International Science Index

39
10008295
Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam
Abstract:
The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.
Paper Detail
202
downloads
38
10007494
Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate
Abstract:

A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.

Paper Detail
167
downloads
37
10007585
Selection of Intensity Measure in Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment of a Turkish Railway Bridge
Abstract:

Fragility curve is an effective common used tool to determine the earthquake performance of structural and nonstructural components. Also, it is used to determine the nonlinear behavior of bridges. There are many historical bridges in the Turkish railway network; the earthquake performances of these bridges are needed to be investigated. To derive fragility curve Intensity measures (IMs) and Engineering demand parameters (EDP) are needed to be determined. And the relation between IMs and EDP are needed to be derived. In this study, a typical simply supported steel girder riveted railway bridge is studied. Fragility curves of this bridge are derived by two parameters lognormal distribution. Time history analyses are done for selected 60 real earthquake data to determine the relation between IMs and EDP. Moreover, efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency of three different IMs are discussed. PGA, Sa(0.2s) and Sa(1s), the most common used IMs parameters for fragility curve in the literature, are taken into consideration in terms of efficiency, practicality and sufficiency.

Paper Detail
199
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36
10006822
A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion
Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Paper Detail
246
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35
10006826
Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field
Abstract:
The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.
Paper Detail
206
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34
10007715
Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load
Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Paper Detail
169
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33
10006575
High Cycle Fatigue Analysis of a Lower Hopper Knuckle Connection of a Large Bulk Carrier under Dynamic Loading
Abstract:
The fatigue of ship structural details is of major concern in the maritime industry as it can generate fracture issues that may compromise structural integrity. In the present study, a fatigue analysis of the lower hopper knuckle connection of a bulk carrier was conducted using the Finite Element Method by means of ABAQUS/CAE software. The fatigue life was calculated using Miner’s Rule and the long-term distribution of stress range by the use of the two-parameter Weibull distribution. The cumulative damage ratio was estimated using the fatigue damage resulting from the stress range occurring at each load condition. For this purpose, a cargo hold model was first generated, which extends over the length of two holds (the mid-hold and half of each of the adjacent holds) and transversely over the full breadth of the hull girder. Following that, a submodel of the area of interest was extracted in order to calculate the hot spot stress of the connection and to estimate the fatigue life of the structural detail. Two hot spot locations were identified; one at the top layer of the inner bottom plate and one at the top layer of the hopper plate. The IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) require that specific dynamic load cases for each loading condition are assessed. Following this, the dynamic load case that causes the highest stress range at each loading condition should be used in the fatigue analysis for the calculation of the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. Each load case has a different effect on ship hull response. Of main concern, when assessing the fatigue strength of the lower hopper knuckle connection, was the determination of the maximum, i.e. the critical value of the stress range, which acts in a direction normal to the weld toe line. This acts in the transverse direction, that is, perpendicularly to the ship's centerline axis. The load cases were explored both theoretically and numerically in order to establish the one that causes the highest damage to the location examined. The most severe one was identified to be the load case induced by beam sea condition where the encountered wave comes from the starboard. At the level of the cargo hold model, the model was assumed to be simply supported at its ends. A coarse mesh was generated in order to represent the overall stiffness of the structure. The elements employed were quadrilateral shell elements, each having four integration points. A linear elastic analysis was performed because linear elastic material behavior can be presumed, since only localized yielding is allowed by most design codes. At the submodel level, the displacements of the analysis of the cargo hold model to the outer region nodes of the submodel acted as boundary conditions and applied loading for the submodel. In order to calculate the hot spot stress at the hot spot locations, a very fine mesh zone was generated and used. The fatigue life of the detail was found to be 16.4 years which is lower than the design fatigue life of the structure (25 years), making this location vulnerable to fatigue fracture issues. Moreover, the loading conditions that induce the most damage to the location were found to be the various ballasting conditions.
Paper Detail
246
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32
10002449
Time-Dependent Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams under Sustained and Repeated Loading
Abstract:
The current study aims to highlight the loading characteristics impact on the time evolution (focusing particularly on long term effects) of the deformation of realized reinforced concrete beams. Namely the tension stiffening code provisions (i.e. within Eurocode 2) are reviewed with a clear intention to reassess their operational value and predicting capacity. In what follows the experimental programme adopted along with some preliminary findings and numerical modeling attempts are presented. For a range of long slender reinforced concrete simply supported beams (4200 mm) constant static sustained and repeated cyclic loadings were applied mapping the time evolution of deformation. All experiments were carried out at the Heavy Structures Lab of the University of Leeds. During tests the mid-span deflection, creep coefficient and shrinkage strains were monitored for duration of 90 days. The obtained results are set against the values predicted by Eurocode 2 and the tools within an FE commercial package (i.e. Midas FEA) to yield that existing knowledge and practise is at times over-conservative.
Paper Detail
1875
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31
9999917
Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading
Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Paper Detail
2585
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30
10000108
Theoretical Modal Analysis of Freely and Simply Supported RC Slabs
Abstract:

This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. Therefore, the theoretical modal analysis was performed using two different types of boundary conditions. Modal analysis method is the most important dynamic analyses. The analysis would be modal case when there is no external force on the structure. By using this method in this paper, the effects of freely and simply supported boundary conditions on the frequencies and mode shapes of RC square slabs are studied. ANSYS software was employed to derive the finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the slabs. Then, the obtained results through numerical analysis (finite element analysis) would be compared with the exact solution. The main goal of the research study is to predict how the boundary conditions change the behavior of the slab structures prior to performing experimental modal analysis. Based on the results, it is concluded that simply support boundary condition has obvious influence to increase the natural frequencies and change the shape of the mode when it is compared with freely supported boundary condition of slabs. This means that such support conditions have the direct influence on the dynamic behavior of the slabs. Thus, it is suggested to use free-free boundary condition in experimental modal analysis to precisely reflect the properties of the structure. By using free-free boundary conditions, the influence of poorly defined supports is interrupted.

Paper Detail
2815
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29
9999699
Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab
Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Paper Detail
1689
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28
9999602
Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser- Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation
Abstract:

This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Paper Detail
1321
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27
9999232
Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ
Authors:
Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Paper Detail
1794
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26
9996783
Buckling of Plates on Foundation with Different Types of Sides Support
Abstract:

In this paper the problem of buckling of plates on foundation of finite length and with different side support is studied.

The Finite Strip Method is used as tool for the analysis. This method uses finite strip elastic, foundation, and geometric matrices to build the assembly matrices for the whole structure, then after introducing boundary conditions at supports, the resulting reduced matrices is transformed into a standard Eigenvalue-Eigenvector problem. The solution of this problem will enable the determination of the buckling load, the associated buckling modes and the buckling wave length.

To carry out the buckling analysis starting from the elastic, foundation, and geometric stiffness matrices for each strip a computer program FORTRAN list is developed.

Since stiffness matrices are function of wave length of buckling, the computer program used an iteration procedure to find the critical buckling stress for each value of foundation modulus and for each boundary condition.

The results showed the use of elastic medium to support plates subject to axial load increase a great deal the buckling load, the results found are very close with those obtained by other analytical methods and experimental work.

The results also showed that foundation compensates the effect of the weakness of some types of constraint of side support and maximum benefit found for plate with one side simply supported the other free.

Paper Detail
1540
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25
9996995
Effect of Transverse Reinforcement on the Behavior of Tension Lap splice in High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Beams
Abstract:

The results of an experimental program conducted on seventeen simply supported concrete beams to study the effect of transverse reinforcement on the behavior of lap splice of steel reinforcement in tension zones in high strength concrete beams, are presented. The parameters included in the experimental program were the concrete compressive strength, the lap splice length, the amount of transverse reinforcement provided within the splice region, and the shape of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars. The experimental results showed that the displacement ductility increased and the mode of failure changed from splitting bond failure to flexural failure when the amount of transverse reinforcement in splice region increased, and the compressive strength increased up to 100 MPa. The presence of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars had pronounced effect on increasing the ultimate load, the ultimate deflection, and the displacement ductility. The prediction of maximum steel stresses for spliced bars using ACI 318-05 building code was compared with the experimental results. The comparison showed that the effect of transverse reinforcement around spliced bars has to be considered into the design equations for lap splice length in high strength concrete beams.

Paper Detail
3690
downloads
24
17336
Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells
Abstract:

Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.

Paper Detail
1292
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23
16619
Influence of Fibre Content on Crack Propagation Rate in Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Beams
Abstract:

Experimental study on the influence of fibre content on crack behaviour and propagation in synthetic-fibre reinforced beams has been reported in this paper. The tensile behaviour of metallic fibre concrete is evaluated in terms of residual flexural tensile strength values determined from the load-crack mouth opening displacement curve or load-deflection curve obtained by applying a centre-point load on a simply supported notched prism. The results achieved demonstrate that an increase in fibre content has an almost negligible effect on compressive and tensile splitting properties, causes a marginal increment in flexural tensile strength and increasesthe Re3 value.

Paper Detail
2930
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22
9997158
Exact Analysis of Resonance Frequencies of Simply Supported Cylindrical Shells
Abstract:

In order to study the free vibration of simply supported circular cylindrical shells; an analytical procedure is developed and discussed in detail. To identify its’ validity, the exact technique was applied to four different shell theories 1) Soedel, 2) Flugge, 3) Morley-Koiter, and 4) Donnell. The exact procedure was compared favorably with experimental results and those obtained using the numerical finite element method. A literature review reveals that beam functions are used extensively as an approximation for simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of this approximate method were also investigated on the natural frequencies by comparing results with those of the exact analysis.

Paper Detail
2684
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21
9996932
Optimal Placement of Piezoelectric Actuators on Plate Structures for Active Vibration Control Using Modified Control Matrix and Singular Value Decomposition Approach
Abstract:

The present work deals with the optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators on a thin plate using Modified Control Matrix and Singular Value Decomposition (MCSVD) approach. The problem has been formulated using the finite element method using ten piezoelectric actuators on simply supported plate to suppress first six modes. The sizes of ten actuators are combined to outline one actuator by adding the ten columns of control matrix to form a column matrix. The singular value of column control matrix is considered as the fitness function and optimal positions of the actuators are obtained by maximizing it with GA. Vibration suppression has been studied for simply supported plate with piezoelectric patches in optimal positions using Linear Quadratic regulator) scheme. It is observed that MCSVD approach has given the position of patches adjacent to each-other, symmetric to the centre axis and given greater vibration suppression than other previously published results on SVD. 

Paper Detail
2404
downloads
20
4801
Optimization of Wood Fiber Orientation Angle in Outer Layers of Variable Stiffness Plywood Plate
Abstract:
The new optimization method for fiber orientation angle optimization of symmetrical multilayer plates like plywood is proposed. Optimization method consists of seeking for minimal compliance by choosing appropriate fiber orientation angle in outer layers of flexural plate. The discrete values of fiber orientation angles are used in method. Optimization results of simply supported plate and multispan plate with uniformly distributed load are provided. Results show that stiffness could be increased up to 20% by changing wood fiber orientation angle in one or two outer layers.
Paper Detail
1216
downloads
19
9996869
Flexure of Simply Supported Thick Beams Using Refined Shear Deformation Theory
Abstract:

A trigonometric shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams, taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is developed. The number of variables in the present theory is same as that in the first order shear deformation theory. The sinusoidal function is used in displacement field in terms of thickness coordinate to represent the shear deformation effects. The noteworthy feature of this theory is that the transverse shear stresses can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations with excellent accuracy, satisfying the shear stress free conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained by using the principle of virtual work. The thick simply supported isotropic beams are considered for the numerical studies to demonstrate the efficiency of the results obtained is discussed critically with those of other theories.

Paper Detail
930
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18
13934
Mechanical Buckling of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation
Abstract:
This paper studies mechanical buckling of functionally graded beams subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and foundation coefficient on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.
Paper Detail
1113
downloads
17
12042
Localized Non-Stability of the Semi-Infinite Elastic Orthotropic Plate
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with an investigation into the localized non-stability of a thin elastic orthotropic semi-infinite plate. In this study, a semi-infinite plate, simply supported on two edges and different boundary conditions, clamped, hinged, sliding contact and free on the other edge, are considered. The mathematical model is used and a general solution is presented the conditions under which localized solutions exist are investigated.
Paper Detail
664
downloads
16
13953
RBF- based Meshless Method for Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates
Abstract:
The governing differential equations of laminated plate utilizing trigonometric shear deformation theory are derived using energy approach. The governing differential equations discretized by different radial basis functions are used to predict the free vibration behavior of symmetric laminated composite plates. Effect of orthotropy and span to thickness ratio on frequency parameter of simply supported laminated plate is presented. Numerical results show the accuracy and good convergence of radial basis functions.
Paper Detail
1443
downloads
15
13486
The Small Scale Effect on Nonlinear Vibration of Single Layer Graphene Sheets
Abstract:
In the present article, nonlinear vibration analysis of single layer graphene sheets is presented and the effect of small length scale is investigated. Using the Hamilton's principle, the three coupled nonlinear equations of motion are obtained based on the von Karman geometrical model and Eringen theory of nonlocal continuum. The solutions of Free nonlinear vibration, based on a one term mode shape, are found for both simply supported and clamped graphene sheets. A complete analysis of graphene sheets with movable as well as immovable in-plane conditions is also carried out. The results obtained herein are compared with those available in the literature for classical isotropic rectangular plates and excellent agreement is seen. Also, the nonlinear effects are presented as functions of geometric properties and small scale parameter.
Paper Detail
1676
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14
3401
Thermal Buckling of Rectangular FGM Plate with Variation Thickness
Abstract:

Equilibrium and stability equations of a thin rectangular plate with length a, width b, and thickness h(x)=C1x+C2, made of functionally graded materials under thermal loads are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory. It is assumed that the material properties vary as a power form of thickness coordinate variable z. The derived equilibrium and buckling equations are then solved analytically for a plate with simply supported boundary conditions. One type of thermal loading, uniform temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered, and the buckling temperatures are derived. The influences of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index and the transverse shear on buckling temperature difference are all discussed.

Paper Detail
1387
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13
7611
Developing of Fragility Curve for Two-Span Simply Supported Concrete Bridge in Near-Fault Area
Abstract:
Bridges are one of the main components of transportation networks. They should be functional before and after earthquake for emergency services. Therefore we need to assess seismic performance of bridges under different seismic loadings. Fragility curve is one of the popular tools in seismic evaluations. The fragility curves are conditional probability statements, which give the probability of a bridge reaching or exceeding a particular damage level for a given intensity level. In this study, the seismic performance of a two-span simply supported concrete bridge is assessed. Due to usual lack of empirical data, the analytical fragility curve was developed by results of the dynamic analysis of bridge subjected to the different time histories in near-fault area.
Paper Detail
1847
downloads
12
1975
Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams
Abstract:
This work presents the highly accurate numerical calculation of the natural frequencies for functionally graded beams with simply supported boundary conditions. The Timoshenko first order shear deformation beam theory and the higher order shear deformation beam theory of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams analysis. The material property gradient is assumed to be in the thickness direction. The Hamilton-s principle is utilized to obtain the dynamic equations of functionally graded beams. The influences of the volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on the fundamental frequencies are discussed. Comparison of the numerical results for the homogeneous beam with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory results show that the derived model is satisfactory.
Paper Detail
1498
downloads
11
445
Thermal and Mechanical Buckling of Short and Long Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Using First Order Shear Deformation Theory
Abstract:
This paper presents the buckling analysis of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells under thermal and mechanical loads. The shell properties are assumed to vary continuously from the inner surface to the outer surface of the shell. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations and first order shear deformation theory assumptions. The resulting equations are solved for simply supported boundary conditions. The critical temperature and pressure loads are calculated for both short and long cylindrical shells. Comparison studies show the effects of functionally graded index, loading type and shell geometry on critical buckling loads of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells.
Paper Detail
1398
downloads
10
11727
FRC – A New Sustainable Option for Construction to Mitigate Earthquakes
Abstract:
Ten simply supported grossly underreinforced tapered concrete beams of full size were tested upto complete collapse under flexural effect .Out of 10 beams, 5 beams were nonfibrous and the remaining beams contained fibres. The beams had a variation in the tapered angle as 2°, 4°, 6°, 8° and 10°. The concrete mix, conventional steel and the type of fibre used were held constant. Flat corrugated steel fibres were utilized as secondary reinforcement. The strength and stability parameters were measured. It is established that the fibrous tapered beams can be used economically in earthquake prone areas.
Paper Detail
930
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