This is report on experiment out to compare the sulphate resistance of sand mortar made with five different pozzolanic cement. The pozzolanic cement were prepared by blending powered burnt bricks from the Adamawa, Makurdi, Kano, Kaduna and Niger bricks factories with ordinary Portland cement in the ratio 1:4. Sand –pozzolanic cement mortars of mix ratio 1:6 and 1:3 with water-cement ratio of 0.65 and 0.40 respectively were used to prepare cubes and bars specimens. 150 mortar cubes of size 70mm x 70mm x 70mm and 35 mortar bars of 15mm x 15mm x 100mm dimensions were cast and cured for 28 days. The cured specimens then immersed in the solutions of K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 and water for 28 days and then tested. The compressive strengths of cubes in water increased by 34% while those in the sulphate solutions decreased. Strength decreases of the cubes, cracking and warping of bars immersed in K2SO4 were less than those in (NH4)2SO4. Specimens made with Niger and Makurdi pulverized burnt bricks experienced less effect of the sulphates and can therefore be used as pozzolan in mortar and concrete to resist sulphate.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.
Comparing other methods of waste water treatment, constructed wetlands are one of the most fascinating practices because being a natural process they are eco-friendly have low construction and maintenance cost and have considerable capability of wastewater treatment. The current research was focused mainly on comparison of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as wetland plants for domestic wastewater treatment by designing and constructing efficient pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow mesocosms. Parameters like chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, phosphates, sulphates, nitrites, nitrates, and pathogenic indicator microbes were studied continuously with successive treatments. Treatment efficiency of the system increases with passage of time and with increase in temperature. Efficiency of T. latifolia planted setups in open environment was fairly good for parameters like COD and BOD5 which was showing reduction up to 82.5% for COD and 82.6% for BOD5 while DO was increased up to 125%. Efficiency of R. muricatus vegetated setup was also good but lowers than that of T. latifolia planted showing 80.95% removal of COD and BOD5. Ranunculus muricatus was found effective in reducing bacterial count in wastewater. Both macrophytes were found promising in wastewater treatment.
Pyritisation halos are identified in weathering crusts and unconsolidated formations at five locations within large fault structure of the Urals’ eastern slope. Electron microscopy reveals the presence of inclusions and growths on pyrite faces – normally on cubic pyrite with striations, or combinations of cubes and other forms. Following neogenesis types are established: native elements and intermetallic compounds (including gold and silver), halogenides, sulphides, sulfosalts, tellurides, sulphotellurides, selenides, tungstates, sulphates, phosphates, carbon-based substances. Direct relationship is noted between amount and diversity of such mineral phases, and proximity to and scale of ore-grade mineralization. Gold and silver, both in native form and within tellurides, presence of lead (galena, native lead), native tungsten, and, possibly, molybdenite and sulfosalts can indicate gold-bearing formations. First find of native tungsten in the Urals is for the first time – in crystallised and druse-like form. Link is suggested between unusual mineralization and “reducing” hydrothermal fluids from deep-seated faults at later stages of Urals’ reactivation.