The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.
Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) proves to be a vital optimization process in electric power system for allocating generation amongst various units to compute the cost of generation, the cost of emission involving global warming gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide etc. In this dissertation, we emphasize ramp rate constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO) for analyzing various performance objectives, namely cost of generation, cost of emission, and a dual objective function involving both these objectives through the experimental simulated results. A 6-unit 30 bus IEEE test case system has been utilized for simulating the results involving improved weight factor advanced ramp rate limit constraints for optimizing total cost of generation and emission. This method increases the tendency of particles to venture into the solution space to ameliorate their convergence rates. Earlier works through dispersed PSO (DPSO) and constriction factor based PSO (CPSO) give rise to comparatively higher computational time and less good optimal solution at par with current dissertation. This paper deals with ramp rate and constriction factor based well defined ramp rate PSO to compute various objectives namely cost, emission and total objective etc. and compares the result with DPSO and weight improved PSO (WIPSO) techniques illustrating lesser computational time and better optimal solution.
Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.
Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.
Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3% ≤ C ≤ 95.1%, 0.0% ≤ H ≤ 14.3%, 0.0% ≤ O ≤ 71.1%, 0.0 ≤ N ≤ 66.7%, 0.0% ≤ S ≤ 42.1%, 0.0% ≤ Cl ≤ 89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.
The world crude oil demand is projected to rise to 108.5 million bbl/d by the year 2035. With reserves estimated at 869 billion tonnes worldwide, coal remains an abundant resource. The aim of this work was to produce a high value hydrocarbon liquid product using a Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) process at, relatively mild operating conditions. Via hydrogenation, the temperature-staged approach was investigated in a dual reactor lab-scale pilot plant facility. The objectives included maximising thermal dissolution of the coal in the presence of tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent in the first stage with 2:1 and 3:1 solvent: coal ratios. Subsequently, in the second stage, hydrogen saturation, in particular, hydrodesulphurization (HDS) performance was assessed. Two commercial hydrotreating catalysts were investigated viz. NickelMolybdenum (Ni-Mo) and Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo). GC-MS results identified 77 compounds and various functional groups present in the first and second stage liquid product. In the first stage 3:1 ratios and liquid product yields catalysed by magnetite were favoured. The second stage product distribution showed an increase in the BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) quality of the liquid product, branched chain alkanes and a reduction in the sulphur concentration. As an HDS performer and selectivity to the production of long and branched chain alkanes, Ni-Mo had an improved performance over Co-Mo. Co-Mo is selective to a higher concentration of cyclohexane. For 16 days on stream each, Ni-Mo had a higher activity than Co-Mo. The potential to cover the demand for low–sulphur, crude diesel and solvents from the production of high value hydrocarbon liquid in the said process, is thus demonstrated.
Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150°C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150°C to 40°C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but no too much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.
Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties 0.5wt.% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, iodine value, saponification value, etc. Structural elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the films were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope. In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability and hardness of the films as well.
This paper involved the performance of a hightemperature X-Ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) of a sample of chemical gypsum generated in the production of titanium white; this gypsum originates by neutralizing highly acidic water with limestone suspension. Specifically, it was gypsum formed in the first stage of neutralization when the resulting material contains, apart from gypsum, a number of waste products resulting from the decomposition of ilmenite by sulphuric acid. So it can be described as red titanogypsum. By conducting the experiment using XRD apparatus Bruker D8 Advance with a Cu anode (λkα=1.54184 Å) equipped with high-temperature chamber Anton Paar HTK 16, it was possible to identify clearly in the sample each phase transition in the system of CaSO4·xH2O.
Sulphur dioxide is a harmful gaseous product that needs to be minimized in the atmosphere. This research work investigates the use of zeolite as a possible additive that can improve the sulphur dioxide capture in wet flue gas desulphurisation dissolution process. This work determines the effect of temperature, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and stirring speed on the leaching of zeolite using a pH stat apparatus. The atomic absorption spectrometer was used to measure the calcium ions from the solution. It was found that the dissolution rate of zeolite decreased with increase in solid to liquid ratio and increases with increase in temperature, stirring speed and acid concentration. The activation energy for the dissolution rate of zeolite in hydrochloric acid was found to be 9.29kJ/mol. and therefore the product layer diffusion was the rate limiting step.
Concrete durability as an important engineering property of concrete, determining the service life of concrete structures very significantly, can be threatened and even lost due to the interactions of concrete with external environment. Bio-corrosion process caused by presence and activities of microorganisms producing sulphuric acid is a special type of sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The effects of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on various concrete samples, based on silica fume and zeolite, were investigated in laboratory during 180 days. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the performance of concrete samples in terms of the concrete deterioration influenced by the leaching of calcium and silicon compounds from the cement matrix. The changes in the elemental concentrations of calcium and silicon in both solid samples and liquid leachates were measured by using X – ray fluorescence method. Experimental studies confirmed the silica fume based concrete samples were found out to have the best performance in terms of both silicon and calcium ions leaching.
The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching processes with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varies from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and follows the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism were shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperatures after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide the enhancement of sludge flocks sedimentation. The process results in biomineral fertilizer of prolonged action with immobilized sludge bioelements. The fertilizer satisfies the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizer obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.
Monitoring is essential to assessing the effectiveness of air pollution control actions. The goal of the air quality information system is through monitoring, to keep authorities, major polluters and the public informed on the short and long-term changes in air quality, thereby helping to raise awareness. Mathematical models are the best tools available for the prediction of the air quality management. The main objective of the work was to apply a Model that predicts the concentration levels of different pollutants at any instant of time. In this study, distribution of air pollutants concentration such as nitrogen dioxides (NO2), sulphur dioxides (SO2) and total suspended particulates (TSP) of industries are determined by using Gaussian model. Besides that, the effect of wind speed and its direction on the pollutant concentration within the affected area were evaluated. In order to determine the efficiency and percentage of error in the modeling, validation process of data was done. Sampling of air quality was conducted in getting existing air quality around a factory and the concentrations of pollutants in a plume were inversely proportional to wind velocity. The resultant ground level concentrations were then compared to the quality standards to determine if there could be a negative impact on health. This study concludes that concentration of pollutants can be significantly predicted using Gaussian Model. The data base management is developed for the air data of Hubli-Dharwad region.
The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.
This research investigated treatment of crude carbon black produced from pyrolysis of waste tyres in order to evaluate its quality and possible industrial applications. A representative sample of crude carbon black was dry screened to determine the initial particle size distribution. This was followed by pulverizing the crude carbon black and leaching in hot concentrated sulphuric acid for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants. Analysis of the refined carbon black showed a significant improvement of the product quality compared to crude carbon black. It was discovered that refined carbon black can be further classified into multiple high value products for various industrial applications such as filler, paint pigment, activated carbon and fuel briquettes.
Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (Nox) gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Soil has a greater buffering capacity than aquatic systems. However excessive amount of acids introduced by acid rains may disturb the entire soil chemistry. Acidity and harmful action of toxic elements damage vegetation while susceptible microbial species are eliminated. In present study, the effects of simulated sulphuric acid and nitric acid rains were investigated on crop Glycine max. The effect of acid rain on change in soil fertility was detected in which pH of control sample was 6.5 and pH of 1%H2SO4 and 1%HNO3 were 3.5. Nitrogen nitrate in soil was high in 1% HNO3 treated soil & Control sample. Ammonium nitrogen in soil was low in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 treated soil. Ammonium nitrogen was medium in control and other samples. The effect of acid rain on seed germination on 3rd day of germination control sample growth was 7 cm, 0.1% HNO3 was 8cm, and 0.001% HNO3 & 0.001% H2SO4 was 6cm each. On 10th day fungal growth was observed in 1% and 0.1%H2SO4 concentrations, when all plants were dead. The effect of acid rain on crop productivity was investigated on 3rd day roots were developed in plants. On12th day Glycine max showed more growth in 0.1% HNO3, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants growth were same as compare to control plants. On 20th day development of discoloration of plant pigments were observed on acid treated plants leaves. On 38th day, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants and control plants were showing flower growth. On 42th day, acid treated Glycine max variety and control plants were showed seeds on plants. In Glycine max variety 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 treated plants were dead on 46th day and fungal growth was observed. The toxicological study was carried out on Glycine max plants exposed to 1% HNO3 cells were damaged more than 1% H2SO4. Leaf sections exposed to 0.001% HNO3 & H2SO4 showed less damaged of cells and pigmentation observed in entire slide when compare with control plant. The soil analysis was done to find microorganisms in HNO3 & H2SO4 treated Glycine max and control plants. No microorganism growth was observed in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 but control plant showed microbial growth.
According to Rostler method (ASTM D 2006), saturates content of bitumen is determined based on its reactivity to sulphuric acid. While Corbett method (ASTM D 4124) based on its polarity level. This paper presents results from the study on the effect of saturates content determined by two different fractionation methods on the rheological and aging characteristics of bitumen. The result indicated that the increment of saturates content tended to reduce all the rheological characteristics concerned. Bitumen became less elastic, less viscous, and less resistant to plastic deformation, but became more resistant to fatigue cracking. After short and long term aging process, the treatment effect coefficients of saturates decreased, saturates became thicker due to aging process. This study concludes that saturates is not really stable or reactive in aging process. Therefore, the reactivity of saturates should be considered in bitumen aging index
Sugarcane bagasses are one of the most extensively used agricultural residues. Using acid hydrolysis and fermentation, conversion of sugarcane bagasses to lactic acid was technically and economically feasible. This research was concerned with the solubility of lignin in ammonium hydroxide, acid hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. The lignin extraction results for different ammonium hydroxide concentrations showed that 10 % (v/v) NH4OH was favorable to lignin dissolution. Acid hydrolysis can be enhanced with increasing acid concentration and reaction temperature. The optimum glucose and xylose concentrations occurred at 121 ○C for 1 hour hydrolysis time in 10% sulphuric acid solution were 32 and 11 g/l, respectively. In order to investigate the significance of medium composition on lactic acid production, experiments were undertaken whereby a culture of Lactococcus lactis was grown under various glucose, peptone, yeast extract and xylose concentrations. The optimum medium was composed of 5 g/l glucose, 2.5 g/l xylose, 10 g/l peptone and 5 g/l yeast extract. Lactococcus lactis represents the most efficient for lactic acid production amongst those considered. The lactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus lactis after 72 hours gave the highest yield of 1.4 (g lactic acid per g reducing sugar).
The removal of hydrogen sulphide is required for reasons of health, odour problems, safety and corrosivity problems. The means of removing hydrogen sulphide mainly depend on its concentration and kind of medium to be purified. The paper deals with a method of hydrogen sulphide removal from the air by its catalytic oxidation to elemental sulphur with the use of Fe-EDTA complex. The possibility of obtaining fibrous filtering materials able to remove small concentrations of H2S from the air were described. The base of these materials is fibrous ion exchanger with Fe(III)- EDTA complex immobilized on their functional groups. The complex of trivalent iron converts hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur. Bivalent iron formed in the reaction is oxidized by the atmospheric oxygen, so complex of trivalent iron is continuously regenerated and the overall process can be accounted as pseudocatalytic. In the present paper properties of several fibrous catalysts based on ion exchangers with different chemical nature (weak acid,weak base and strong base) were described. It was shown that the main parameters affecting the process of catalytic oxidation are:concentration of hydrogen sulphide in the air, relative humidity of the purified air, the process time and the content of Fe-EDTA complex in the fibres. The data presented show that the filtering layers with anion exchange package are much more active in the catalytic processes of hydrogen sulphide removal than cation exchanger and inert materials. In the addition to the nature of the fibres relative air humidity is a critical factor determining efficiency of the material in the air purification from H2S. It was proved that the most promising carrier of the Fe-EDTA catalyst for hydrogen sulphide oxidation are Fiban A-6 and Fiban AK-22 fibres.
This work deals with modeling and simulation of SO2 removal in a ceramic membrane by means of FEM. A mass transfer model was developed to predict the performance of SO2 absorption in a chemical solvent. The model was based on solving conservation equations for gas component in the membrane. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of mass and momentum were used to solve the model equations. The simulations aimed to obtain the distribution of gas concentration in the absorption process. The effect of the operating parameters on the efficiency of the ceramic membrane was evaluated. The modeling findings showed that the gas phase velocity has significant effect on the removal of gas whereas the liquid phase does not affect the SO2 removal significantly. It is also indicated that the main mass transfer resistance is placed in the membrane and gas phase because of high tortuosity of the ceramic membrane.