International Science Index
Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney
Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.
High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry
Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.
Solar Tracking System Using a Refrigerant as Working Medium for Solar Energy Conversion
Utilization of solar energy can be found in various domestic and industrial applications. The performance of any solar collector is largely affected by various parameters such as glazing, absorber plate, top covers, and heating pipes. Technology improvements have brought us another method for conversion of solar energy to direct electricity using solar photovoltaic system. Utilization and extraction of solar energy is the biggest problem in these conversion methods. This paper aims to overcome these problems and take the advantages of available energy from solar by maximizing the utilization through solar tracking system using a refrigerant as a working medium. The use of this tracking system can help increase the efficiency of conversion devices by maximum utilization of solar energy. The dual axis tracking system gives maximum energy output compared to single axis tracking system.
Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System
Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.
Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate
Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.
Empirical Survey of the Solar System Based on the Fusion of GPS and Image Processing
The tremendous increase in the population of the world creates the immediate need for the energy resources. All the people in the world need the sustainable energy resources which have low costs. Solar energy is appraised as one of the main energy resources in warm countries. The areas in the west of India like Rajasthan, Gujarat, etc. are immensely rich in solar energy resources. This paper deals with the development of dual axis solar tracker using Arduino board. Depending on the astronomical estimates of the sun from the GPS and sensor image processing outcomes, a methodology is proposed to locate the position of the sun to obtain the maximum solar energy. Based on the outcomes, the solar tracking system figures out whether to use image processing outcomes or astronomical estimates to attain the maximum efficiency of the solar panel. Finally, the experimental values obtained from the solar tracker for both the sunny and the rainy days are being tabulated.
Performance Analysis of Modified Solar Water Heating System for Climatic Condition of Allahabad, India
Solar water heating is a thermodynamic process of
heating water using sunlight with the help of solar water heater. Thus,
solar water heater is a device used to harness solar energy. In this
paper, a modified solar water heating system (MSWHS) has been
proposed over flat plate collector (FPC) and Evacuated tube collector
(ETC). The modifications include selection of materials other than
glass, and glass wool which are conventionally used for fabricating
FPC and ETC. Some modifications in design have also been
proposed. Its collector is made of double layer of semi-cylindrical
acrylic tubes and fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) insulation base. Water
tank is made of double layer of acrylic sheet except base and north
wall. FRP is used in base and north wall of the water tank. A concept
of equivalent thickness has been utilised for calculating the
dimensions of collector plate, acrylic tube and tank. A thermal model for the proposed design of MSWHS is developed
and simulation is carried out on MATLAB for the capacity of 200L
MSWHS having collector area of 1.6 m2, length of acrylic tubes of
2m at an inclination angle 25° which is taken nearly equal to the
latitude of the given location. Latitude of Allahabad is 24.45° N. The
results show that the maximum temperature of water in tank and tube
has been found to be 71.2°C and 73.3°C at 17:00hr and 16:00hr
respectively in March for the climatic data of Allahabad. Theoretical performance analysis has been carried out by varying
number of tubes of collector, the tank capacity and climatic data for
given months of winter and summer.
Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System
Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting
depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the
application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of
decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple
to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even
sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water
using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive
design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW,
temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant
using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit
with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main
objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar
desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control
using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to
reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means
of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out
using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed.
Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control,
which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal
collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW
and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in
accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the
efficiency of the thermal collectors.
Viability Analysis of the Use of Solar Energy for Water Heating in Brazil
The sun is an inexhaustible source and harness its potential both for heating and power generation is one of the most promising and necessary alternatives, mainly due to environmental issues. However, it should be noted that this has always been present in the generation of energy on earth, only indirectly, since it is responsible for virtually all other energy sources, such as generating source of evaporation of the water cycle, allowing the impoundment and the consequent generation of electricity (hydroelectric power); winds are caused by atmospheric induction caused by large scale solar radiation; petroleum, coal and natural gas were generated from waste plants and animals that originally derived energy required for their development of solar radiation. This paper presents a study on the feasibility of using solar energy for water heating in homes. A simplified methodology developed for formulation of solar heating operation model of water in alternative systems of solar energy in Brazil, and compared it to that in the international market. Across this research, it was possible to create new paradigms for alternative applications to the use of solar energy.
Small Scale Solar-Photovoltaic and Wind Pump-Storage Hydroelectric System for Remote Residential Applications
The use of hydroelectric pump-storage system at large
scale, MW-size systems, is already widespread around the world.
Designed for large scale applications, pump-storage station can be
scaled-down for small, remote residential applications. Given the cost
and complexity associated with installing a substation further than
100 miles from the main transmission lines, a remote, independent
and self-sufficient system is by far the most feasible solution. This
article is aiming at the design of wind and solar power generating
system, by means of pumped-storage to replace the wind and /or solar
power systems with a battery bank energy storage. Wind and solar
pumped-storage power generating system can reduce the cost of
power generation system, according to the user's electricity load and
resource condition and also can ensure system reliability of power
supply. Wind and solar pumped-storage power generation system is
well suited for remote residential applications with intermittent wind
and/or solar energy. This type of power systems, installed in these
locations, could be a very good alternative, with economic benefits
and positive social effects. The advantage of pumped storage power
system, where wind power regulation is calculated, shows that a
significant smoothing of the produced power is obtained, resulting in
a power-on-demand system’s capability, concomitant to extra
Matlab/Simulink Simulation of Solar Energy Storage System
This paper investigates the energy storage
technologies that can potentially enhance the use of solar energy.
Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of
producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Starting from the
analysis of the models of the system components, a complete
simulation model was realized in the Matlab-Simulink environment.
Results of the numerical simulations are provided. The operation of
electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various
insulation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and
electrolysers are producing the expected results with solar energy
inputs that are continuously varying.
Investigations of Natural Convective Heat Transfer in Rectangular Thermal Passages
The evaluation of the convective heat transfer of flow in passages with rectangular cross section is still of interest for the heat transfer investigators, as in the air heater solar collectors. The aim of this paper is to present investigation results on the natural convection heat transfer in a solar air heater. The effect of the channel length as heat transfer surface and the inclination of the passage were investigated. The results were obtained experimentally and theoretically. For that, an experimental test rig was fabricated with channel lengths of 1m, 1.5m, and 2m. For each length, the air outlet and inlet temperatures, absorber and cover temperatures, solar radiation intensity and air flow rate were measured at 10o, 30o, 50o, 70o, and 90o tilt angles. Measurements were recorded every 2 hours interval to investigate the transient behavior of the system. The experimental and theoretical results are presented in terms of Nu number versus Ra number and discussed. The percentages of differences between experimental and theoretical results are within the margin of 6% to 13%, effectively. It is recommended to extend the investigation to study the same configurations with different artificial surface roughing by ribs or pins.
Solar Radiation Studies for Dubai and Sharjah, UAE
Global Solar Radiation (H) for Dubai and Sharjah,
Latitude 25.25oN, Longitude 55oE and 25.29oN, Longitude 55oE
respectively have been studied using sunshine hour data (n) of the
areas using various methods. These calculated global solar radiation
values are then compared to the measured values presented by
NASA. Furthermore, the extraterrestrial (H0), diffuse (Hd) and beam
radiation (Hb) are also calculated. The diffuse radiation is calculated
using methods proposed by Page and Liu and Jordan (L-J). Diffuse
Radiation from the Page method is higher than the L-J method.
Moreover, the clearness index (KT) signifies a clear sky almost all
year round. Rainy days are hardly a few in a year and limited in the
months December to March. The temperature remains between 25oC
in winter to 44oC in summer and is desirable for thermal applications
of solar energy. From the estimated results, it appears that solar
radiation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year for
photovoltaic and thermal applications.
Earth Station Neural Network Control Methodology and Simulation
Renewable energy resources are inexhaustible, clean as compared with conventional resources. Also, it is used to supply regions with no grid, no telephone lines, and often with difficult accessibility by common transport. Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are the most important application of renewable energy. Neural control is a branch of the general field of intelligent control, which is based on the concept of artificial intelligence. This paper presents the mathematical modeling of satellite earth station power system which is required for simulating the system.Aswan is selected to be the site under consideration because it is a rich region with solar energy. The complete power system is simulated using MATLAB–SIMULINK.An artificial neural network (ANN) based model has been developed for the optimum operation of earth station power system. An ANN is trained using a back propagation with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The best validation performance is obtained for minimum mean square error. The regression between the network output and the corresponding target is equal to 96% which means a high accuracy. Neural network controller architecture gives satisfactory results with small number of neurons, hence better in terms of memory and time are required for NNC implementation. The results indicate that the proposed control unit using ANN can be successfully used for controlling the satellite earth station power system.
Effects of Dust on the Performance of PV Panels
Accumulation of dust from the outdoor environment
on the panels of solar photovoltaic (PV) system is natural. There
were studies that showed that the accumulated dust can reduce the
performance of solar panels, but the results were not clearly
quantified. The objective of this research was to study the effects of
dust accumulation on the performance of solar PV panels.
Experiments were conducted using dust particles on solar panels with
a constant-power light source, to determine the resulting electrical
power generated and efficiency. It was found from the study that the
accumulated dust on the surface of photovoltaic solar panel can
reduce the system-s efficiency by up to 50%.
A Numerical Simulation of Solar Distillation for Installation in Chabahar-Iran
The world demand for potable water is
increasing every day with growing population. Desalination
using solar energy is suitable for potable water production
from brackish and seawater. In this paper, we present a
theoretical study of solar distillation in a single basin under
the open environmental conditions of Chabahar-Iran. The still
has a base area of 2000mm×500mm with a glass cover
inclined at 25° in order to obtain extra solar energy. We model
the still and conduct its energy balance equations under minor
assumptions. We computed the temperatures of glass cover,
seawater interface, moist air and bottom using numerical
method. The investigation addressed the following: The still
productivity, distilled water salinity and still performance in
terms of the still efficiency. Calculated still productivity in
July was higher than December. So in this paper, we show
that still productivity is directly functioning of solar radiation.