning is in some cases
more vital than the droplet volume. Surface damages were analysed
using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies and by Energy
dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). It is observes that magnitude of
discharge have direct influence on amount of surface da