International Science Index
Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design
In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low turn-on resistance RON (3.55 mΩ-cm2), low reverse leakage current (< 0.1 µA) at -100 V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (> 1.1 kV) SBD has been fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615 V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525 V (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 40 µm). Devices without the field plate design exhibit a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 60.2 MW/cm2, whereas devices with the field plate design show a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 340.9 MW/cm2 (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 20 µm).
Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks
This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 ≦q"≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.
Development of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Nb2O5 for Functional Electrodes of Advanced Electrochemical Systems
In recent times there has been a growing interest in the
development of quasi-two-dimensional niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5)
as a semiconductor for the potential electronic applications such as
capacitors, filtration, dye-sensitised solar cells and gas sensing
platforms. Therefore once the purpose is established, Nb2O5 can be
prepared in a number of nano- and sub-micron-structural
morphologies that include rods, wires, belts and tubes. In this study
films of Nb2O5 were prepared on gold plated silicon substrate using
spin-coating technique and subsequently by mechanical exfoliation.
The reason this method was employed was to achieve layers of less
than 15nm in thickness. The sintering temperature of the specimen
was 800oC. The morphology and structural characteristics of the
films were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman
Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces
Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.
Silicon-based Low-Power Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)
We demonstrate a 1×4 coarse wavelength
division-multiplexing (CWDM) planar concave grating
multiplexer/demultiplexer and its application in re-configurable
optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) system in silicon-on-insulator
substrate. The wavelengths of the demonstrated concave grating
multiplexer align well with the ITU-T standard. We demonstrate a
prototype of ROADM comprising two such concave gratings and four
wide-band thermo-optical MZI switches. Undercut technology which
removes the underneath silicon substrate is adopted in optical switches
in order to minimize the operation power. For all the thermal heaters,
the operation voltage is smaller than 1.5 V, and the switch power is
~2.4 mW. High throughput pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS)
data transmission with up to 100 Gb/s is demonstrated, showing the
high-performance ROADM functionality.
Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor
We present a label-free biosensor based on
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory
cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of
TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including
rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were
patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of
dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor
which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was
also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer
resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.
Raman Scattering and PL Studies on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Layers on 200 mm Si(111)
The crystalline quality of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown on a 200 mm silicon substrate has been investigated using UV-visible micro- Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The visible Raman scattering probes the whole nitride stack with the Si substrate and shows the presence of a small component of residual in-plane stress in the thick GaN buffer resulting from a wafer bowing, while the UV micro-Raman indicates a tensile interfacial stress induced at the top GaN/AlGaN/AlN layers. PL shows a good crystal quality GaN channel where the yellow band intensity is very low compared to that of the near-band-edge transition. The uniformity of this sample is shown by measurements from several points across the epiwafer.
Characterization of Carbon Based Nanometer Scale Coil Growth
The carbon based coils with the nanometer scale have
the 3 dimension helix geometry. We synthesized the carbon nano-coils
by the use of chemical vapor deposition technique with iron and tin as
the catalysts. The fabricated coils have the external diameter of
ranging few hundred nm to few thousand nm. The Scanning
Electro-Microscope (SEM) and Tunneling Electro-Microscope has
shown detail images of the coil-s structure. The fabrication of the
carbon nano-coils can be grown on the metal and non-metal substrates,
such as the stainless steel and silicon substrates. Besides growth on the
flat substrate; they also can be grown on the stainless steel wires. After
the synthesis of the coils, the mechanical and electro-mechanical
property is measured. The experimental results were reported.
Interactions between Cells and Nanoscale Surfaces of Oxidized Silicon Substrates
The importance for manipulating an incorporated
scaffold and directing cell behaviors is well appreciated for tissue
engineering. Here, we developed newly nano-topographic oxidized
silicon nanosponges capable of being various chemical modifications
to provide much insight into the fundamental biology of how cells
interact with their surrounding environment in vitro. A wet etching
technique is exerted to allow us fabricated the silicon nanosponges in a
high-throughput manner. Furthermore, various organo-silane
chemicals enabled self-assembled on the surfaces by vapor deposition.
We have found that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells displayed
certain distinguishable morphogenesis, adherent responses, and
biochemical properties while cultured on these chemical modified
nano-topographic structures in compared with the planar oxidized
silicon counterparts, indicating that cell behaviors can be influenced
by certain physical characteristic derived from nano-topography in
addition to the hydrophobicity of contact surfaces crucial for cell
adhesion and spreading. Of particular, there were predominant
nano-actin punches and slender protrusions formed while cells were
cultured on the nano-topographic structures. This study shed potential
applications of these nano-topographic biomaterials for controlling
cell development in tissue engineering or basic cell biology research.
High Optical Properties and Rectifying Behavior of ZnO (Nano and Microstructures)/Si Heterostructures
We investigated a modified thermal evaporation
method in the growth process of ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires
were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates without using a metal
catalyst. A simple horizontal double-tube system along with
chemical vapor diffusion of the precursor was used to grow the ZnO
nanowires. The substrates were placed in different temperature
zones, and ZnO nanowires with different diameters were obtained for
the different substrate temperatures. In addition to the nanowires,
ZnO microdiscs with different diameters were obtained on another
substrate, which was placed at a lower temperature than the other
substrates. The optical properties and crystalline quality of the ZnO
nanowires and microdiscs were characterized by room temperature
photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrometers. The PL and
Raman studies demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs
grown using such set-up had good crystallinity with excellent optical
properties. Rectifying behavior of ZnO/Si heterostructures was
characterized by a simple DC circuit.
Effect of CW Laser Annealing on Silicon Surface for Application of Power Device
As application of re-activation of backside on power
device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), laser annealing was
employed to irradiate amorphous silicon substrate, and resistivities
were measured using four point probe measurement. For annealing
the amorphous silicon two lasers were used at wavelength of visible
green (532 nm) together with Infrared (793 nm). While the green
laser efficiently increased temperature at top surface the Infrared
laser reached more deep inside and was effective for melting the
top surface. A finite element method was employed to evaluate time
dependent thermal distribution in silicon substrate.
Three Dimensional MEMS Supercapacitor Fabricated by DRIE on Silicon Substrate
Micro power sources are required to be used in autonomous microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper,
we designed and fabricated a three dimensional (3D) MEMS supercapacitor, which is consisting of conformal silicon
dioxide/titanium/polypyrrole (PPy) layers on silicon substrate. At first, ''through-structure'' was fabricated on the silicon substrate by high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) method, which enlarges the available surface area significantly. Then the SiO2/Ti/PPy layers grew sequentially on the ³through-structure´. Finally, the supercapacitor was investigated by electrochemical methods.
Inductance Characteristic of Annealed Titanium Dioxide on Silicon Substrate
The control of oxygen flow rate during growth of
titanium dioxide by mass flow controller in DC plasma sputtering
growth system is studied. The impedance of TiO2 films for inductance
effect is influenced by annealing time and oxygen flow rate. As
annealing time is increased, the inductance of TiO2 film is the more.
The growth condition of optimum and maximum inductance for TiO2
film to serve as sensing device are oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm and
large annealing time. The large inductance of TiO2 film will be
adopted to fabricate the biosensor to obtain the high sensitivity of
sensing in biology.
Optical Reflectance of Pure and Doped Tin Oxide: From Thin Films to Poly-Crystalline Silicon/Thin Film Device
Films of pure tin oxide SnO2 and in presence of
antimony atoms (SnO2-Sb) deposited onto glass substrates have
shown a sufficiently high energy gap to be transparent in the visible
region, a high electrical mobility and a carrier concentration which
displays a good electrical conductivity . In this work, the effects of
polycrystalline silicon substrate on the optical properties of pure and
Sb doped tin oxide is investigated.
We used the APCVD (atmospheric pressure chemical vapour
deposition) technique, which is a low-cost and simple technique,
under nitrogen ambient, for growing this material. A series of SnO2
and SnO2-Sb have been deposited onto polycrystalline silicon
substrates with different contents of antimony atoms at the same
conditions of deposition (substrate temperature, flow oxygen,
duration and nitrogen atmosphere of the reactor). The effect of the
substrate in terms of morphology and nonlinear optical properties,
mainly the reflectance, was studied. The reflectance intensity of the
device, compared to the reflectance of tin oxide films deposited
directly on glass substrate, is clearly reduced on the overall
wavelength range. It is obvious that the roughness of the poly-c
silicon plays an important role by improving the reflectance and
hence the optical parameters.
A clear shift in the minimum of the reflectance upon doping level
is observed. This minimum corresponds to strong free carrier
absorption, resulting in different plasma frequency. This effect is
followed by an increase in the reflectance depending of the antimony
doping. Applying the extended Drude theory to the combining
optical and electrical obtained results these effects are discussed.