International Science Index
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Theoretical Study on the Forced Vibration of One Degree of Freedom System, Equipped with Inerter, under Load-Type or Displacement-Type Excitation
In this paper, a theoretical study on the forced vibration of one degree of freedom system equipped with inerter, working under load-type or displacement-type excitation, is presented. Differential equations of movement are solved under cosinusoidal excitation, and explicit relations for the magnitude, resonant magnitude, phase angle, resonant frequency, and critical frequency are obtained. Influence of the inertance and damping on these dynamic characteristics is clarified. From the obtained results, one concludes that the inerter increases the magnitude of vibration and the phase angle of the damped mechanical system. Moreover, the magnitude ratio and difference of phase angles are not depending on the actual type of excitation. Consequently, such kind of similitude allows for the comparison of various theoretical and experimental results, which can be broadly found in the literature.
Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium
Diclofenac sodium, a member of the acetic acid family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is used to retard inflammation, arthritis pain and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug is known to cause severe injury in different tissues due to formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study is focused on the effect of different doses of diclofenac (4 mg/kg/body weight and 14 mg/kg/body weight on histoarchitecture of the liver from 7-28 days of the investigation. Diclofenac administration resulted in distorted hepatic degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal gaps. Hepatic fibrosis noticed in different stages of investigation could be attributed to chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species which results in deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The abrupt degenerative changes observed during later stages of the experiment showed maximum damage to the liver, and there was enlargement of sinusoidal gaps accompanied by maximum necrosis in the tissues.
Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma
The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.
Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network
The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.
Characterization of Extreme Low-Resolution Digital Encoder for Control System with Sinusoidal Reference Signal
Low-resolution digital encoder (LRDE) is commonly adopted as a position sensor in low-cost and resource-constraint applications. Traditionally, a digital encoder is modeled as a quantizer without considering the initial position of the LRDE. However, it cannot be applied to extreme LRDE for which stroke of angular motion is only a few times of resolution of the encoder. Besides, the actual angular motion is substantially distorted by this extreme LRDE so that the encoder reading does not faithfully represent the actual angular motion. This paper presents a modeling method for extreme LRDE by taking into account the initial position of the LRDE. For a control system with sinusoidal reference signal and extreme LRDE, this paper analyzes the characteristics of angular motion. Specifically, two descriptors of sinusoidal angular motion are studied, which essentially sheds light on the actual angular motion from extreme LRDE.
Modeling and System Identification of a Variable Excited Linear Direct Drive
Linear actuators are deployed in a wide range of applications. This paper presents the modeling and system identification of a variable excited linear direct drive (LDD). The LDD is designed based on linear hybrid stepper technology exhibiting the characteristic tooth structure of mover and stator. A three-phase topology provides the thrust force caused by alternating strengthening and weakening of the flux of the legs. To achieve best possible synchronous operation, the phases are commutated sinusoidal. Despite the fact that these LDDs provide high dynamics and drive forces, noise emission limits their operation in calm workspaces. To overcome this drawback an additional excitation of the magnetic circuit is introduced to LDD using additional enabling coils instead of permanent magnets. The new degree of freedom can be used to reduce force variations and related noise by varying the excitation flux that is usually generated by permanent magnets. Hence, an identified simulation model is necessary to analyze the effects of this modification. Especially the force variations must be modeled well in order to reduce them sufficiently. The model can be divided into three parts: the current dynamics, the mechanics and the force functions. These subsystems are described with differential equations or nonlinear analytic functions, respectively. Ordinary nonlinear differential equations are derived and transformed into state space representation. Experiments have been carried out on a test rig to identify the system parameters of the complete model. Static and dynamic simulation based optimizations are utilized for identification. The results are verified in time and frequency domain. Finally, the identified model provides a basis for later design of control strategies to reduce existing force variations.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams
Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.
Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts
The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.
Frequency Estimation Using Analytic Signal via Wavelet Transform
Frequency estimation of a sinusoid in white noise using
maximum entropy power spectral estimation has been shown to be
very sensitive to initial sinusoidal phase. This paper presents use of
wavelet transform to find an analytic signal for frequency estimation
using maximum entropy method (MEM) and compared the results
with frequency estimation using analytic signal by Hilbert transform
method and frequency estimation using real data together with MEM.
The presented method shows the improved estimation precision and
A Simple and Efficient Method for Accurate Measurement and Control of Power Frequency Deviation
In the presented technique, a simple method is given for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation. The sinusoidal signal for which the frequency deviation measurement is required is transformed to a low voltage level and passed through a zero crossing detector to convert it into a pulse train. Another stable square wave signal of 10 KHz is obtained using a crystal oscillator and decade dividing assemblies (DDA). These signals are combined digitally and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded to make them equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The developed circuit using discrete components has a resolution of 0.5 Hz and completes measurement within 20 ms. The realized circuit is simulated and synthesized using Verilog HDL and subsequently implemented on FPGA. The results of measurement on FPGA are observed on a very high resolution logic analyzer. These results accurately match the simulation results as well as the results of same circuit implemented with discrete components. The proposed system is suitable for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation.
Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology
We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.
1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell
A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.
Active Vibration Control of Passenger Seat with HFPIDCR Controlled Suspension Alternatives
In this paper, passenger ride comfort issues are studied taking active quarter car model with three degrees of freedom. A hybrid fuzzy – PID controller with coupled rules (HFPIDCR) is designed for vibration control of passenger seat. Three different control strategies are considered. In first case, main suspension is controlled. In second case, passenger seat suspension is controlled. In third case, both main suspension and passenger seat suspensions are controlled. Passenger seat acceleration and displacement results are obtained using bump and sinusoidal type road disturbances. Finally, obtained simulation results of designed uncontrolled and controlled quarter car models are compared and discussed to select best control strategy for achieving high level of passenger ride comfort.
Localized and Time-Resolved Velocity Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in a Rectangular Channel
The exploitation of flow pulsation in micro- and
mini-channels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling
of high-end photonics and electronics systems. It is thought that
pulsation alters the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal
boundary layers, and hence affects the overall thermal resistance
of the heat sink. Although the fluid mechanics and heat transfer
are inextricably linked, it can be useful to decouple the parameters
to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer
enhancement. Using two-dimensional, two-component particle image
velocimetry, the current work intends to characterize the heat transfer
mechanisms in pulsating flow with a mean Reynolds number of
48 by experimentally quantifying the hydrodynamics of a generic
liquid-cooled channel geometry. Flows circulated through the test
section by a gear pump are modulated using a controller to achieve
sinusoidal flow pulsations with Womersley numbers of 7.45 and
2.36 and an amplitude ratio of 0.75. It is found that the transient
characteristics of the measured velocity profiles are dependent on the
speed of oscillation, in accordance with the analytical solution for
flow in a rectangular channel. A large velocity overshoot is observed
close to the wall at high frequencies, resulting from the interaction
of near-wall viscous stresses and inertial effects of the main fluid
body. The steep velocity gradients at the wall are indicative of
augmented heat transfer, although the local flow reversal may reduce
the upstream temperature difference in heat transfer applications.
While unsteady effects remain evident at the lower frequency, the
annular effect subsides and retreats from the wall. The shear rate at
the wall is increased during the accelerating half-cycle and decreased
during deceleration compared to steady flow, suggesting that the flow
may experience both enhanced and diminished heat transfer during
a single period. Hence, the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary
layer is reduced for positively moving flow during one half of the
pulsation cycle at the investigated frequencies. It is expected that the
size of the thermal boundary layer is similarly reduced during the
cycle, leading to intervals of heat transfer enhancement.
Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight
This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.
A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter
In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
A Computational Study on Flow Separation Control of Humpback Whale Inspired Sinusoidal Hydrofoils
A computational study on bio-inspired NACA634-021 hydrofoils with leading-edge protuberances has been carried out to investigate their hydrodynamic flow control characteristics at a Reynolds number of 14,000 and different angles-of-attack. The numerical simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT and based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver mode incorporated with k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. The results obtained indicate varying flow phenomenon along the peaks and troughs over the span of the hydrofoils. Compared to the baseline hydrofoil with no leading-edge protuberances, the leading-edge modified hydrofoils tend to reduce flow separation extents along the peak regions. In contrast, there are increased flow separations in the trough regions of the hydrofoil with leading-edge protuberances. Interestingly, it was observed that dissimilar flow separation behaviour is produced along different peak- or trough-planes along the hydrofoil span, even though the troughs or peaks are physically similar at each interval for a particular hydrofoil. Significant interactions between adjacent flow structures produced by the leading-edge protuberances have also been observed. These flow interactions are believed to be responsible for the dissimilar flow separation behaviour along physically similar peak- or trough-planes.
Performance Assessment of GSO Satellite before and after Enhancing Pointing Effect
This paper presents the effect of the orbit inclination
on the pointing error of the satellite antenna and consequently on its
footprint on earth for a typical Ku- band payload system. The performance assessment is examined using both analytical
simulations and practical measurements, taking into account all the
additional sources of the pointing errors, such as East-West station
keeping, orbit eccentricity, and actual attitude control performance. An implementation and computation of the sinusoidal biases in
satellite roll and pitch used to compensate the pointing error of the
satellite antenna coverage is studied and evaluated before and after
the pointing corrections performed. A method for evaluation of the performance of the implemented
biases has been introduced through measuring satellite received level
from a mono-pulse tracking 11.1m transmitting antenna before and
after the implementation of the pointing corrections.
Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal
A physical model for guiding the wave in
photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam
as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive
crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in
one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the
energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This
simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical
telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller
This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.
Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer during Natural Convection
The present study focused on the investigation of the
effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural
convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique.
Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a
normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice
Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a
laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106
for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of
Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness
elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat
transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure.
The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms
Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic
(PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase
locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric
grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI
model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter
(VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the
sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated
using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation
results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the
Well-Being Inequality Using Superimposing Satisfaction Waves: Heisenberg Uncertainty in Behavioural Economics and Econometrics
In this article, a new method is proposed for the measuring of well-being inequality through a model composed of superimposing satisfaction waves. The displacement of households’ satisfactory state (i.e. satisfaction) is defined in a satisfaction string. The duration of the satisfactory state for a given period is measured in order to determine the relationship between utility and total satisfactory time, itself dependent on the density and tension of each satisfaction string. Thus, individual cardinal total satisfaction values are computed by way of a one-dimensional form for scalar sinusoidal (harmonic) moving wave function, using satisfaction waves with varying amplitudes and frequencies which allow us to measure wellbeing inequality. One advantage to using satisfaction waves is the ability to show that individual utility and consumption amounts would probably not commute; hence, it is impossible to measure or to know simultaneously the values of these observables from the dataset. Thus, we crystallize the problem by using a Heisenberg-type uncertainty resolution for self-adjoint economic operators. We propose to eliminate any estimation bias by correlating the standard deviations of selected economic operators; this is achieved by replacing the aforementioned observed uncertainties with households’ perceived uncertainties (i.e. corrected standard deviations) obtained through the logarithmic psychophysical law proposed by Weber and Fechner.
Simulink Library for Reference Current Generation in Active DC Traction Substations
This paper is focused on the reference current
calculation in the compensation mode of the active DC traction
substations. The so-called p-q theory of the instantaneous reactive
power is used as theoretical foundation. The compensation goal of
total compensation is taken into consideration for the operation under
both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal voltage conditions, through the
two objectives of unity power factor and perfect harmonic
cancelation. Four blocks of reference current generation implement
the conceived algorithms and they are included in a specific Simulink
library, which is useful in a DSP dSPACE-based platform working
under Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results validate the
correctness of the implementation and fulfillment of the
Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micro Pumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design
This paper presents the design and fabrication of a
novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micro pump with check valve
having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power
consumption. The micro pump is designed to have eight major
components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric
actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two
stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check
valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic
substrate. A prototype of the gas micro pump, with a size of 52 mm ×
50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device
is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the
self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke
volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via
minimization of the dead volume of the micro pump chamber and
channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time
values of the flow rate of micro pump and the displacement of the
piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micro pump obtained
higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp.
The micro pump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185
ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency
of 120 and 50 Hz.
Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation
A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is
formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear
system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The
quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of
mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise are
analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and
bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in
predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is
supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis
without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly
derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical
solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean
and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal
signal and white noise excitation.
Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity
Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square
cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single
relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was
introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal
roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid
of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored
from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square
cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall.
Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls
with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the
same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational
algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies
performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement
was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in
the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.