International Science Index
Comparing Measurements of UV Radiation in Winter and Summer in Finland
The objective of our study is to investigate UV exposure in Finland through sample measurements as a typical case study in summer and winter. We measured UV-BC weighted radiation and calculated a daily dose, which is about 100–150 times the Finnish exposure limit value in summer and 1–6 times in winter. The measured ultraviolet indices varied from 0 to 7 (scale 0–18), which is less than the values obtained in countries that are located farther south from Tampere latitude of 61 degrees. In wintertime, the UV exposure was modest compared to summertime, 50–150 mW/m2 and about 1–5 mW/m2 in summer and winter, respectively. However, technical means to manage UV exposure in Scandinavia are also needed in summer- and springtime.
Research on the Transformation of Bottom Space in the Teaching Area of Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University
There is a lot of bottom space in the teaching area of Zijingang Campus of Zhejiang University, which benefits to the ventilation, heat dissipation, circulation, partition of quiet and noisy areas and diversification of spaces. Hangzhou is hot in summer but cold in winter, so teachers and students spend much less time in the bottom space of buildings in winter than in summer. Recently, depending on the teachers and students’ proposals, the school transformed the bottom space in the teaching area to provide space for relaxing, chatting and staying in winter. Surveying and analyzing the existing ways to transform, the paper researches deeply on the transformation projects of bottom space in the teaching buildings. It is believed that this paper can be a salutary lesson to make the bottom space in the teaching areas of universities richer and bring more diverse activities for teachers and students.
Seasonal Heat Stress Effect on Cholesterol, Estradiol and Progesterone during Follicular Development in Egyptian Buffalo
Biochemical and hormonal changes that occur in both follicular fluid and blood are involved in the control of ovarian physiology. The present study was conducted on follicular fluid and serum samples obtained from 708 buffaloes. Samples were examined for estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol concentrations in relation to seasonal changes, ovarian follicular size, and stage of estrous cycle. The obtained results revealed that follicular fluid and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol were significantly lower during summer and autumn when compared to winter and spring seasons. With the increase in follicular size, the follicular fluid levels of progesterone and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while estradiol levels were significantly increased. Estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than blood, while cholesterol was significantly lower in follicular fluid than serum. In conclusion, the current study threw a light on the hormonal changes in the follicular fluid and blood under the effect of heat stress which could be related to the low fertility of buffalo in the summer.
Performance Analysis of Modified Solar Water Heating System for Climatic Condition of Allahabad, India
Solar water heating is a thermodynamic process of
heating water using sunlight with the help of solar water heater. Thus,
solar water heater is a device used to harness solar energy. In this
paper, a modified solar water heating system (MSWHS) has been
proposed over flat plate collector (FPC) and Evacuated tube collector
(ETC). The modifications include selection of materials other than
glass, and glass wool which are conventionally used for fabricating
FPC and ETC. Some modifications in design have also been
proposed. Its collector is made of double layer of semi-cylindrical
acrylic tubes and fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) insulation base. Water
tank is made of double layer of acrylic sheet except base and north
wall. FRP is used in base and north wall of the water tank. A concept
of equivalent thickness has been utilised for calculating the
dimensions of collector plate, acrylic tube and tank. A thermal model for the proposed design of MSWHS is developed
and simulation is carried out on MATLAB for the capacity of 200L
MSWHS having collector area of 1.6 m2, length of acrylic tubes of
2m at an inclination angle 25° which is taken nearly equal to the
latitude of the given location. Latitude of Allahabad is 24.45° N. The
results show that the maximum temperature of water in tank and tube
has been found to be 71.2°C and 73.3°C at 17:00hr and 16:00hr
respectively in March for the climatic data of Allahabad. Theoretical performance analysis has been carried out by varying
number of tubes of collector, the tank capacity and climatic data for
given months of winter and summer.
Histopathological Effects of Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss in West of Iran
The aim of present study was to monitor the presence
of Trichodina sp. in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss collected
from various fish farms in the western provinces of Iran during
January, 2013- January, 2014. Out of 675 sampled fish 335, (49.16%)
were infested with Trichodina. The highest prevalence was observed
in the spring and winter followed by autumn and summer. In general,
the intensity of infection was low except in cases where outbreaks of
Trichodiniasis endangered the survival of fish in some ponds. In light
infestation Trichodina is usually present on gills, fins and skin of
apparently healthy fish. Clinical signs of Trichodiniasis only appear
on fish with heavy infections and cases of moderate ones that are
usually exposed to one or more stress factors including, rough
handling during transportation from ponds, overcrowdness,
malnutrition, high of free ammonia and low of oxygen concentration.
Clinical signs of Trichodiniasis in sampled fish were sluggish
movement, loss of appetite, black coloration, necrosis and ulcer on
different parts of the body, detached scales and excessive
accumulation of mucous in gill pouches. The most obvious
histopathological changes in diseased fish were sloughing of the
epidermal layer, aggregation of leucocytes and melanine-carrying
cells (between the dermis and hypodermis) and proliferative changes
including hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the epithelial lining cells of
gill filaments which resulted in fusion of secondary lamellae. Control
of Trichodiniasis, has been achieved by formalin bath treatment at a
concentration of 250 ppm for one hour.
Poisoning Admission in Children Hospital in Benghazi-Libya, Three Years Review of Medical Record
Estimation of the magnitude and causes of poisoning
was the objective of the current study. A retrospective study of
medical records of all poisoning children admitted to Benghazi
Children Hospital in Libya from January 2008 up to December 2010.
Number of children admitted was 244; the age ranged from less than
one to 13 years old. Most of cases were admitted with mild symptom
and the majority of them were boys. Only few cases admitted to
intensive care unit and there was no mortality recorded through the
period of study. Age group 1 to 3 years (50.8%) had the highest
frequency of admission and the peak of admission was during
summer. The most common cause of admission was due to ingestion
of medication (53.69%), House hold product exposure (26.64%) was
the second causes of admission while, 19.67% of admissions were
due to Food poisoning. Almost all admitted cases were accidental and
medicines were the most consumed substances in addition, improper
storage of toxic agents were the first risk factor of poisoning. Present
results indicated that, children poisoning seems to be a common
pediatric care problem which need to control and prevent.
Systemic Approach to Risk Measurement of Drainage Systems in Urban Areas
The work delineates the threats of maladjustment of the capacity of rain canals, designed and built in the early 20th century, in connection to heavy rainfall, especially in summer. This is the cause of the so called 'urban floods.' It directly relates to fierce raise of paving in the cities. Resolving this problem requires a change in philosophy of draining the rainfall by wider use of retention, infiltration and usage of rainwater.
In systemic approach to managing the safety of urban drainage systems the risk, which is directly connected to safety failures, has been accepted as a measure. The risk level defines the probability of occurrence of losses greater than the ones forecast for a given time frame. The procedure of risk modelling, enabling its numeric analysis by using appropriate weights, is a significant issue in this paper.
Enhancing Thermal Efficiency of Double Skin Façade Buildings in Semi-Arid Climate
There is a great deal of interest in constructing Double Skin Facade (DSF) structures which are considered as modern movement in field of Energy Conservation, renewable energies, and Architecture design. This trend provides many conclusive alternatives which are frequently associated with sustainable building. In this paper a building with Double Skin Facade is considered in the semiarid climate of Tehran, Iran, in order to consider the DSF-s performance during hot seasons. Mathematical formulations calculate solar heat gain by the external skin. Moreover, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed on the case study building to enhance effectiveness of the facade. The conclusion divulged difference of gained energy by the cavity and room with and without blind and louvers. Some solutions were introduced to surge the performance of natural ventilation by plunging the cooling loads in summer.
Evaluation of Some Chemical Parameters as Potential Determinants of Fresh Water Snails with Special Reference to Medically Important Snails in Egypt
Seasonal survey of freshwater snails in different water
courses in Egypt during two successive years included 13 snail
species. They represented by Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus
truncatus, Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis,
Planorbis pantries, Cleopatra bulimoides, Lanistes carinatus,
Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus niloticus,
Succinia cleopatra and Valvata nilotica. B. alexandrina was most
abundant during autumn and spring represented by 26and14
snails/site, respectively. B. truncatus was most abundant during
winter (7.7and3.6snails/site) of the two years, respectively. L.
natalensis was represented by 7snails/site in summer. The tolerance
of different snail species to the chemical elements was determined
seasonally and correlated to their abundance. In spring, autumn and
winter, B. alexandrina was significantly found to live under the
highest level of Pb, Cd,Cu, Na, K and Ca concentrations than the
other species (p
Increase of Heat Index over Bangladesh: Impact of Climate Change
Heat Index describes the combined effect of
temperature and humidity on human body. This combined effect is
causing a serious threat to the health of people because of the
changing climate. With climate change, climate variability and thus
the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase. Evidence is
emerging from the analysis of long-term climate records of an
increase in the frequency and duration of extreme temperature events
in all over Bangladesh particularly during summer. Summer season
has prolonged while winters have become short in Bangladesh.
Summers have become hotter and thus affecting the lives of the
people engaged in outdoor activities during scorching sun hours. In
2003 around 62 people died due to heat wave across the country. In
this paper Bangladesh is divided in four regions and heat index has
been calculated from 1960 to 2010 in these regions of the country.
The aim of this paper is to identify the spots most vulnerable to heat
strokes and heat waves due to high heat index. The results show
upward trend of heat index in almost all the regions of Bangladesh.
The highest increase in heat index value has been observed in areas
of South-west region and North-west Region. The highest change in
average heat index has been found in Jessore by almost 5.50C.
Potential of Solar Energy in Zarqa Region
The purpose of this work is to present the potential of
solar energy in Zarqa region. The solar radiation along year 2009 was
obtained from Pyranometer which measures the global radiation over
horizontal surfaces. Solar data in several different forms, over period
of 5 minutes, hour-by-hour, daily and monthly data radiation have
been presented. Briefly, the yearly global solar radiation in Zarqa is
7297.5 MJ/m2 (2027 kWh/m²) and the average annual solar radiation
per day is 20 MJ/m2 (5.5 Kwh/m2). More specifically, the average
annual solar radiation per day is 12.9 MJ/m2 (3.57 Kwh/m2) in winter
and 25 MJ/m2 (7 Kwh/m2) in summer.
Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions
The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed
roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces
during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed
and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to
adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded
by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field
studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain'
houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010.
Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to
floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested
at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months.
Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships
between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain'
house to improve the future house design for building thermal
comfort and energy efficiency
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum
aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian
wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping
populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was
conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress
experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over
summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight
and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all
varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the
maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown
maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield
and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the
recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after
stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that
lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic
variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress.
Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that
measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin
content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and
chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b
(0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content
belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased
significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to
36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield
was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease
and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought
and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were
included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut
and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately
sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a
significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were
studied under heat and water stress.
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.
Simulating Climate Change (Temperature and Soil Moisture) in a Mixed-Deciduous Forest, Ontario, Canada
To simulate expected climate change, we implemented a two-factor (temperature and soil moisture) field design in a forest in Ontario, Canada. To manipulate moisture input, we erected rain-exclusion structures. Under each structure, plots were watered with one of three treatments and thermally controlled with three heat treatments to simulate changes in air temperature and rainfall based on the climate model (GCM) predictions for the study area. Environmental conditions (including untreated controls) were monitored tracking air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation. We measured rainfall and relative humidity at the site outside the rain-exclusion structures. Analyses of environmental conditions demonstrates that the temperature manipulation was most effective at maintaining target temperature during the early part of the growing season, but it was more difficult to keep the warmest treatment at 5º C above ambient by late summer. Target moisture regimes were generally achieved however incoming solar radiation was slightly attenuated by the structures.