International Science Index
Sliding Mode Control of an Internet Teleoperated PUMA 600 Robot
In this paper, we have developed a sliding mode
controller for PUMA 600 manipulator robot, to control the remote
robot a teleoperation system was developed. This system includes
two sites, local and remote. The sliding mode controller is installed
at the remote site. The client asks for a position through an interface
and receives the real positions after running of the task by the remote
robot. Both sites are interconnected via the Internet. In order to verify
the effectiveness of the sliding mode controller, that is compared with
a classic PID controller. The developed approach is tested on a virtual
robot. The results confirmed the high performance of this approach.
Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions
This study presents performance analysis results of
SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions
applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In
SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency
switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and
degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the
control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem
by introducing some general saturation function. However, study
about whether saturation function was really best and the performance
analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much.
Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are
selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed.
In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between
slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance
is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical
simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can
see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions
in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip
suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall.
So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip
suppression sliding mode control.
Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle
A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.
Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay
Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension
system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model
is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the
passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise
due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is
also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding
mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator
time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of
the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.
Sliding Mode Control of a Bus Suspension System
The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surface, are to be suppressed via suspension systems. In this paper, sliding mode control for a half bus model with air suspension system is presented. The bus is modelled as five degrees of freedom (DoF) system. The mathematical model of the half bus is developed using Lagrange Equations. For time domain analysis, the bus model is assumed to travel at certain speed over the bump road. The numerical results of the analysis indicate that the sliding mode controllers can be effectively used to suppress the vibrations and to improve the ride comfort of the busses.
Sensor and Actuator Fault Detection in Connected Vehicles under a Packet Dropping Network
Connected vehicles are one of the promising technologies for future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). A connected vehicle system is essentially a set of vehicles communicating through a network to exchange their information with each other and the infrastructure. Although this interconnection of the vehicles can be potentially beneficial in creating an efficient, sustainable, and green transportation system, a set of safety and reliability challenges come out with this technology. The first challenge arises from the information loss due to unreliable communication network which affects the control/management system of the individual vehicles and the overall system. Such scenario may lead to degraded or even unsafe operation which could be potentially catastrophic. Secondly, faulty sensors and actuators can affect the individual vehicle’s safe operation and in turn will create a potentially unsafe node in the vehicular network. Further, sending that faulty sensor information to other vehicles and failure in actuators may significantly affect the safe operation of the overall vehicular network. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take these issues into consideration while designing the control/management algorithms of the individual vehicles as a part of connected vehicle system. In this paper, we consider a connected vehicle system under Co-operative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and propose a fault diagnosis scheme that deals with these aforementioned challenges. Specifically, the conventional CACC algorithm is modified by adding a Kalman filter-based estimation algorithm to suppress the effect of lost information under unreliable network. Further, a sliding mode observer-based algorithm is used to improve the sensor reliability under faults. The effectiveness of the overall diagnostic scheme is verified via simulation studies.
Application of the Piloting Law Based on Adaptive Differentiators via Second Order Sliding Mode for a Fixed Wing Aircraft
In this paper, we present a piloting law based on the adaptive differentiators via high order sliding mode controller, by using an aircraft in virtual simulated environment. To deal with the design of an autopilot controller, we propose a framework based on Software in the Loop (SIL) methodology and we use MicrosoftTM Flight Simulator (FS-2004) as the environment for plane simulation. The aircraft dynamic model is nonlinear, Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) and tightly coupled. The nonlinearity resides in the dynamic equations and also in the aerodynamic coefficients' variability. In our case, two (02) aircrafts are used in the flight tests, the Zlin-142 and MQ-1 Predator. For both aircrafts and in a very low altitude flight, we send the piloting control inputs to the aircraft which has stalled due to a command disconnection. Then, we present the aircraft’s dynamic behavior analysis while reestablishing the command transmission. Finally, a comparative study between the two aircraft’s dynamic behaviors is presented.
Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer
In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.
DEA-Based Variable Structure Position Control of DC Servo Motor
This paper presents Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) based Variable Structure Position Control (VSPC) of Laboratory DC servomotor (LDCSM). DEA is employed for the optimal tuning of Variable Structure Control (VSC) parameters for position control of a DC servomotor. The VSC combines the techniques of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) that gives the advantages of small overshoot, improved step response characteristics, faster dynamic response and adaptability to plant parameter variations, suppressed influences of disturbances and uncertainties in system behavior. The results of the simulation responses of the VSC parameters adjustment by DEA were performed in Matlab Version 2010a platform and yield better dynamic performance compared with the untuned VSC designed.
MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking
In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control)
method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the
slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed.
The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC
gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by
the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety
and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip
ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate
the effectiveness of the method.
Double Manifold Sliding Mode Observer for Sensorless Control of Multiphase Induction Machine under Fault Condition
Multiphase Induction Machine (IM) is normally
controlled using rotor field oriented vector control. Under phase(s)
loss, the machine currents can be optimally controlled to satisfy
certain optimization criteria. In this paper we discuss the performance
of double manifold sliding mode observer (DM-SMO) in Sensorless
control of multiphase induction machine under unsymmetrical
condition (one phase loss). This observer is developed using the IM
model in the stationary reference frame. DM-SMO is constructed by
adding extra feedback term to conventional single mode sliding mode
observer (SM-SMO) which proposed in many literature. This leads to
a fully convergent observer that also yields an accurate estimate of
the speed and stator currents. It will be shown by the simulation
results that the estimated speed and currents by the method are very
well and error between real and estimated quantities is negligible.
Also parameter sensitivity analysis shows that this method is rather
robust against parameter variation.
Modeling and Control of an Acrobot Using MATLAB and Simulink
The problem of finding control laws for underactuated
systems has attracted growing attention since these systems are
characterized by the fact that they have fewer actuators than the
degrees of freedom to be controlled. The acrobot, which is a planar
two-link robotic arm in the vertical plane with an actuator at the elbow
but no actuator at the shoulder, is a representative in underactuated
systems. In this paper, the dynamic model of the acrobot is
implemented using Mathworks’ Simscape. And the sliding mode
control is constructed using MATLAB and Simulink.
Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller
This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed
Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion
System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy
employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and slidingmode
controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required
rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of
active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and
SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two
controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a
model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the
controllers and their application in the DFIG power control.
Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are
provided by MATLAB/Simulink.
Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode
In this study, we proposed two techniques to track the
maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system. The first is
an intelligent control technique, and the second is robust used for
variable structure system. In fact the characteristics I-V and P–V of
the photovoltaic generator depends on the solar irradiance and
temperature. These climate changes cause the fluctuation of
maximum power point; a maximum power point tracking technique
(MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. For this we have
adopted a control by fuzzy logic (FLC) famous for its stability and
robustness. And a Siding Mode Control (SMC) widely used for
variable structure system. The system comprises a photovoltaic panel
(PV), a DC-DC converter, which is considered as an adaptation stage
between the PV and the load. The modelling and simulation of the
system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. SMC technique
provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when
the irradiation changes slowly or it is constant the panel power of
FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less
Second Order Sliding Mode Observer Using MRAS Theory for Sensorless Control of Multiphase Induction Machine
This paper presents a speed estimation scheme based
on second-order sliding-mode Super Twisting Algorithm (STA) and
Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) estimation theory for
Sensorless control of multiphase induction machine. A stator current
observer is designed based on the STA, which is utilized to take the
place of the reference voltage model of the standard MRAS
algorithm. The observer is insensitive to the variation of rotor
resistance and magnetizing inductance when the states arrive at the
sliding mode. Derivatives of rotor flux are obtained and designed as
the state of MRAS, thus eliminating the integration. Compared with
the first-order sliding-mode speed estimator, the proposed scheme
makes full use of the auxiliary sliding-mode surface, thus alleviating
the chattering behavior without increasing the complexity. Simulation
results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed
The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control
The inverted pendulum system is a classic control
problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable
process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and
lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging
control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled
state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted
pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to
determine which control strategy delivers better performance with
respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore,
proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results
have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID
control in both normal and noisy systems.
Back Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Blood Glucose for Type I Diabetes
Diabetes is a growing health problem in worldwide.
Especially, the patients with Type 1 diabetes need strict glycemic
control because they have deficiency of insulin production. This
paper attempts to control blood glucose based on body mathematical
body model. The Bergman minimal mathematical model is used to
develop the nonlinear controller. A novel back-stepping based sliding
mode control (B-SMC) strategy is proposed as a solution that
guarantees practical tracking of a desired glucose concentration. In
order to show the performance of the proposed design, it is compared
with conventional linear and fuzzy controllers which have been done
in previous researches. The numerical simulation result shows the
advantages of sliding mode back stepping controller design to linear
and fuzzy controllers.
Designing Back-stepping Sliding Mode Controller for a Class of 4Y Octorotor
This paper presents a combination of both robust
nonlinear controller and nonlinear controller for a class of nonlinear
4Y Octorotor UAV using Back-stepping and sliding mode controller.
The robustness against internal and external disturbance and
decoupling control are the merits of the proposed paper. The
proposed controller decouples the Octorotor dynamical system. The
controller is then applied to a 4Y Octortor UAV and its feature will
3D Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Approach
This paper presents a 3D guidance scheme for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed guidance scheme
is based on the sliding mode approach using nonlinear sliding
manifolds. Generalized 3D kinematic equations are considered
here during the design process to cater for the coupling between
longitudinal and lateral motions. Sliding mode based guidance
scheme is then derived for the multiple-input multiple-output
(MIMO) system using the proposed nonlinear manifolds. Instead of
traditional sliding surfaces, nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed
here for performance and stability in all flight conditions. In the
reaching phase control inputs, the bang-bang terms with signum
functions are accompanied with proportional terms in order to reduce
the chattering amplitudes. The Proposed 3D guidance scheme is
implemented on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (6-dof) simulation of a UAV
and simulation results are presented here for different 3D trajectories
with and without disturbances.
Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack
In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length
changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by
the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by
internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to
be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain
information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm
estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor
fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of
disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect
various of sensor fault mode.
Applied Actuator Fault Accommodation in Flight Control Systems Using Fault Reconstruction Based FDD and SMC Reconfiguration
Historically, actuators’ redundancy was used to deal
with faults occurring suddenly in flight systems. This technique was
generally expensive, time consuming and involves increased weight
and space in the system. Therefore, nowadays, the on-line fault
diagnosis of actuators and accommodation plays a major role in the
design of avionic systems. These approaches, known as Fault
Tolerant Flight Control systems (FTFCs) are able to adapt to such
sudden faults while keeping avionics systems lighter and less
expensive. In this paper, a (FTFC) system based on the Geometric
Approach and a Reconfigurable Flight Control (RFC) are presented.
The Geometric approach is used for cosmic ray fault reconstruction,
while Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based on Lyapunov stability
theory is designed for the reconfiguration of the controller in order to
compensate the fault effect. Matlab®/Simulink® simulations are
performed to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the
proposed flight control system against actuators’ faulty signal caused
by cosmic rays. The results demonstrate the successful real-time
implementation of the proposed FTFC system on a non-linear 6 DOF
Sliding Mode Position Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based On Passivity Approach
In this paper, a sliding mode control method based on the passivity approach is proposed to control the position of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the dynamics of a PMSM was proved to be strictly passive. The position controller with an adaptive law was used to estimate the load torque to eliminate the chattering effects associated with the conventional sliding mode controller. The stability analysis of the overall position control system was carried out by adopting the passivity theorem instead of Lyapunov-type arguments. Finally, experimental results were provided to show that the good position tracking can be obtained, and exhibit robustness in the variations of the motor parameters and load torque disturbances.
Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand
The Ambidextrous Robot Hand is a robotic device with the purpose to mimic either the gestures of a right or a left hand. The symmetrical behavior of its fingers allows them to bend in one way or another keeping a compliant and anthropomorphic shape. However, in addition to gestures they can reproduce on both sides, an asymmetrical mechanical design with a three tendons routing has been engineered to reduce the number of actuators. As a consequence, control algorithms must be adapted to drive efficiently the ambidextrous fingers from one position to another and to include grasping features. These movements are controlled by pneumatic muscles, which are nonlinear actuators. As their elasticity constantly varies when they are under actuation, the length of pneumatic muscles and the force they provide may differ for a same value of pressurized air. The control algorithms introduced in this paper take both the fingers asymmetrical design and the pneumatic muscles nonlinearity into account to permit an accurate control of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand. The finger motion is achieved by combining a classic PID controller with a phase plane switching control that turns the gain constants into dynamic values. The grasping ability is made possible because of a sliding mode control that makes the fingers adapt to the shape of an object before strengthening their positions.
Evolved Bat Algorithm Based Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control with LMI Criterion
In this paper, the stability analysis of a GA-Based adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller for a nonlinear system is discussed. First, a nonlinear plant is well-approximated and described with a reference model and a fuzzy model, both involving FLC rules. Then, FLC rules and the consequent parameter are decided on via an Evolved Bat Algorithm (EBA). After this, we guarantee a new tracking performance inequality for the control system. The tracking problem is characterized to solve an eigenvalue problem (EVP). Next, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller (AFSMC) is proposed to stabilize the system so as to achieve good control performance. Lyapunov’s direct method can be used to ensure the stability of the nonlinear system. It is shown that the stability analysis can reduce nonlinear systems into a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the control methodology.
A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD
This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modeling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).
Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
This paper describes a sliding mode controller for
autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV
model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as
hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal
forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster.
To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is
designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and
improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can
profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external
disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory
the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the
proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation
studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the
Nonlinear Integral-Type Sliding Surface for Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters
This paper presents a new nonlinear integral-type sliding surface for synchronizing two different chaotic systems with parametric uncertainty. On the basis of Lyapunov theorem and average dwelling time method, we obtain the control gains of controllers which are derived to achieve chaos synchronization. In order to reduce the gains, the error system is modeled as a switching system. We obtain the sufficient condition drawn for the robust stability of the error dynamics by stability analysis. Then we apply it to guide the design of the controllers. Finally, numerical examples are used to show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Robotic End-Effector Impedance Control without Expensive Torque/Force Sensor
A novel low-cost impedance control structure is
proposed for monitoring the contact force between end-effector and
environment without installing an expensive force/torque sensor.
Theoretically, the end-effector contact force can be estimated from the
superposition of each joint control torque. There have a nonlinear
matrix mapping function between each joint motor control input and
end-effector actuating force/torques vector. This new force control
structure can be implemented based on this estimated mapping matrix.
First, the robot end-effector is manipulated to specified positions, then
the force controller is actuated based on the hall sensor current
feedback of each joint motor. The model-free fuzzy sliding mode
control (FSMC) strategy is employed to design the position and force
controllers, respectively. All the hardware circuits and software
control programs are designed on an Altera Nios II embedded
development kit to constitute an embedded system structure for a
retrofitted Mitsubishi 5 DOF robot. Experimental results show that PI
and FSMC force control algorithms can achieve reasonable contact
force monitoring objective based on this hardware control structure.
Fuzzy Sliding Mode Speed Controller for a Vector Controlled Induction Motor
This paper presents a speed fuzzy sliding mode
controller for a vector controlled induction machine (IM) fed by a
voltage source inverter (PWM).
The sliding mode based fuzzy control method is developed to
achieve fast response, a best disturbance rejection and to maintain a
The problem with sliding mode control is that there is high
frequency switching around the sliding mode surface. The FSMC is
the combination of the robustness of Sliding Mode Control (SMC)
and the smoothness of Fuzzy Logic (FL). To reduce the torque
fluctuations (chattering), the sign function used in the conventional
SMC is substituted with a fuzzy logic algorithm.
The proposed algorithm was simulated by Matlab/Simulink
software and simulation results show that the performance of the
control scheme is robust and the chattering problem is solved.
Backstepping Sliding Mode Controller Coupled to Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for Interconnected Fractional Nonlinear System
Performance control law is studied for an
interconnected fractional nonlinear system. Applying a backstepping
algorithm, a backstepping sliding mode controller (BSMC) is
developed for fractional nonlinear system. To improve control law
performance, BSMC is coupled to an adaptive sliding mode observer
have a filtered error as a sliding surface. The both architecture
performance is studied throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on
a cart. Simulation result show that the BSMC coupled to an adaptive
sliding mode observer have stable control law and eligible control
amplitude than the BSMC.