International Science Index

44
10008501
Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy
Abstract:
Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.
Paper Detail
83
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43
10007502
Fiber-Reinforced Sandwich Structures Based on Selective Laser Sintering: A Technological View
Abstract:

The demand for an increasing diversification of the product spectrum associated with the current huge customization desire and subsequently the decreasing unit quantities of each production lot is gaining more and more importance within a great variety of industrial branches, e.g. automotive industry. Nevertheless, traditional product development and production processes (molding, extrusion) are already reaching their limits or fail to address these trends of a flexible and digitized production in view of a product variability up to lot size one. Thus, upcoming innovative production concepts like the additive manufacturing technology basically create new opportunities with regard to extensive potentials in product development (constructive optimization) and manufacturing (economic individualization), but mostly suffer from insufficient strength regarding structural components. Therefore, this contribution presents an innovative technological and procedural conception of a hybrid additive manufacturing process (fiber-reinforced sandwich structures based on selective laser sintering technology) to overcome these current structural weaknesses, and consequently support the design of complex lightweight components.

Paper Detail
244
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42
10007224
Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic
Abstract:

Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.

Paper Detail
267
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41
10006845
Sintering Properties of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-5Al-2.5Fe
Abstract:
In this study, Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was prepared by powder metallurgy. The elemental titanium, aluminum, and iron powders were mechanically alloyed for 10 h in a vacuum atmosphere. A stainless steel jar and stainless steel balls were used for mechanical alloying. The alloyed powders were then sintered by vacuum hot pressing at 950 °C for a soaking time of 30 minutes. Pure titanium was also sintered at the same conditions for comparison of mechanical properties and microstructural behavior. The samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, and optical microscopy. Results showed that, after mechanical alloying, a homogeneous distribution of the elements was obtained, and desired a-b structure was determined. Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was successfully produced, and the alloy showed enhanced mechanical properties compared to the commercial pure titanium.
Paper Detail
345
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40
10005848
Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane
Abstract:

Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Paper Detail
300
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39
10005888
Metallurgy of Friction Welding of Porous Stainless Steel-Solid Iron Billets
Abstract:

The research work reported here was aimed at investigating the feasibility of joining high-porosity stainless steel discs and wrought iron bars by friction welding. The sound friction-welded joints were then subjected to a metallurgical investigation and an analysis of failure resulting from tensile loading. Discs having 50 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness were produced by loose sintering of stainless steel powder at a temperature of 1350 oC in an argon atmosphere for one hour. Minor machining was then carried out to control the dimensions of the discs, and the density of each disc could then be determined. The level of porosity was calculated and was found to be about 40% in all of those discs. Solid wrought iron bars were also machined to facilitate tensile testing of the joints produced by friction welding. Using our previously gained experience, the porous stainless steel disc and the wrought iron tube were successfully friction welded. SEM was employed to examine the fracture surface after a tensile test of the joint in order to determine the type of failure. It revealed that the failure did not occur in the joint, but rather in the in the porous metal in the area adjacent to the joint. The load carrying capacity was actually determined by the strength of the porous metal and not by that of the welded joint. Macroscopic and microscopic metallographic examinations were also performed and showed that the welded joint involved a dense heat-affected zone where the porous metal underwent densification at elevated temperature, explaining and supporting the findings of the SEM study.

Paper Detail
386
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38
10004593
Dependence of Densification, Hardness and Wear Behaviors of Ti6Al4V Powders on Sintering Temperature
Abstract:

The sintering step in powder metallurgy (P/M) processes is very sensitive as it determines to a large extent the properties of the final component produced. Spark plasma sintering over the past decade has been extensively used in consolidating a wide range of materials including metallic alloy powders. This novel, non-conventional sintering method has proven to be advantageous offering full densification of materials, high heating rates, low sintering temperatures, and short sintering cycles over conventional sintering methods. Ti6Al4V has been adjudged the most widely used α+β alloy due to its impressive mechanical performance in service environments, especially in the aerospace and automobile industries being a light metal alloy with the capacity for fuel efficiency needed in these industries. The P/M route has been a promising method for the fabrication of parts made from Ti6Al4V alloy due to its cost and material loss reductions and the ability to produce near net and intricate shapes. However, the use of this alloy has been largely limited owing to its relatively poor hardness and wear properties. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification, hardness, and wear behaviors of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al4V powders was investigated in this present study. Sintering of the alloy powders was performed in the 650–850°C temperature range at a constant heating rate, applied pressure and holding time of 100°C/min, 50 MPa and 5 min, respectively. Density measurements were carried out according to Archimedes’ principle and microhardness tests were performed on sectioned as-polished surfaces at a load of 100gf and dwell time of 15 s. Dry sliding wear tests were performed at varied sliding loads of 5, 15, 25 and 35 N using the ball-on-disc tribometer configuration with WC as the counterface material. Microstructural characterization of the sintered samples and wear tracks were carried out using SEM and EDX techniques. The density and hardness characteristics of sintered samples increased with increasing sintering temperature. Near full densification (99.6% of the theoretical density) and Vickers’ micro-indentation hardness of 360 HV were attained at 850°C. The coefficient of friction (COF) and wear depth improved significantly with increased sintering temperature under all the loading conditions examined, except at 25 N indicating better mechanical properties at high sintering temperatures. Worn surface analyses showed the wear mechanism was a synergy of adhesive and abrasive wears, although the former was prevalent.

Paper Detail
613
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37
10004409
Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed
Abstract:
When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.
Paper Detail
920
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36
10003917
Investigation of Ceramic-Metal Composites Produced by Electroless Ni Plating of AlN- Astaloy Cr-M
Abstract:

The microstructure, mechanical properties and metalgraphic characteristics of Ni plated AlN-Astaloy Cr-M powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1400 °C temperature. A uniform nickel layer on AlN powders was deposited prior to sintering using electroless plating technique. A composite consisting of ternary additions, metallic phase, Ni and ceramic phase AlN within a matrix of Astaloy Cr-M had been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. The experimental results carried out by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) for composition (10% AlN-Astaloy Cr-M) 10% Ni at 1400 °C suggest that the best properties as 132.45HB and permittivity were obtained at 1400 °C.

Paper Detail
691
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35
10002520
Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with E-Glass Fibre
Abstract:

Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) due to its high bioactivity and optimum bioresorbability shows excellent bone regeneration capability. Despite it has limited applications as bone implant due to its macro-porous microstructure causing its poor mechanical strength. The reinforcement of apatitic CPCs with biocompatible fibre glass phase is an attractive area of research to improve upon its mechanical strength. Here, we study the setting behaviour of Si-doped and un-doped α tri calcium phosphate (α - TCP) based CPC and its reinforcement with addition of E-glass fibre. Alpha Tri calcium phosphate powders were prepared by solid state sintering of CaCO3 , CaHPO4 and Tetra Ethyl Ortho Silicate (TEOS) was used as silicon source to synthesize Si doped α-TCP powders. Both initial and final setting time of the developed cement was delayed because of Si addition. Crystalline phases of HA (JCPDS 9- 432), α-TCP (JCPDS 29-359) and β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) were detected in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern after immersion of CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0 hours to 10 days. As Si incorporation in the crystal lattice stabilized the TCP phase, Si doped CPC showed little slower rate of conversion into HA phase as compared to un-doped CPC. The SEM image of the microstructure of hardened CPC showed lower grain size of HA in un-doped CPC because of premature setting and faster hydrolysis of un-doped CPC in SBF as compared that in Si-doped CPC. Premature setting caused generation of micro and macro porosity in un-doped CPC structure which resulted in its lower mechanical strength as compared to that in Si-doped CPC. It was found that addition of 10 wt% of E-glass fibre into Si-doped α-TCP increased the average DTS of CPC from 8 MPa to 15 MPa as the fibres could resists the propagation of crack by deflecting the crack tip. Our study shows that biocompatible E-glass fibre in optimum proportion in CPC matrix can enhance the mechanical strength of CPC without affecting its biocompatibility. 

Paper Detail
1376
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34
10001812
New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics
Abstract:

We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications. 

Paper Detail
1031
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33
10001959
Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides
Abstract:
Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials requires further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behavior during microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, highlighting some of the key issues and challenges faced in this research area.
Paper Detail
1783
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32
10001581
Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF
Abstract:
Microstructural and electrical properties of Cu-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber (VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at 1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at 1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable increment of the electrical conductivity.
Paper Detail
1279
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31
10001588
Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications
Abstract:
Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.
Paper Detail
1308
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30
10001589
Characterization of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mn Powder Mixtures Containing Intermetallics
Abstract:
Intermetallic materials are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %88Ni- %10Cr and %2Mn powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 900-1300°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Fe, Cr and Mn have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn at 1300°C suggest that the best properties as 138,80HV and 6,269/cm3 density were obtained at 1300°C.
Paper Detail
1632
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29
10001465
Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified with Li-Sb
Abstract:
In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 1050°C-1090°C for 2-3 h to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination. The detailed results are reported in this paper.
Paper Detail
1164
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28
10000711
Preparation of Fe3Si/Ferrite Micro- and Nano-Powder Composite
Abstract:

Composite material based on Fe3Si micro-particles and Mn-Zn nano-ferrite was prepared using powder metallurgy technology. The sol-gel followed by autocombustion process was used for synthesis of Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 ferrite. 3 wt.% of mechanically milled ferrite was mixed with Fe3Si powder alloy. Mixed micro-nano powder system was homogenized by the Resonant Acoustic Mixing using ResodynLabRAM Mixer. This non-invasive homogenization technique was used to preserve spherical morphology of Fe3Si powder particles. Uniaxial cold pressing in the closed die at pressure 600 MPa was applied to obtain a compact sample. Microwave sintering of green compact was realized at 800°C, 20 minutes, in air. Density of the powders and composite was measured by Hepycnometry. Impulse excitation method was used to measure elastic properties of sintered composite. Mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Vickers hardness (HV). Resistivity was measured by 4 point probe method. Ferrite phase distribution in volume of the composite was documented by metallographic analysis. It has been found that nano-ferrite particle distributed among micro- particles of Fe3Si powder alloy led to high relative density (~93%) and suitable mechanical properties (TRS >100 MPa, HV ~1GPa, E-modulus ~140 GPa) of the composite. High electric resistivity (R~6.7 ohm.cm) of prepared composite indicate their potential application as soft magnetic material at medium and high frequencies.

Paper Detail
2805
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27
10000509
Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys Processed by Mechanical Alloying and High Frequency Induction Heat Sintering
Abstract:

The current study investigated the influence of milling time and ball-to-powder (BPR) weight ratio on the microstructural constituents and mechanical properties of bulk nanocrystalline Al; Al-10%Cu; and Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloys. Powder consolidation was carried out using a high frequency induction heat sintering where the processed metal powders were sintered into a dense and strong bulk material. The powders and the bulk samples were characterized using XRD and FEGSEM techniques. The mechanical properties were evaluated at various temperatures of 25°C, 100°C, 200°C, 300°C and 400°C to study the thermal stability of the processed alloys. The processed bulk nanocrystalline alloys displayed extremely high hardness values even at elevated temperatures. The Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloy displayed the highest hardness values at room and elevated temperatures which are related to the presence of Ti-containing phases such as Al3Ti and AlCu2Ti. These phases are thermally stable and retain the high hardness values at elevated temperatures up to 400ºC.

Paper Detail
1688
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26
10000049
Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles
Abstract:

Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Paper Detail
1550
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25
9999041
Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics
Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Paper Detail
1362
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24
9999103
Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites
Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Paper Detail
2037
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23
10000046
Wear and Friction Analysis of Sintered Metal Powder Self Lubricating Bush Bearing
Abstract:

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is the only economic way to produce porous parts/products. P/M can produce near net shape parts hence reduces wastage of raw material and energy, avoids various machining operations. The most vital use of P/M is in production of metallic filters and self lubricating bush bearings and siding surfaces. The porosity of the part can be controlled by varying compaction pressure, sintering temperature and composition of metal powder mix. The present work is aimed for experimental analysis of friction and wear properties of self lubricating copper and tin bush bearing. Experimental results confirm that wear rate of sintered component is lesser for components having 10% tin by weight percentage. Wear rate increases for high tin percentage (experimented for 20% tin and 30% tin) at same sintering temperature. Experimental results also confirms that wear rate of sintered component is also dependent on sintering temperature, soaking period, composition of the preform, compacting pressure, powder particle shape and size. Interfacial friction between die and punch, between inter powder particles, between die face and powder particle depends on compaction pressure, powder particle size and shape, size and shape of component which decides size & shape of die & punch, material of die & punch and material of powder particles.

Paper Detail
2508
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22
9998350
Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles
Abstract:

Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Paper Detail
1686
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21
9997964
Sintering Atmosphere Effects on the Densification of Al-SiC Compacts
Abstract:

The influence of SiC powder addition on densification of Al-SiC compacts during sintering in different atmospheres was investigated. It was performed in a dilatometer in flowing nitrogen, nitrogen/hydrogen (95/5 by volume) and argon. Fine, F500 grade of SiC powder was used. Mixtures containing 10 and 30 vol.% of SiC reinforcement were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts of about 82% of theoretical density were made of each mixture. For comparison, compacts made of pure aluminum powder were also investigated. It was shown that nitrogen is the best sintering atmosphere because only in this atmosphere did shrinkage take place. Its amount is lowered by ceramic powder addition, i.e. the more SiC the less densification occurs. Additionally, the formation of clusters, enhanced in compacts containing 30 vol.% SiC, is also responsible for limiting the shrinkage. Microstructural examinations of sintered composites revealed that sintering of compacts occurs in the presence of the liquid phase exclusively in nitrogen.

Paper Detail
2686
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20
9997651
A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect
Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyze the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Paper Detail
2571
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19
9996881
Structural, Optical and Ferroelectric Properties of BaTiO3 Sintered at Different Temperatures
Abstract:

In this work, we have synthesized BaTiO3 via sol gel method by sintering at different temperatures (600, 700, 800, 900, 10000C) and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PE Loop Tracer. X-ray diffraction patterns of barium titanate samples show that the peaks of the diffractogram are successfully indexed with the tetragonal and cubic structure of BaTiO3. The Optical band gap calculated through UV Visible spectrophotometer varies from 4.37 to 3.80 eV for the samples sintered at 600 to 10000C, respectively. The particle size calculated through transmission electron microscopy varies from 20 to 40 nm for the samples sintered at 600 to 10000C, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that the ferroelectricity increases as we increase the sintering temperature.

Paper Detail
2556
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18
17207
Adaptive Dynamic Time Warping for Variable Structure Pattern Recognition
Abstract:

Pattern discovery from time series is of fundamental importance. Particularly, when information about the structure of a pattern is not complete, an algorithm to discover specific patterns or shapes automatically from the time series data is necessary. The dynamic time warping is a technique that allows local flexibility in aligning time series. Because of this, it is widely used in many fields such as science, medicine, industry, finance and others. However, a major problem of the dynamic time warping is that it is not able to work with structural changes of a pattern. This problem arises when the structure is influenced by noise, which is a common thing in practice for almost every application. This paper addresses this problem by means of developing a novel technique called adaptive dynamic time warping.

Paper Detail
1425
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17
1752
Development of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Nb2O5 for Functional Electrodes of Advanced Electrochemical Systems
Abstract:
In recent times there has been a growing interest in the development of quasi-two-dimensional niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) as a semiconductor for the potential electronic applications such as capacitors, filtration, dye-sensitised solar cells and gas sensing platforms. Therefore once the purpose is established, Nb2O5 can be prepared in a number of nano- and sub-micron-structural morphologies that include rods, wires, belts and tubes. In this study films of Nb2O5 were prepared on gold plated silicon substrate using spin-coating technique and subsequently by mechanical exfoliation. The reason this method was employed was to achieve layers of less than 15nm in thickness. The sintering temperature of the specimen was 800oC. The morphology and structural characteristics of the films were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
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1753
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11565
Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals
Abstract:
Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.
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2154
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11497
Effect of Adding Sawdust on Mechanical- Physical Properties of Ceramic Bricks to Obtain Lightweight Building Material
Abstract:
This paper studies the application of a variety of sawdust materials in the production of lightweight insulating bricks. First, the mineralogical and chemical composition of clays was determined. Next, ceramic bricks were fabricated with different quantities of materials (3–6 and 9 wt. % for sawdust, 65 wt. % for grey clay, 24–27 and 30 wt. % for yellow clay and 2 wt% of tuff). These bricks were fired at 800 and 950 °C. The effect of adding this sawdust on the technological behaviour of the brick was assessed by drying and firing shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, bulk density and compressive strength. The results have shown that the optimum sintering temperature is 950 °C. Below this temperature, at 950 °C, increased open porosity was observed, which decreased the compressive strength of the bricks. Based on the results obtained, the optimum amounts of waste were 9 wt. % sawdust of eucalyptus, 24 wt. % shaping moisture and 1.6 particle size diameter. These percentages produced bricks whose mechanical properties were suitable for use as secondary raw materials in ceramic brick production.
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2919
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