International Science Index

34
10007605
A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel
Abstract:

Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method.

Paper Detail
29
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33
10005864
Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders
Abstract:
The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method.
Paper Detail
352
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32
10005266
The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage
Authors:
Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Paper Detail
563
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31
10004954
Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod
Abstract:

The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Paper Detail
416
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30
10004702
Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II
Abstract:

A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of piping stress analysis is to provide adequate flexibility for absorbing thermal expansion, code compliance for stresses and displacement incurred in piping system. The design is said to be safe if all these are in allowable range as per code. In this study, a sample problem is considered for analysis as per power piping ASME B31.1 code and the results thus obtained are compared.

Paper Detail
1058
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29
10003728
Stress Analysis of Water Wall Tubes of a Coal-fired Boiler during Soot Blowing Operation
Abstract:

This research aimed to study the influences of a soot blowing operation and geometrical variables to the stress characteristic of water wall tubes located in soot blowing areas which caused the boilers of Mae Moh power plant to lose their generation hour. The research method is divided into 2 parts (a) measuring the strain on water wall tubes by using 3-element rosette strain gages orientation during a full capacity plant operation and in periods of soot blowing operations (b) creating a finite element model in order to calculate stresses on tubes and validating the model by using experimental data in a steady state plant operation. Then, the geometrical variables in the model were changed to study stresses on the tubes. The results revealed that the stress was not affected by the soot blowing process and the finite element model gave the results 1.24% errors from the experiment. The geometrical variables influenced the stress, with the most optimum tubes design in this research reduced the average stress from the present design 31.28%.

Paper Detail
722
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28
10003142
A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices
Abstract:
This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Snoring is the most significant feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). SDB will lead to serious problems in human health. Oral appliances are ensured in therapeutic effect and compliance, especially the MADs. This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.
Paper Detail
1143
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27
10001564
Simulation of Non-Crimp 3D Orthogonal Carbon Fabric Composite for Aerospace Applications Using Finite Element Method
Abstract:
Non-crimp 3D orthogonal fabric composite is one of the textile-based composite materials that are rapidly developing light-weight engineering materials. The present paper focuses on geometric and micromechanical modeling of non-crimp 3D orthogonal carbon fabric and composites reinforced with it for aerospace applications. In this research meso-finite element (FE) modeling employs for stress analysis in different load conditions. Since mechanical testing of expensive textile carbon composites with specific application isn't affordable, simulation composite in a virtual environment is a helpful way to investigate its mechanical properties in different conditions.
Paper Detail
1955
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26
10005394
Design Improvement of Dental Implant-Based on Bone Remodelling
Abstract:
There are many types of mechanical failure on the dental implant. In this project, the failure that needs to take into consideration is the bone resorption on the dental implant. Human bone has its ability to remodel after the implantation. As the dental implant is installed into the bone, the bone will detect and change the bone structure to achieve new biomechanical environment. This phenomenon is known as bone remodeling. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of dental implant by using different types of design. These designs are used to analyze and predict the failure of the dental implant by using finite element analysis (FEA) namely ANSYS. The bone is assumed to be fully attached to the implant or cement. Hence, results are then compared with other researchers. The results were presented in the form of Von Mises stress, normal stress, shear stress analysis, and displacement. The selected design will be analyzed further based on a theoretical calculation of bone remodeling on the dental implant. The results have shown that the design constructed passed the failure analysis. Therefore, the selected design is proven to have a stable performance at the recovery stage.
Paper Detail
235
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25
10000836
Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines
Abstract:

The turbocharger and turbocharging have been the inherent component of diesel engines, so that critical parameters of such engines, as BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) or thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure), the power density output and emission level have been improved extensively. In general, the turbocharger can be considered as the most complex component of diesel engines, because it has closely interrelated turbomachinery concepts of the turbines and the compressors to thermodynamic fundamentals of internal combustion engines and stress analysis of all components. In this paper, a waste gate for a conventional single stage radial turbine is investigated by consideration of turbochargers operation constrains and engine operation conditions, without any detail designs in the turbine and the compressor. Amount of opening waste gate which extended between the ranges of full opened and closed valve, is demonstrated by limiting compressor boost pressure ratio. Obtaining of an optimum point by regard above mentioned items is surveyed by three linked meanline modeling programs together which consist of Turbomatch®, Compal®, Rital® madules in concepts NREC® respectively.

Paper Detail
1681
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24
9999809
Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Heads with Different Sizes under the Destruction Tests
Abstract:

The global solved problem is the calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalised ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). A special destruction device for heads destruction was designed and the solved local problem is the modification of this destructive device based on the analysis of tensile stress in the head for two different values of the depth of the conical hole in the head. The goal of device modification is a shift of the location with extreme value of σ1max from the region of head’s hole bottom to its opening. This modification will increase the credibility of the obtained material properties of bioceramics, which will be determined from a set of head destructions using the Weibull weakest link theory.

Paper Detail
1117
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23
9998025
Substructure Method for Thermal-Stress Analysis of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber
Abstract:

This article is devoted to an important problem of calculation of deflected mode of the combustion chamber and the nozzle end of a new liquid-propellant rocket cruise engine. A special attention is given to the methodology of calculation. Three operating modes are considered. The analysis has been conducted in ANSYS software. The methods of conducted research are mathematical modeling, substructure method, cyclic symmetry, finite element method. The calculation has been carried out to order of S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia». The main results are practical. Proposed methodology and created models would be able to use for a wide range of strength problems.

Paper Detail
1904
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22
9997657
Effect of Carbon Nanotube Reinforcement in Polymer Composite Plates under Static Loading
Abstract:

In the implementation of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer matrix Composites in structural applications, deflection and stress analysis are important considerations. In the present study, a multi scale analysis of deflection and stress analysis of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite plates is presented. A micromechanics model based on the Mori-Tanaka method is developed by introducing straight CNTs aligned in one direction. The effect of volume fraction and diameter of CNTs on plate deflection and the stresses are investigated using classical laminate plate theory (CLPT). The study is primarily conducted with the intention of observing the suitability of CNT reinforced polymer composite plates under static loading for structural applications.

Paper Detail
1589
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21
9997307
Stress Analysis of Laminated Cylinders Subject to the Thermomechanical Loads
Abstract:

In this study, thermo elastic stress analysis is  performed on a cylinder made of laminated isotropic materials under  thermomechanical loads. Laminated cylinders have many  applications such as aerospace, automotive and nuclear plant in the  industry. These cylinders generally performed under  thermomechanical loads. Stress and displacement distribution of the  laminated cylinders are determined using by analytical method both  thermal and mechanical loads. Based on the results, materials  combination plays an important role on the stresses distribution along  the radius. Variation of the stresses and displacements along the  radius are presented as graphs. Calculations program are prepared  using MATLAB® by authors.

 

Paper Detail
2559
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20
9997363
Thermal Elastic Stress Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composites
Abstract:

Athermal elastic stress analysis of steel fiber reinforced aluminum laminated composite plate is investigated. Four sides of the composite plate are clamped and subjected to a uniform temperature load. The analysis is performed both analytically and numerically. Laminated composite is manufactured via hot pressing method. The investigation of the effects of the orientation angle is provided. Different orientation angles are used such as [0°/90°]s, [30°/-30°]s, [45°/-45°]s, and [60/-60]s. The analytical solution is obtained via classical laminated composite theory and the numerical solution is obtained by applying finite element method via ANSYS.

Paper Detail
2044
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19
9997403
Elastic Stress Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam Loaded Uniformly
Abstract:

In this investigation an elastic stress analysis is carried out a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beam loaded uniformly at the upper surface. The composite beam material consists of low density polyethylene as a thermoplastic (LDFE, f.2.12) and woven steel fibers. Granules of the polyethylene are put into the moulds and they are heated up to 160°C by using electrical resistance. Subsequently, the material is held for 5min under 2.5 MPa at this temperature. The temperature is decreased to 30°C under 15 MPa pressure in 3min. Closed form solution is found satisfying both the governing differential equation and boundary conditions. We investigated orientation angle effect on stress distribution of composite cantilever beams. The results show that orientation angle play an important role in determining the responses of a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beams and an optimal design of these structures.

Paper Detail
2869
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18
9997408
Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads
Abstract:

The closed form study deals with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and thermomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness of profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.

Paper Detail
1624
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17
2441
Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material
Abstract:

The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.

Paper Detail
2348
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16
4236
Design of Composite Risers for Minimum Weight
Abstract:

The use of composite materials in offshore engineering for deep sea oil production riser systems has drawn considerable interest due to the potential weight savings and improvement in durability. The design of composite risers consists of two stages: (1) local design based on critical local load cases, and (2) global analysis of the full length composite riser under global loads and assessment of critical locations. In the first stage, eight different material combinations were selected and their laminate configurations optimised under local load considerations. Stage two includes a final local stress analysis of the critical sections of the riser under the combined loads determined in the global analysis. This paper describes two design methodologies of the composite riser to provide minimum structural weight and shows that the use of off angle fibre orientations in addition to axial and hoop reinforcements offer substantial weight savings and ensure the structural capacity.

Paper Detail
1522
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15
5121
Advantages of Composite Materials in Aircraft Structures
Abstract:
In the competitive environment of aircraft industries it becomes absolutely necessary to improve the efficiency, performance of the aircrafts to reduce the development and operating costs considerably, in order to capitalize the market. An important contribution to improve the efficiency and performance can be achieved by decreasing the aircraft weight through considerable usage of composite materials in primary aircraft structures. In this study, a type of composite material called Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is explored for the usage is aircraft skin panels. Even though there were plenty of studies and research has been already carried out, here a practical example of an aircraft skin panel is taken and substantiated the benefits of composites material usage over the metallic skin panel. A crown skin panel of a commercial aircraft is designed using both metal and composite materials. Stress analysis has been carried out for both and margin of safety is estimated for the critical load cases. The skin panels are compared for manufacturing, tooling, assembly and cost parameters. Detail step by step comparison between metal and composite constructions are studied and results are tabulated for better understanding.
Paper Detail
6185
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14
849
Analysis and Flight Test for Small Inflatable Wing Design
Abstract:

This article discusses stress analysis and the shape characteristics of the inflatable wing, and then introduces the design method of inflatable wing, in order to accurately approximate a standard airfoil. It specifically analyses the aerodynamic characteristics of the inflatable wing with the method of CFD, along with comparing to standard airfoil, afterwards we carries out the manufacture of inflatable wing and the flight test.

Paper Detail
1531
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13
7175
Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Composite Shell under Transverse end Load
Abstract:

Grid composite structures have many applications in aerospace industry in which deal with transverse loadings abundantly. In present paper a stiffened composite cylindrical shell with clamped-free boundary condition under transverse end load experimentally and numerically was studied. Some electrical strain gauges were employed to measure the strains. Also a finite element analysis was done for validation of experimental result. The FEM software used was ANSYS11. In addition, the results between stiffened composite shell and unstiffened composite shell were compared. It was observed that intersection of two stiffeners has an important effect in decrease of stress in the shell. Fairly good agreements were observed between the numerical and the measured results. According to recent studies about grid composite structures, it should be noted that any investigation like this research has not been reported.

Paper Detail
1350
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12
9215
Optimization of New 25A-size Metal Gasket Design Based on Contact Width Considering Forming and Contact Stress Effect
Abstract:
At the previous study of new metal gasket, contact width and contact stress were important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. However, the range of contact stress had not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we conducted a gasket design optimization based on an elastic and plastic contact stress analysis considering forming effect using FEM. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. Final evaluation was determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of both type of gaskets. The helium leak test shows that a gasket based on the plastic contact stress design better than based on elastic stress design.
Paper Detail
1130
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11
14510
Fatigue Life of an Anti-Roll Bar of a Passenger Vehicle
Abstract:
In the present paper, Fatigue life assessment of an anti-roll bar component of a passenger vehicle, is investigated by ANSYS 11 software. A stress analysis is also carried out by the finite element technique for the determination of highly stressed regions on the bar. Anti-roll bar is a suspension element used at the front, rear, or at both ends of a car that reduces body roll by resisting any unequal vertical motion between the pair of wheels to which it is connected. As a first stage, fatigue damage models proposed by some well-known references and the corresponding assumptions are discussed and some enhancements are proposed. Then, fracture analysis of an anti-roll bar of an automobile is carried out. The analysed type of the anti-roll bar is especially important as many cases are reported about the fracture after a 100,000 km of travel fatigue and fracture conditions. This paper demonstrates fatigue life of an anti-roll bar and then evaluated by experimental analytically results from other researcher.
Paper Detail
2362
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10
1045
Stress Analysis of Non-persistent Rock Joints under Biaxial Loading
Abstract:

Two-dimensional finite element model was created in this work to investigate the stresses distribution within rock-like samples with offset open non-persistent joints under biaxial loading. The results of this study have explained the fracture mechanisms observed in tests on rock-like material with open non-persistent offset joints [1]. Finite element code SAP2000 was used to study the stresses distribution within the specimens. Four-nodded isoperimetric plain strain element with two degree of freedom per node, and the three-nodded constant strain triangular element with two degree of freedom per node were used in the present study.The results of the present study explained the formation of wing cracks at the tip of the joints for low confining stress as well as the formation of wing cracks at the middle of the joint for the higher confining stress. High shear stresses found in the numerical study at the tip of the joints explained the formation of secondary cracks at the tip of the joints in the experimental study. The study results coincide with the experimental observations which showed that for bridge inclination of 0o, the coalescence occurred due to shear failure and for bridge inclination of 90o the coalescence occurred due to tensile failure while for the other bridge inclinations coalescence occurred due to mixed tensile and shear failure.

Paper Detail
1353
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9
6092
Comprehensive Studies on Mechanical Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates
Abstract:
Stress analysis of functionally graded composite plates composed of ceramic, functionally graded material and metal layers is investigated using 3-D finite element method. In FGM layer, material properties are assumed to be varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The 3-D finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the variation of material properties in the thickness direction. Numerical results are compared for three types of materials. In the analysis, the tensile and the compressive stresses are summarized for various FGM thickness ratios, volume fraction distributions, geometric parameters and mechanical loads.
Paper Detail
1010
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8
5993
Design of Gravity Dam by Genetic Algorithms
Abstract:
The design of a gravity dam is performed through an interactive process involving a preliminary layout of the structure followed by a stability and stress analysis. This study presents a method to define the optimal top width of gravity dam with genetic algorithm. To solve the optimization task (minimize the cost of the dam), an optimization routine based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was implemented into an Excel spreadsheet. It was found to perform well and GA parameters were optimized in a parametric study. Using the parameters found in the parametric study, the top width of gravity dam optimization was performed and compared to a gradient-based optimization method (classic method). The accuracy of the results was within close proximity. In optimum dam cross section, the ratio of is dam base to dam height is almost equal to 0.85, and ratio of dam top width to dam height is almost equal to 0.13. The computerized methodology may provide the help for computation of the optimal top width for a wide range of height of a gravity dam.
Paper Detail
2881
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7
4157
Modal Propagation Properties of Elliptical Core Optical Fibers Considering Stress-Optic Effects
Abstract:
The effect of thermally induced stress on the modal properties of highly elliptical core optical fibers is studied in this work using a finite element method. The stress analysis is carried out and anisotropic refractive index change is calculated using both the conventional plane strain approximation and the generalized plane strain approach. After considering the stress optical effect, the modal analysis of the fiber is performed to obtain the solutions of fundamental and higher order modes. The modal effective index, modal birefringence, group effective index, group birefringence, and dispersion of different modes of the fiber are presented. For propagation properties, it can be seen that the results depend much on the approach of stress analysis.
Paper Detail
1430
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6
13615
Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair
Abstract:
Contact stress analysis between two spur gear teeth was considered in different contact positions, representing a pair of mating gears during rotation. A programme has been developed to plot a pair of teeth in contact. This programme was run for each 3° of pinion rotation from the first location of contact to the last location of contact to produce 10 cases. Each case was represented a sequence position of contact between these two teeth. The programme gives graphic results for the profiles of these teeth in each position and location of contact during rotation. Finite element models were made for these cases and stress analysis was done. The results were presented and finite element analysis results were compared with theoretical calculations, wherever available.
Paper Detail
8234
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5
3971
Transient Stress Analysis on Medium Modules Spur Gear by Using Mode Super Position Technique
Abstract:
Natural frequencies and dynamic response of a spur gear sector are investigated using a two dimensional finite element model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear teeth are analyzed for different operating speeds. A primary feature of this modeling is determination of mesh forces using a detailed contact analysis for each time step as the gears roll through the mesh. ANSYS software has been used on the proposed model to find the natural frequencies by Block Lanczos technique and displacements and dynamic stresses by transient mode super position method. The effect of rotational speed of the gear on the dynamic response of gear tooth has been studied and design limits have been discussed.
Paper Detail
1970
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