International Science Index
An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.
Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices
The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.
Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs
A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.
Characterization of Organic Matter in Spodosol Amazonian by Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in maintaining soil productivity and accounting for the promotion of biological diversity. The main components of the SOM are the humic substances which can be fractionated according to its solubility in humic acid (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (HU). The determination of the chemical properties of organic matter as well as its interaction with metallic species is an important tool for understanding the structure of the humic fractions. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied as a source of information about what is happening at the molecular level in these compounds. Specially, soils of Amazon region are an important ecosystem of the planet. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular and structural composition of HA samples from Spodosol of Amazonia using the fluorescence Emission-Excitation Matrix (EEM) and Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRFS). The results showed that the samples of HA showed two fluorescent components; one has a more complex structure and the other one has a simpler structure, which was also seen in TRFS through the evaluation of each sample lifetime. Thus, studies of this nature become important because it aims to evaluate the molecular and structural characteristics of the humic fractions in the region that is considered as one of the most important regions in the world, the Amazon.
Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage
Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturation. Results have shown that temperature significantly (P < 0.05) affects the pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), protein total soluble solids, fat and lactose contents. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), and a lower turbidity and solubility index (SI) were observed in whey powder processed at 160 °C compared to whey powder processed at 180 °C. During storage of 180 days, slow but progressive changes were noticed on the physicochemical and functional properties of whey powder. Reverse phase-HPLC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of temperature on whey protein contents. Denaturation of β-Lactoglobulin is followed by α-lacalbumin, casein glycomacropeptide (CMP/GMP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA).
In vivo Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles
Nowadays, nanoparticles are being used in pharmacological studies for their exclusive properties such as small size, more surface area, biocompatibility and enhanced solubility. In view of this, the present study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (BSSNPs) and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract. The SEM and SEM analysis divulges that the BSSNPs were spherical in shape. EDAX spectrum exhibits peaks for the presence of silver, carbon, and oxygen atoms in the range of 1.0-3.1 keV. FT-IR reveals the binding properties of active bio-constituents responsible for capping and stabilizing BSSNPs. The results showed increased blood glucose, huge loss in body weight and downturn in plasma insulin. The GS extract (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg), BSSNPs (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg) and metformin 50 mg/kg were administered to the diabetic rats. BSSNPs at a dose level of 200 mg/kg (b.wt.p.o.) showed significant inhibition of (p<0.001) blood glucose levels as compared with GS extract treated group. The results obtained from study indicate that the BSSNP shows potent anti-diabetic activity.
Performance Study of Neodymium Extraction by Carbon Nanotubes Assisted Emulsion Liquid Membrane Using Response Surface Methodology
The high purity rare earth elements (REEs) have been vastly used in the field of chemical engineering, metallurgy, nuclear energy, optical, magnetic, luminescence and laser materials, superconductors, ceramics, alloys, catalysts, and etc. Neodymium is one of the most abundant rare earths. By development of a neodymium–iron–boron (Nd–Fe–B) permanent magnet, the importance of neodymium has dramatically increased. Solvent extraction processes have many operational limitations such as large inventory of extractants, loss of solvent due to the organic solubility in aqueous solutions, volatilization of diluents, etc. One of the promising methods of liquid membrane processes is emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) which offers an alternative method to the solvent extraction processes. In this work, a study on Nd extraction through multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) assisted ELM using response surface methodology (RSM) has been performed. The ELM composed of diisooctylphosphinic acid (CYANEX 272) as carrier, MWCNTs as nanoparticles, Span-85 (sorbitan triooleate) as surfactant, kerosene as organic diluent and nitric acid as internal phase. The effects of important operating variables namely, surfactant concentration, MWCNTs concentration, and treatment ratio were investigated. Results were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) and a regression model for extraction percentage was developed. The 3D response surfaces of Nd(III) extraction efficiency were achieved and significance of three important variables and their interactions on the Nd extraction efficiency were found out. Results indicated that introducing the MWCNTs to the ELM process led to increasing the Nd extraction due to higher stability of membrane and mass transfer enhancement. MWCNTs concentration of 407 ppm, Span-85 concentration of 2.1 (%v/v) and treatment ratio of 10 were achieved as the optimum conditions. At the optimum condition, the extraction of Nd(III) reached the maximum of 99.03%.
Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice
Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the effects of rice flour concentration and retrogradation treatment on the physical properties of instant Sinlek brown rice. The native rice flour, gelatinized rice flour, and flour gels retrograded under 4 °C for 3 and 7 days were investigated. From the statistical results, significant differences between native and retrograded flour were observed. The concentration of rice flour was the main factor influencing the swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties. With the increase in rice flour content from 10 to 15%, swelling power, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased; but, solubility, pasting temperature, peak time, breakdown, and setback increased. The peak time, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, trough, and final viscosity decreased as the storage period increased from 3 to 7 days. The retrograded rice flour powders had lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity than the gelatinized and native flour powders. Reduction of starch viscosity by gelatinization and controlling starch retrogradation could allow for increased quantities of rice flour in instant rice beverages. Also, the treatment could increase the energy and nutrient densities of rice beverages without affecting the viscosity of this product.
Solid Dispersions of Cefixime Using β-Cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro Evaluation
Cefixime, a BCS class II drug, is insoluble in water but freely soluble in acetone and in alcohol. The aqueous solubility of cefixime in water is poor and exhibits exceptionally slow and intrinsic dissolution rate. In the present study, cefixime and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersions were prepared with a view to study the effect and influence of β-CD on the solubility and dissolution rate of this poorly aqueous soluble drug. Phase solubility profile revealed that the solubility of cefixime was increased in the presence of β-CD and was classified as AL-type. Effect of variable, such as drug:carrier ratio, was studied. Physical characterization of the solid dispersion was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These studies revealed that a distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the solid molecular dispersions is ostensibly accounting for enhancement of dissolution rate in distilled water. The drug release from the prepared solid dispersion exhibited a first order kinetics. Solid dispersions of cefixime showed a 6.77 times fold increase in dissolution rate over the pure drug.
Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation
Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.
Effect of Surface-Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Particles on Their Electrical Conductivity
The present work reports an effect of surface- modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with chemicals on their electronic conductivity properties. Examined chemicals were polyvinyl alcohol (nonionic polymer), poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (cationic polymer), poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (anionic polymer), (2-aminopropyl) trimethoxy silane (APMS) (silane coupling agent with amino group), and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane (MPS) (silane coupling agent with thiol group). For all the examined chemicals, volume resistivities of surface-modified ITO particles did not increase much when they were aged in air at 80 oC, compared to a volume resistivity of un-surface-modified ITO particles. Increases in volume resistivities of ITO particles surface-modified with the silane coupling agents were smaller than those with the polymers, since hydrolysis of the silane coupling agents and condensation of generated silanol and OH groups on ITO particles took place to provide efficient immobilization of them on particles. The APMS gave an increase in volume resistivity smaller than the MPS, since a larger solubility in water of APMS providing a larger amount of APMS immobilized on particles.
Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound to Modify Millet Protein Concentrate Functionality
Millets as a new source of plant protein were not used in food applications due to its poor functional properties. In this study, the effect of high intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, with contentious flow) (US) in 100% amplitude for varying times (5, 12.5, and 20 min) on solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability (ES), foaming capacity (FC), and foaming stability (FS) of millet protein concentrate (MPC) were evaluated. In addition, the structural properties of best treatments such as molecular weight and surface charge were compared with the control sample to prove the US effect. The US treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of the native MPC (65.8±0.6%) at all sonicated times with the maximum solubility that is recorded at 12.5 min treatment (96.9±0.82 %). The FC of MPC was also significantly affected by the US treatment. Increase in sonicated time up to 12.5 min significantly increased the FC of native MPC (271.03±4.51 ml), but higher increase reduced it significantly. Minimal improvements were observed in the FS of all sonicated MPC compared to the native MPC. Sonicated time for 12.5 min affected the EAI and ES of the native MPC more markedly than 5 and 20 min that may be attributed to higher increase in proteins tendency to adsorption at the oil and water interfaces after the US treatment at this time. SDS-PAGE analysis showed changes in the molecular weight of MPC that attributed to shearing forces created by cavitation phenomenon. Also, this phenomenon caused an increase in the exposure of more amino acids with negative charge in the surface of US treated MPC, that was demonstrated by Zetasizer data. High intensity ultrasound, as a green technology, can significantly increase the functional properties of MPC and can make this usable for food applications.
Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition
In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.
Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments
Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.
Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2
Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.
Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites
The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes
(MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the
macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new
properties based on morphological modifications or electronic
interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few
nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per
volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless,
the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has
been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and
infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer
composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations.
This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion
into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite
components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with
mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by
slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried.
Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis
spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the
nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR
spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of
pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis
Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine
Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas
(GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the
amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits.
Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the
quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem
needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber
for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids can be potential alternate
solvents for carbon dioxide capture from gaseous streams. This is due
to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility and its
ionic structure. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like
piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In
this work, the effect of piperazine on thermo physical properties and
solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various
concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was
correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method
and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective
standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2
loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure
conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was
also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature
and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of
solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that
the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system
pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Lyophilization Using Vacuum-Induced Freezing
Lyophilization, also called freeze-drying, is an
important dehydration technique mainly used for pharmaceuticals.
Food industry also uses lyophilization when it is important to retain
most of the nutritional quality, taste, shape and size of dried products
and to extend their shelf life. Vacuum-Induced during freezing cycle
(VI) has been used in order to control ice nucleation and,
consequently, to reduce the time of primary drying cycle of
pharmaceuticals preserving quality properties of the final product.
This procedure has not been applied in freeze drying of foods. The
present work aims to investigate the effect of VI on the lyophilization
drying time, final moisture content, density and reconstitutional
properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) slices (MS) and mango
pulp-maltodextrin dispersions (MPM) (30% concentration of total
solids). Control samples were run at each freezing rate without using
induced vacuum. The lyophilization endpoint was the same for all
treatments (constant difference between capacitance and Pirani
vacuum gauges). From the experimental results it can be concluded
that at the high freezing rate (0.4°C/min) reduced the overall process
time up to 30% comparing process time required for the control and
VI of the lower freeze rate (0.1°C/min) without affecting the quality
characteristics of the dried product, which yields a reduction in costs
and energy consumption for MS and MPM freeze drying. Controls
and samples treated with VI at freezing rate of 0.4°C/min in MS
showed similar results in moisture and density parameters.
Furthermore, results from MPM dispersion showed favorable values
when VI was applied because dried product with low moisture
content and low density was obtained at shorter process time
compared with the control. There were not found significant
differences between reconstitutional properties (rehydration for MS
and solubility for MPM) of freeze dried mango resulting from
controls, and VI treatments.
Identification and Classification of Gliadin Genes in Iranian Diploid Wheat
Wheat is the first and the most important grain of the
world and its bakery property is due to glutenin and gliadin qualities.
Wheat seed proteins were divided into four groups according to
solubility including albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin or
gliadin. Gliadins are major components of the storage proteins in
wheat endosperm. It seems that little information is available about
gliadin genes in Iranian wild relatives of wheat. Thus, the aim of this
study was the evaluation of the wheat wild relatives collected from
different origins of Zagros Mountains in Iran, in terms of coding
gliadin genes using specific primers. For this, forty accessions of
Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu were selected for this study.
For each accession, genomic DNA was extracted and PCRs were
performed in total volumes of 15 μl. The amplification products were
separated on 1.5% agarose gels. In results, for Gli-2A locus three
allelic variants were detected by Gli-2As primer pairs. The sizes of
PCR products for these alleles were 210, 490 and 700 bp. Only five
(13%) and two accessions (5%) produced 700 and 490 bp fragments
when their DNA was amplified with the Gli.As.2 primer pairs.
However, 93% of the accessions carried allele 210 bp, and only 8%
did not any product for this marker. Therefore, these germplasm
could be used as rich gene pool to broaden the genetic base of bread
Development of an Adhesive from Prosopis africana Seed Endosperm (Okpeyi)
This research work is an experimental study, through
development of an adhesive from Prosopis africana endosperm. The
prosopis seed for this work were obtained from Enugu State in the
South East part of Nigeria. The seeds were prepared by separating the
endosperm from the seed coat and cotyledon. Three methods were
used to separate them, which are acidic method, roasting method and
boiling method. 20g of seed were treated with different
concentrations (25, 40, 55, 70, and 85% w/w) at 100°C and constant
time (30 minutes), under continuous stirring with magnetic stirrer.
Also 20g of seed were treated with sulphuric acid of concentrations
40% w/w at 100°C with different time (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 minutes),
under continuous stirring with magnetic stirrer. Finally, 20g of seed
were treated with sulphuric acid of concentrations 40% w/w at
different temperature (20°C, 40°C, 60°C, 80°C, and 100°C) with
constant time (30 minutes), under continuous stirring with magnetic
stirrer. The whole endosperm extracted was adhesive. The physical
properties of the adhesive were determined (appearance, odour, taste,
solubility, pH, size, and binding strength). The percentage of the
adhesive yield makes the commercialization of the seed in Nigeria
possible and profitable. The very high viscosity attained at low
concentrations makes prosopis adhesive an excellent thickener in the
Utilization of Mustard Leaves (Brassica juncea) Powder for the Development of Cereal Based Extruded Snacks
Mustard leaves are rich in folates, vitamin A, K and
B-complex. Mustard greens are low in calories and fats and rich in
dietary fiber. They are rich in potassium, manganese, iron, copper,
calcium, magnesium and low in sodium. It is very rich in antioxidants
and Phytonutrients. For the optimization of process variables
(moisture content and mustard leave powder), the experiments were
conducted according to central composite Face Centered Composite
design of RSM. The mustard leaves powder was replaced with
composite flour (a combination of rice, chickpea and corn in the ratio
of 70:15:15). The extrudate was extruded in a twin screw extruder at
a barrel temperature of 120°C. The independent variables were
mustard leaves powder (2-10 %) and moisture content (12-20 %).
Responses analyzed were bulk density, water solubility index, water
absorption index, lateral expansion, antioxidant activity, total
phenolic content, and overall acceptability. The optimum conditions
obtained were 7.19 g mustard leaves powder in 100g premix having
16.8% moisture content (w.b).
Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics
The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl
millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken
to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties
of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in
laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics
evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption
index, water solubility index, and rehydration ratio and moisture
retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was
used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture
content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the
experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed
by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial
model for the dependent variables was established to fit the
experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in
127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of
feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded
product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum
process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126%, bulk density
0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index
39.90%, rehydration ratio 544% and moisture retention 11.90% with
Extraction of Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation
Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice
bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Conventionally,
the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline
extraction and acid precipitation, which involves in chemical usage
and lowering some nutritious component. This study was conducted
in order to extract of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) from
defatted rice bran using enzymes and employing polysaccharides in a
precipitating step. The properties of RBPC obtained will be compared
to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method.
The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using
enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that
extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2%
(v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield
(32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran
protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using
alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.016) exhibited the highest
protein (27.55%) and yield (6.84%). Precipitation using alginate was
better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or
enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL)
(samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation
rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein
precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of
control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to
casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed
the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of
RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10.
There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and
emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate.
However, control sample showed a higher of foaming capacity and
foaming stability compared to those of sample precipitated with
alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing
chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of
rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production
of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%)
compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be
beneficial in terms of adding to food products e.g. healthy drink with
high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional
property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be
used to appropriately select the application of this value-added
product from rice bran.
Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces
The ferrites ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 are
synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their
homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis
and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected
to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4,
HCl and HNO3. The results indicate that the highest degree of
leaching of Zn, Cd and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of
HCl. The charging of five zinc sulfide concentrates was optimized using
the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when
roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are
interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and
maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc
concentrates after their roasting.
Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers
Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and
dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water
soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration.
With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry,
the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as
a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers
(CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has
been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the
mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF
concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation,
slurry and cooling crystallization which representing the solution
based method co-crystal screening were used. Based on the
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the melting point of
CBZ-SA in different ratio was in the range between 188oC-189oC.
For CBZ-FA form A and CBZ-FA form B the melting point in
different ratio were in the range of 174oC-175oC and 185oC-186oC
respectively. The product crystal from the screening was also
characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD
pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA
and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings
revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different
polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were
formed from evaporation and slurry crystallization methods
respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallization method,
CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and
vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios
during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal
produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus,
it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening
since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising
approach to be considered in research and development for
pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.
Technologies of Amination of Hydroxyanthraquinones
In review the generalized data about different methods
of synthesis of biological activity aminated hydroxyanthraquinones is
presented. The basic regularity of a synthesis is analyzed. Action of
temperature, pH, solubility, catalysts and other factors on a reaction
product yield is revealed.
Technologies of Halogenation of Hydroxyanthraquinones
In review the generalized data about different methods
of synthesis of biological activity halogenated di-, tri- and tetrahydroxyanthraquinones
is presented. The basic regularity of a
synthesis is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, solubility, catalysts
and other factors on a reaction product yield is revealed.
Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Experimental production methods of Chevreul’s salt
being an intermediate stage product in copper recovery were
investigated on this article. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O,
being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound, has been obtained
by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has an
intense brick-red color. It is highly stable and expensive. The
production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hydrometallurgy.
Thermodynamic tendency on precipitation of Chevreul’s salt is
related to pH and temperature. Besides, SO2 gaseous is a versatile
reagent for precipitating of copper sulphites, Using of SO2 for
selective precipitation can be made by appropriate adjustments of pH
and temperature. Chevreul’s salt does not form in acidic solutions if
those solutions contains considerable amount of sulfurous acid. It is
necessary to maintain between pH 2–4.5, because, solubility of
Chevreul’s salt increases with decreasing of pH values. Also, the
region which Chevreul’s salt is stable can be seen from the potentialpH
Wetting Properties of Silver Based Alloys
The temperature dependence of wettability (wetting
angle, Θ (T)) for Ag-based melts on graphite and Al2O3 substrates is
compared. Typical alloying effects are found, as the Ag host metal is
gradually replaced by various metallic elements. The essence of
alloying lies in the change of the electron/atom (e/a) ratio. This ratio
is also manifested in the shift of wetting angles on the same substrate.
Nevertheless, the effects are partially smeared by other
(metallurgical) factors, like the interaction between the oxygenalloying
elements and by the graphite substrate-oxygen interaction. In
contrast, such effects are not pronounced in the case of Al2O3
substrates. As a consequence, Θ(T) exhibits an opposite trend in the
case of two substrates. Crossovers of the Θ(T) curves were often
found. The positions of crossovers depend on the chemical character
and concentration of solute atoms. Segregation and epitaxial texture
formation after solidification were also observed in certain alloy
drops, especially in high concentration range. This phenomenon is
not yet explained in every detail.
Preparation of Low-Molecular-Weight 6-Amino-6-Deoxychitosan (LM6A6DC) for Immobilization of Growth Factor
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF, Mw=6,045) has been
reported to have high efficiency of wound repair and anti-wrinkle
effect. However, the half-life of EGF in the body is too short to exert
the biological activity effectively when applied in free form. Growth
Factors can be stabilized by immobilization with carbohydrates from
thermal and proteolytic degradation. Low molecular weight chitosan
(LMCS) and its derivate prepared by hydrogen peroxide has high
solubility. LM6A6DC was successfully prepared as a reactive
carbohydrate for the stabilization of EGF by the reactions of LMCS
with alkalization, tosylation, azidation and reduction. The structure of
LM6A6DC was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elementary
analysis. For enhancing the stability of free EGF, EGF was attached
with LM6A6DC by using water-soluble carbodiimide.
EGF-LM6A6DC conjugates did not show any cytotoxicity on the
Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) 3T3 proliferation at least
under 100 μg/ml. In the result, it was considered that LM6A6DC is
suitable to immobilize of growth factor.