International Science Index

22
10008924
Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking
Abstract:

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Paper Detail
46
downloads
21
10008718
Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.

Paper Detail
71
downloads
20
10006722
Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison
Abstract:
Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.
Paper Detail
302
downloads
19
9997401
Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based On Extended Database
Abstract:

This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Paper Detail
1322
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18
4033
Robust Minutiae Watermarking in Wavelet Domain for Fingerprint Security
Abstract:
In this manuscript, a wavelet-based blind watermarking scheme has been proposed as a means to provide security to authenticity of a fingerprint. The information used for identification or verification of a fingerprint mainly lies in its minutiae. By robust watermarking of the minutiae in the fingerprint image itself, the useful information can be extracted accurately even if the fingerprint is severely degraded. The minutiae are converted in a binary watermark and embedding these watermarks in the detail regions increases the robustness of watermarking, at little to no additional impact on image quality. It has been experimentally shown that when the minutiae is embedded into wavelet detail coefficients of a fingerprint image in spread spectrum fashion using a pseudorandom sequence, the robustness is observed to have a proportional response while perceptual invisibility has an inversely proportional response to amplification factor “K". The DWT-based technique has been found to be very robust against noises, geometrical distortions filtering and JPEG compression attacks and is also found to give remarkably better performance than DCT-based technique in terms of correlation coefficient and number of erroneous minutiae.
Paper Detail
1356
downloads
17
3175
Comparison of different Channel Modeling Techniques used in the BPLC Systems
Abstract:
The paper compares different channel models used for modeling Broadband Power-Line Communication (BPLC) system. The models compared are Zimmermann and Dostert, Philipps, Anatory et al and Anatory et al generalized Transmission Line (TL) model. The validity of each model was compared in time domain with ATP-EMTP software which uses transmission line approach. It is found that for a power-line network with minimum number of branches all the models give similar signal/pulse time responses compared with ATP-EMTP software; however, Zimmermann and Dostert model indicates the same amplitude but different time delay. It is observed that when the numbers of branches are increased only generalized TL theory approach results are comparable with ATPEMTP results. Also the Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS) system was applied to check the implication of such behavior on the modulation schemes. It is observed that using Philipps on the underground cable can predict the performance up to 25dB better than other channel models which can misread the actual performance of the system. Also modified Zimmermann and Dostert under multipath can predict a better performance of about 5dB better than the actual predicted by Generalized TL theory. It is therefore suggested for a realistic BPLC system design and analyses the model based on generalized TL theory be used.
Paper Detail
1197
downloads
16
2963
Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems
Abstract:

In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.

Paper Detail
1235
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15
12260
Performance Analysis of MC-SS for the Indoor BPLC Systems
Abstract:
power-line networks are promise infrastructure for broadband services provision to end users. However, the network performance is affected by stochastic channel changing which is due to load impedances, number of branches and branched line lengths. It has been proposed that multi-carrier modulations techniques such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS), wavelet OFDM can be used in such environment. This paper investigates the performance of different indoor topologies of power-line networks that uses MC-SS modulation scheme.It is observed that when a branch is added in the link between sending and receiving end of an indoor channel an average of 2.5dB power loss is found. In additional, when the branch is added at a node an average of 1dB power loss is found. Additionally when the terminal impedances of the branch change from line characteristic impedance to impedance either higher or lower values the channel performances were tremendously improved. For example changing terminal load from characteristic impedance (85 .) to 5 . the signal to noise ratio (SNR) required to attain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 24dB respectively. Also, changing the terminal load from channel characteristic impedance (85 .) to very higher impedance (1600 .) the SNR required to maintain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 23dB. The result concludes that MC-SS performs better compared with OFDM techniques in all aspects and especially when the channel is terminated in either higher or lower impedances.
Paper Detail
1033
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14
6024
Optimum Radio Capacity Estimation of a Single-Cell Spread Spectrum MIMO System under Rayleigh Fading Conditions
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, the problem of estimating the optimal radio capacity of a single-cell spread spectrum (SS) multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is examined. The optimisation between the radio capacity and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity (in the sense of information theory) per user of a MIMO single-cell SS system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. Then, the spectral efficiency is estimated in terms of the achievable average channel capacity per user, during the operation over a broadcast time-varying link, and leads to a simple novel-closed form expression for the optimal radio capacity value based on the maximization of the achieved spectral efficiency. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.
Paper Detail
725
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13
12792
The Performance Analysis of CSS-based Communication Systems in the Jamming Environment
Abstract:
Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical SER closely agrees with the analytic result.
Paper Detail
791
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12
12055
Bit-Error-Rate Performance Analysis of an Overlap-based CSS System
Abstract:
In a chirp spread spectrum (CSS) system, the overlap technique is used for increasing bit rate. More overlaps can offer higher data throughput; however, they may cause more intersymbol interference (ISI) at the same time, resulting in serious bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. In this paper, we perform the BER analysis and derive a closed form BER expression for the overlap-based CSS system. The derived BER expression includes the number of overlaps as a parameter, and thus, would be very useful in determining the number of overlaps for a specified BER. The numerical results demonstrate that the BER derived in a closed form closely agrees with the simulated BER.
Keywords:
Paper Detail
1119
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11
3130
Interest of the Sequences Pseudo Noises Codes of Different Lengths for the Reduction from the Interference between Users of CDMA Network
Abstract:
The third generation (3G) of cellular system adopted the spread spectrum as solution for the transmission of the data in the physical layer. Contrary to systems IS-95 or CDMAOne (systems with spread spectrum of the preceding generation), the new standard, called Universal Mobil Telecommunications System (UMTS), uses long codes in the down link. The system is conceived for the vocal communication and the transmission of the data. In particular, the down link is very important, because of the asymmetrical request of the data, i.e., more remote loading towards the mobiles than towards the basic station. Moreover, the UMTS uses for the down link an orthogonal spreading out with a variable factor of spreading out (OVSF for Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor). This characteristic makes it possible to increase the flow of data of one or more users by reducing their factor of spreading out without changing the factor of spreading out of other users. In the current standard of the UMTS, two techniques to increase the performances of the down link were proposed, the diversity of sending antenna and the codes space-time. These two techniques fight only fainding. The receiver proposed for the mobil station is the RAKE, but one can imagine a receiver more sophisticated, able to reduce the interference between users and the impact of the coloured noise and interferences to narrow band. In this context, where the users have long codes synchronized with variable factor of spreading out and ignorance by the mobile of the other active codes/users, the use of the sequences of code pseudo-noises different lengths is presented in the form of one of the most appropriate solutions.
Paper Detail
810
downloads
10
8950
A Web Oriented Spread Spectrum Watermarking Procedure for MPEG-2 Videos
Abstract:
In the last decade digital watermarking procedures have become increasingly applied to implement the copyright protection of multimedia digital contents distributed on the Internet. To this end, it is worth noting that a lot of watermarking procedures for images and videos proposed in literature are based on spread spectrum techniques. However, some scepticism about the robustness and security of such watermarking procedures has arisen because of some documented attacks which claim to render the inserted watermarks undetectable. On the other hand, web content providers wish to exploit watermarking procedures characterized by flexible and efficient implementations and which can be easily integrated in their existing web services frameworks or platforms. This paper presents how a simple spread spectrum watermarking procedure for MPEG-2 videos can be modified to be exploited in web contexts. To this end, the proposed procedure has been made secure and robust against some well-known and dangerous attacks. Furthermore, its basic scheme has been optimized by making the insertion procedure adaptive with respect to the terminals used to open the videos and the network transactions carried out to deliver them to buyers. Finally, two different implementations of the procedure have been developed: the former is a high performance parallel implementation, whereas the latter is a portable Java and XML based implementation. Thus, the paper demonstrates that a simple spread spectrum watermarking procedure, with limited and appropriate modifications to the embedding scheme, can still represent a valid alternative to many other well-known and more recent watermarking procedures proposed in literature.
Paper Detail
1017
downloads
9
9495
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Technique with Residue Number System
Abstract:
In this paper, a residue number arithmetic is used in direct sequence spread spectrum system, this system is evaluated and the bit error probability of this system is compared to that of non residue number system. The effect of channel bandwidth, PN sequences, multipath effect and modulation scheme are studied. A Matlab program is developed to measure the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the bit error probability for the various schemes.
Paper Detail
2695
downloads
8
8190
Increased Capacity of Information Hiding in LSB-s Method for Text and Image
Abstract:
Steganography, derived from Greek, literally means “covered writing". It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message-s very existence. These methods include invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, covert channels, and spread spectrum communications. This paper proposes a new improved version of Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. The approach proposed is simple for implementation when compared to Pixel value Differencing (PVD) method and yet achieves a High embedding capacity and imperceptibility. The proposed method can also be applied to 24 bit color images and achieve embedding capacity much higher than PVD.
Paper Detail
2406
downloads
7
15143
Design and Performance of Adaptive Polarized MIMO MC-SS-CDMA System for Downlink Mobile Communications
Abstract:
In this paper, an adaptive polarized Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Multicarrier Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (MC-SS-CDMA) system is designed for downlink mobile communications. The proposed system will be examined in Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode for both macro urban and suburban environments. For the same transmission bandwidth, a performance comparison between both nonoverlapped and orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) schemes will be presented. Also, the proposed system will be compared with both the closed loop vertical MIMO MC-SS-CDMA system and the synchronous vertical STBC-MIMO MC-SS-CDMA system. As will be shown, the proposed system introduces a significant performance gain as well as reducing the spatial dimensions of the MIMO system and simplifying the receiver implementation. The effect of the polarization diversity characteristics on the BER performance will be discussed. Also, the impact of excluding the cross-polarization MCSS- CDMA blocks in the base station will be investigated. In addition, the system performance will be evaluated under different Feedback Information (FBI) rates for slowly-varying channels. Finally, a performance comparison for vehicular and pedestrian environments will be presented
Paper Detail
1092
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6
9099
Implementing an Adaptive Behavior for Spread Spectrum Watermarking Procedures
Abstract:
The advances in multimedia and networking technologies have created opportunities for Internet pirates, who can easily copy multimedia contents and illegally distribute them on the Internet, thus violating the legal rights of content owners. This paper describes how a simple and well-known watermarking procedure based on a spread spectrum method and a watermark recovery by correlation can be improved to effectively and adaptively protect MPEG-2 videos distributed on the Internet. In fact, the procedure, in its simplest form, is vulnerable to a variety of attacks. However, its security and robustness have been increased, and its behavior has been made adaptive with respect to the video terminals used to open the videos and the network transactions carried out to deliver them to buyers. In fact, such an adaptive behavior enables the proposed procedure to efficiently embed watermarks, and this characteristic makes the procedure well suited to be exploited in web contexts, where watermarks usually generated from fingerprinting codes have to be inserted into the distributed videos “on the fly", i.e. during the purchase web transactions.
Paper Detail
894
downloads
5
15117
Spread Spectrum Code Estimation by Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
In the context of spectrum surveillance, a method to recover the code of spread spectrum signal is presented, whereas the receiver has no knowledge of the transmitter-s spreading sequence. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm (GA), which is forced to model the received signal. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are well known for their robustness in solving complex optimization problems. Experimental results show that the method provides a good estimation, even when the signal power is below the noise power.
Paper Detail
995
downloads
4
15454
Cellular Automata Based Robust Watermarking Architecture towards the VLSI Realization
Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel blind watermarking architecture towards its hardware implementation in VLSI. In order to facilitate this hardware realization, cellular automata (CA) concept is introduced. The CA has been already accepted as an attractive structure for VLSI implementation because of its modularity, parallelism, high performance and reliability. The hardware realizable multiresolution spread spectrum watermarking techniques are very few in numbers in spite of their best ever resiliency against signal impairments. This is because of the computational cost and complexity associated with their different filter banks and lifting techniques. The concept of cellular automata theory in order to form a new transform domain technique i.e. Cellular Automata Transform (CAT) have been incorporated. Since CA provides spreading sequences having very low cross-correlation properties, the CA based pseudorandom sequence generator is considered in the present work. Considering the watermarking technique as a digital communication process, an error control coding (ECC) must be incorporated in the data hiding schemes. Besides the hardware implementation of entire CA based data hiding technique, the individual blocks of the algorithm using CA provide the best result than that of some other methods irrespective of the hardware and software technique. The Cellular Automata Transform, CA based PN sequence generator, and CA ECC are the requisite blocks that are developed not only to meet the reliable hardware requirements but also for the basic spread spectrum watermarking features. The proposed algorithm shows statistical invisibility and resiliency against various common signal-processing operations. This algorithmic design utilizes the existing allocated bandwidth in the data transmission channel in a more efficient manner.

Paper Detail
1535
downloads
3
2896
Watermark-based Counter for Restricting Digital Audio Consumption
Abstract:

In this paper we introduce three watermarking methods that can be used to count the number of times that a user has played some content. The proposed methods are tested with audio content in our experimental system using the most common signal processing attacks. The test results show that the watermarking methods used enable the watermark to be extracted under the most common attacks with a low bit error rate.

Paper Detail
973
downloads
2
12337
Spread Spectrum Code Estimationby Particle Swarm Algorithm
Abstract:
In the context of spectrum surveillance, a new method to recover the code of spread spectrum signal is presented, while the receiver has no knowledge of the transmitter-s spreading sequence. In our previous paper, we used Genetic algorithm (GA), to recover spreading code. Although genetic algorithms (GAs) are well known for their robustness in solving complex optimization problems, but nonetheless, by increasing the length of the code, we will often lead to an unacceptable slow convergence speed. To solve this problem we introduce Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) into code estimation in spread spectrum communication system. In searching process for code estimation, the PSO algorithm has the merits of rapid convergence to the global optimum, without being trapped in local suboptimum, and good robustness to noise. In this paper we describe how to implement PSO as a component of a searching algorithm in code estimation. Swarm intelligence boasts a number of advantages due to the use of mobile agents. Some of them are: Scalability, Fault tolerance, Adaptation, Speed, Modularity, Autonomy, and Parallelism. These properties make swarm intelligence very attractive for spread spectrum code estimation. They also make swarm intelligence suitable for a variety of other kinds of channels. Our results compare between swarm-based algorithms and Genetic algorithms, and also show PSO algorithm performance in code estimation process.
Paper Detail
1583
downloads
1
1840
Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking for Secured Multimedia Data Communication
Abstract:

Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been proposed for multimedia signals but very few works have discussed on the issues responsible for secure data communication and its robustness improvement. The current paper has critically analyzed few such factors namely properties of spreading codes, proper signal decomposition suitable for data embedding, security provided by the key, successive bit cancellation method applied at decoder which have greater impact on the detection reliability, secure communication of significant signal under camouflage of insignificant signals etc. Based on the analysis, robust SS watermarking scheme for secure data communication is proposed in wavelet domain and improvement in secure communication and robustness performance is reported through experimental results. The reported result also shows improvement in visual and statistical invisibility of the hidden data.

Paper Detail
2056
downloads