International Science Index
Processing Design of Miniature Casting Incorporating Stereolithography Technologies
Investment casting is commonly used in the production of metallic components with complex shapes, due to its high dimensional precision, good surface finish, and low cost. However, the process is cumbersome, and the period between trial casting and final production can be very long, thereby limiting business opportunities and competitiveness. In this study, we replaced conventional wax injection with stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing to speed up the trial process and reduce costs. We also used silicone molds to further reduce costs to avoid the high costs imposed by photosensitive resin.
Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation
Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.
Investigation of Solvent Effect on Viscosity of Lubricant in Disposable Medical Devices
The effects of type and amount of solvent on lubricant which is used in disposable medical devices are investigated in this article. Two kinds of common solvent, n-Hexane and n-Heptane, are used. The mechanical behavior of syringe has shown that n-Heptane has better mixing ratio and also more effective spray process in the barrel of syringe than n-Hexane because of similar solubility parameter to silicon oil. The results revealed that movement of plunger in the barrel increases when pure silicone is used because non-uniform film is created on the surface of barrel, and also, it seems that the form of silicon is converted from oil to gel due to sterilization process. The results showed that the convenient mixing ratio of solvent/lubricant oil is 80/20.
Electric Field Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of 400 kV Silicone Composite Insulator
In electrical power system, high voltage insulators are necessary for consistent performance. All insulators are exposed to different mechanical and electrical stresses. Mechanical stresses occur due to various loads such as wind load, hardware and conductors weight. Electrical stresses are due to over voltages and operating voltages. The performance analysis of polymer insulators is an essential, as most of the electrical utility companies are employing polymer insulators for new and updated transmission lines. In this paper, electric field is analyzed for 400 kV silicone (SiR) composite insulator by COULOMB 3D software based on boundary element method. The field results are compared with EPRI reference values. Our results proved that values at critical regions are very less compared to EPRI reference values. And also experimentally 400 kV single V suspension string is evaluated as per IEC standards.
Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness
A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed
for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer
covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a
support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The
polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or
molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The
smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also
protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone
tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding
the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the
stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at
bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances
from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.
A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling
This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid
fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling
system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20
pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold
using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding.
The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform
using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for
building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers
industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and
Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface
In this paper a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing
is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and
bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The
viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air
flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to
form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore the bearing has the
better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as
compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double
the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.
Influence of Nano-ATH on Electrical Performance of LSR for HVDC Insulation
Many studies have been conducted on DC transmission. Of power apparatus for DC transmission, high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable systems are being evaluated because of the increase in power demand and transmission distance. Therefore, dc insulation characteristics of liquid silicone rubber (LSR), which has various advantages such as short curing time and the ease of maintenance, were investigated to assess its performance as a HVDC insulation material for cable joints. The electrical performance of LSR added to nano-aluminum trihydrate (ATH) were confirmed by measurements of the breakdown strength and electrical conductivity. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was used as a means of confirmation of nanofiller dispersion state. The LSR nanocomposite was prepared by compounding LSR filled nano-sized ATH filler. The dc insulation properties of LSR added to nano-sized ATH fillers were found to be superior to those of the LSR without a filler.
On the Oil Repellency of Nanotextured Aluminum Surface
Two different superhydrophobic surfaces were
elaborated and their oil repellency behavior was evaluated using
several liquid with different surface tension. A silicone rubber/SiO2
nanocomposite coated (A) on aluminum substrate by “spin-coating"
and the sample B was an anodized aluminum surface covered by
Teflon-like coating. A high static contact angle about ∼162° was
measured for two prepared surfaces on which the water droplet rolloff.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of
micro/nanostructures for both sample A and B similar to that of lotus
However the sample A presented significantly different behaviour
of wettability against the low surface tension liquid. Sample A has
been wetted totally by oil (dodecan) droplet while sample B showed
oleophobic behaviour. Oleophobic property of Teflon like coating
can be contributed to the presence of CF2 and CF3 functional group
which was shown by XPS analysis.
Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition
The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated
cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study
electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic
materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper
describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch
(OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone
rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation
bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt %
respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of
the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the
addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of
silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation
and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for
high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of
physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant
material are required.
Comparison Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulators in Artificial Accelerated Salt Fog Ageing Test
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators in salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109. Specimens made ofHTV silicone rubber with ATH content having three different configurations, straight shedsalternated sheds, and incline and alternate sheds, were tested continuously 1000 hrs.in artificial salt fog chamber. Contamination level, reduction of hydrophobicity and hardness measurement were used as physical damaged inspection techniques to evaluate degree of surface deterioration. In addition, chemical changing of tested specimen surface was evaluated by ATR-FTIRto confirm physical damaged inspection. After 1000 hrs.of salt fog test, differences in degree of surface deterioration were observed on all tested specimens. Physical damaged inspection and chemical analysis results confirmed the experimental results as well.
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
This paper presents the experimental results on
ageing deterioration of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulator
under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. In order to comparison effect of chemical contents, silicone rubber outdoor
polymer insulators having same configuration and leakage distant
from two manufactures were tested together continuously 30,000 test cycles. Many discharge activities were observed in during the test.
After 30,000 test cycles, in spite of same configuration, differences in
degree of surface aging were observed. Physical analysis such as
decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness
measurement were measured on two-type tested specimen surface in order to confirm degree of surface ageing. Furthermore, chemical
analysis by ATR-FTIR to diagnose the chemical change of tested
specimen surface was conducted to confirm the physical analysis results.
Nanobiocomposites with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Improved Mechanical Properties Based on Organomodified-Nanoclay and Silicone Rubber
Bionanotechnology deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. Polymer nanocomposites with optimized biological activity have attracted great attention. Nanoclay is considered as reinforcing nanofiller in manufacturing of high performance nanocomposites. In current study, organomodified-nanoclay with negatively charged silicate layers was incorporated into biomedical grade silicone rubber. Nanoparticle loading has been tailored to enhance cell behavior. Addition of nanoparticles led to improved mechanical properties of substrate with enhanced strength and stiffness while no toxic effects was observed. Results indicated improved viability and proliferation of cells by addition of nanofillers. The improved mechanical properties of the matrix result in proper cell response through adjustment and arrangement of cytoskeletal fibers. Results can be applied in tissue engineering when enhanced substrates are required for improvement of cell behavior for in vivo applications.
Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.
Spiral Cuff for Fiber-Diameter Selective VNS
In this paper we present the modeling, design, and
experimental testing of a nerve cuff multi-electrode system for
diameter-selective vagus nerve stimulation.
The multi-electrode system contained ninety-nine platinum
electrodes embedded within a self-curling spiral silicone sheet. The
electrodes were organized in a matrix having nine parallel groups,
each containing eleven electrodes.
Preliminary testing of the nerve cuff was performed in an isolated
segment of a swinish left cervical vagus nerve. For selective vagus
nerve stimulation, precisely defined current quasitrapezoidal,
asymmetric and biphasic stimulating pulses were applied to
preselected locations along the left vagus segment via appointed
group of three electrodes within the cuff. Selective stimulation was
obtained by anodal block. However, these pulses may not be safe for
a long-term application because of a frequently used high imbalance
between the cathodic and anodic part of the stimulating pulse.
Preliminary results show that the cuff was capable of exciting A
and B-fibres, and, that for a certain range of parameters used in
stimulating pulses, the contribution of A-fibres to the CAP was
slightly reduced and the contribution of B-fibres was slightly larger.
Results also showed that measured CAPs are not greatly
influenced by the imbalance between a charge Qc injected in cathodic
and Qa in anodic phase of quasitrapezoidal, asymmetric and biphasic
In-Situ Monitoring the Thermal Forming of Glass and Si Foils for Space X-Ray Telescopes
We developed a non-contact method for the in-situ
monitoring of the thermal forming of glass and Si foils to optimize
the manufacture of mirrors for high-resolution space x-ray
telescopes. Their construction requires precise and light-weight
segmented optics with angular resolution better than 5 arcsec. We
used 75x25 mm Desag D263 glass foils 0.75 mm thick and 0.6 mm
thick Si foils. The glass foils were shaped by free slumping on a
frame at viscosities in the range of 109.3-1012 dPa·s, the Si foils by
forced slumping above 1000°C. Using a Nikon D80 digital camera,
we took snapshots of a foil-s shape every 5 min during its isothermal
heat treatment. The obtained results we can use for computer
simulations. By comparing the measured and simulated data, we can
more precisely define material properties of the foils and optimize
the forming technology.
Chain Extender on Property Relationships of Polyurethane Derived from Soybean Oil
Polyurethane foams (PUF) has been prepared from
vegetable; soybean based polyols. They were characterized into
flexible and semi rigid polyurethane foam. This work is directed to
production of flexible polyurethane foams by a process involving the
reaction of mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-Toluene di Isocyanate isomers,
with portion of to blends of soy polyols with petroleum polyol in the
presence of other ingredients such as blowing agents, silicone
surfactants and accelerating agents. Additon of chain extender
improves the property then further decreases the properties on further
addition of the same. The objective of this work was to study the
effect of chain extender and role of phosphoric acid catalyst to the
final properties and correlate the morphology image with mechanical
properties of these foams.
Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulator under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber polymer insulators for 22 kV systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. Straight shed silicone rubber polymer insulators having leakage distance 685 mm were tested continuously 30,000 cycles. One test cycle includes 4 positions, energized, de-energized, salt water dip and deenergized, respectively. For one test cycle, each test specimen remains stationary for about 40 second in each position and takes 8 second for rotate to next position. By visual observation, sever surface erosion was observed on the trunk near the energized end of tested specimen. Puncture was observed on the upper shed near the energized end. In addition, decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Furthermore, chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen.
Study of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators
This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000<=hours in salt fog chamber. By visual observation after tested, slightly surface erosion was observed on tested specimen surface near the energized end. Furthermore, increasing in hardness and reduction in hydrophobicity were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. In addition, chemical analysis by ATRFTIR was conducted in order to elucidate the chemical change of tested specimens comparing with new specimen. Physical and chemical results confirmed the experimental results as well.
Artificial Accelerated Ageing Test of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Lightning Arrester
This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber housing material for 24kV lightning arrester under artificial accelerated ageing test based on IEC 61109 specifications. Specimens having inclined and alternated shed made of HTV silicone rubber with ATH content and having leakage distance 625 mm were tested continuously 1000 hrs in artificial salt fog chamber. After 1000 hrs of salt fog ageing test, obviously surface erosion was observed on trunk between the upper large shed and the lower small shed near the energized end. Decreasing in hydrophobicity and increasing in hardness were measured on tested specimen comparing with new specimen. Chemical analysis by ATR-FTIR confirmed the observation results.
FEM Analysis of the Interaction between a Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor and Biological Tissues
The present paper presents a finite element model and
analysis for the interaction between a piezoresistive tactile sensor and
biological tissues. The tactile sensor is proposed for use in minimally
invasive surgery to deliver tactile information of biological tissues to
surgeons. The proposed sensor measures the relative hardness of soft
contact objects as well as the contact force. Silicone rubbers were
used as the phantom of biological tissues. Finite element analysis of
the silicone rubbers and the mechanical structure of the sensor were
performed using COMSOL Multiphysics (v3.4) environment. The
simulation results verify the capability of the sensor to be used to
differentiate between different kinds of silicone rubber materials.
Silicone on Blending Vegetal Petrochemical Based Polyurethane
Polyurethane foam (PUF) is formed by a chemical
reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The aim is to understand the
impact of Silicone on synthesizing polyurethane in differentiate
volume of molding. The method used was one step process, which is
simultaneously caried out a blending polyol (petroleum polyol and
soybean polyol), a TDI (2,4):MDI (4,4-) (80:20), a distilled water,
and a silicone. The properties of the material were measured via a
number of parameters, which are polymer density, compressive
strength, and cellular structures. It is found that density of
polyurethane using silicone with volume of molding either 250 ml or
500 ml is lower than without using silicone.
Experimental Investigation of Phase Distributions of Two-phase Air-silicone Oil Flow in a Vertical Pipe
This paper reports the results of an experimental study
conducted to characterise the gas-liquid multiphase flows
experienced within a vertical riser transporting a range of gas-liquid
flow rates. The scale experiments were performed using an
air/silicone oil mixture within a 6 m long riser. The superficial air
velocities studied ranged from 0.047 to 2.836 m/ s, whilst
maintaining a liquid superficial velocity at 0.047 m/ s. Measurements
of the mean cross-sectional and time average radial void fraction
were obtained using a wire mesh sensor (WMS). The data were
recorded at an acquisition frequency of 1000 Hz over an interval of
60 seconds. For the range of flow conditions studied, the average
void fraction was observed to vary between 0.1 and 0.9. An analysis
of the data collected concluded that the observed void fraction was
strongly affected by the superficial gas velocity, whereby the higher
the superficial gas velocity, the higher was the observed average void
fraction. The average void fraction distributions observed were in
good agreement with the results obtained by other researchers. When
the air-silicone oil flows were fully developed reasonably symmetric
profiles were observed, with the shape of the symmetry profile being
strongly dependent on the superficial gas velocity.
Hydrophobic Characteristics of EPDM Composite Insulators in Simulated Arid Desert Environment
Overhead electrical insulators form an important link in an electric power system. Along with the traditional insulators (i.e. glass and porcelain, etc) presently the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters such temperature, environmental pollution, UV-radiations, etc. which seriously effect their electrical, chemical and hydrophobic properties. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the IEC standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. Commonly used suspension type of composite EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) insulator was subjected to accelerated stress aging as per modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid deserts atmospheric condition and also as per IEC-61109 standard. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that EPDM insulator loses it hydrophobic properties proportional to the intensity of UV irradiations and its rate of recovery is also very low as compared to Silicone Rubber insulator.KeywordsEPDM, composite insulators, accelerated aging, hydrophobicity, contact angle.
Vibration Reduction Module with Flexure Springs for Personal Tools
In the various working field, vibration may cause injurious to human body. Especially, in case of the vibration which is constantly and repeatedly transferred to the human. That gives serious physical problem, so called, Reynaud phenomenon. In this paper, we propose a vibration transmissibility reduction module with flexure mechanism for personal tools. At first, we select a target personal tool, grass cutter, and measure the level of vibration transmissibility on the hand. And then, we develop the concept design of the module that has stiffness for reduction the vibration transmissibility more than 20%, where the vibration transmissibility is measured with an accelerometer. In addition, the vibration reduction can be enhanced when the interior gap between inner and outer body is filled with silicone gel. This will be verified by the further experiment.
Wind-tunnel Measurement of the Drag-reducing Effect of Compliant Coating
A specially designed flat plate was mounted vertically
over the axial line in the wind tunnel of the Aerospace Department of
the Pusan National University. The plate is 2 m long, 0.8 m high and 8
cm thick. The measurements were performed in velocity range from
15 to 60 m/s. A sand paper turbulizer was placed close to the plate nose
to provide fully developed turbulent boundary layer over the most part
of the plate. Strain balances were mounted in the trailing part of the
plate to measure the skin friction drag over removable insertions of
0.55×0.25m2 size. A set of the insertions was designed and
manufactured: 3mm thick polished metal surface and three compliant
surfaces. The compliant surfaces were manufactured of a silicone
rubber Silastic® S2 (Dow Corning company). To modify the
viscoelastic properties of the rubber, its composition was varied: 90%
of the rubber + 10% catalyst (standard), 92.5% + 7.5% (weak), 85% +
15% (strong). Modulus of elasticity and the loss tangent were
measured accurately for these materials in the frequency range from
40 Hz to 3 KHz using the unique proposed technique.
Advanced Micromanufacturing for Ultra Precision Part by Soft Lithography and Nano Powder Injection Molding
Recently, the advanced technologies that offer high
precision product, relative easy, economical process and also rapid
production are needed to realize the high demand of ultra precision
micro part. In our research, micromanufacturing based on soft
lithography and nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The
silicone metal pattern with ultra thick and high aspect ratio succeeds to
fabricate Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro mold. The process
followed by nanopowder injection molding (PIM) by a simple vacuum
hot press. The 17-4ph nanopowder with diameter of 100 nm, succeed
to be injected and it forms green sample microbearing with thickness,
microchannel and aspect ratio is 700μm, 60μm and 12, respectively.
Sintering process was done in 1200 C for 2 hours and heating rate
0.83oC/min. Since low powder load (45% PL) was applied to achieve
green sample fabrication, ~15% shrinkage happen in the 86% relative
density. Several improvements should be done to produce high
accuracy and full density sintered part.
Analysis of Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Insulators under Various Contamination Conditions Using Finite Element Method
This paper presents the simulation results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators under clean and various contamination conditions with/without water droplets. Straight sheds insulator having leakage distance 290 mm was used in this study. Two type of contaminants, playwood dust and cement dust, have been studied the effect of contamination on the insulator surface. The objective of this work is to comparison the effect of contamination on potential and electric field distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets exist on the insulator surface. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results show that contaminations have no effect on potential distribution along the insulator surface while electric field distributions are obviously depended on contamination conditions.
Construction of Water Electrolyzer for Single Slice O2/H2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell
In the first part of the research work, an electrolyzer (10.16 cm dia and 24.13 cm height) to produce hydrogen and oxygen was constructed for single slice O2/H2 fuel cell using cation exchange membrane. The electrolyzer performance was tested with 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH electrolyte solution with current input 4 amp and 2.84 V from the rectifier. Rates of volume of hydrogen produced were 0.159 cm3/sec, 0.155 cm3/sec, 0.169 cm3/sec and 0.163 cm3/sec respectively from 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH solution. Rates of volume of oxygen produced were 0.212 cm3/sec, 0.201 cm3/sec, 0.227 cm3/sec and 0.219 cm3/sec respectively from 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH solution (1.5 L). In spite of being tested the increased concentration of electrolyte solution, the gas rate does not change significantly. Therefore, inexpensive 23% NaOH electrolyte solution was chosen to use as the electrolyte in the electrolyzer. In the second part of the research work, graphite serpentine flow plates, fiberglass end plates, stainless steel screen electrodes, silicone rubbers were made to assemble the single slice O2/H2 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).
Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method
This paper presents the simulation the results of
electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone
rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected
to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone
rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance
than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface
ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of
this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight
sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing
test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The
simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.