Wheat is an important cereal crop for food security. Boosting the wheat production and productivity is the major challenge across the nation. Good quality of seed is required for maintaining optimum plant stand which ultimately increases grain yield. Ensuring a good germination is one of the key steps to ensure proper plant stand and moisture assurance during seed germination may help to speed up the germination. The tiny size of nanoparticles may help in entry of water into seed without disturbing their internal structure. Considering above, a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The completely randomized design was used for statistical analysis. The experiment was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the appropriate concentration of nanoparticles for seed treatment was screened. In second phase seed soaking hours of nanoparticles for better seed germination were standardized. Wheat variety UP2526 was taken as test crop. Four nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan) were taken for study. The crop germination studies were done in petri dishes and standard package and practices were used to raise the seedlings. The germination studies were done by following standard procedure. In first phase of the experiment, seeds were treated with 50 and 300 ppm of nanoparticles and control was also maintained for comparison. In the second phase of experiment, seeds were soaked for 4 hours, 6 hours and 8 hours with 50 ppm nanoparticles of TiO2, ZnO, nickel and chitosan along with control treatment to identify the soaking time for better seed germination. Experiment revealed that the application of nanoparticles help to enhance seed germination. The study revealed that seed treatment with nanoparticles at 50 ppm concentration increases root length, shoot length, seedling length, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index I and seedling vigour index II as compared to seed soaking at 300 ppm concentration. This experiment showed that seed soaking up to 4 hr was better as compared to 6 and 8 hrs. Seed soaking with nanoparticles specially TiO2, ZnO, and chitosan proved to enhance germination and seedling growth indices of wheat crop.
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.
Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel is a root holoparasitic weed plant of many cultivations, particularly of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) crop. In Italy, Phelipanche problem is increasing, both in density and in acreage. The biological control of this parasitic weed involves the use of living organisms as numerous fungi and bacteria that can infect the parasitic weed, while it may improve the crop growth. This paper deals with the biocontrol with microorganism, including Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and fungal pathogens as Fusarium oxisporum spp. Colonization of crop roots by AM fungi can provide protection of crops against parasitic weeds because of a reduction in their seed germination and attachment, while F. oxisporum, isolated from diseased broomrape tubercles, proved to be highly virulent on P. ramosa. The experimental trial was carried out in open field at Foggia province (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), during the spring-summer season 2016, in order to evaluate the effect of four biological treatments: AM fungi and Fusarium oxisporum applied in the soil alone or combined together, and Rizosum Max® product, compared with the untreated control, to reduce the P. ramosa infestation in processing tomato crop. The principal results to be drawn from this study under field condition, in contrast of those reported previously under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, show that both AM fungi and F. oxisporum do not provide the reduction of the number of emerged shoots of P. ramosa. This can arise probably from the low efficacy seedling of the agent pathogens for the control of this parasite in the field. On the contrary, the Rizosum Max® product, containing AM fungi and some rizophere bacteria combined with several minerals and organic substances, appears to be most effective for the reduction of P. ramosa infestation.
The agriculture lignocellulosic by-products are receiving increased attention, namely in the search for filter materials that retain contaminants from water. These by-products, specifically almond and hazelnut shells are abundant in Portugal once almond and hazelnuts production is a local important activity. Hazelnut and almond shells have as main constituents lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, water soluble extractives and tannins. Along the adsorption of heavy metals from contaminated waters, water soluble compounds can leach from shells and have a negative impact in the environment. Usually, the chemical characterization of treated water by itself may not show environmental impact caused by the discharges when parameters obey to legal quality standards for water. Only biological systems can detect the toxic effects of the water constituents. Therefore, the evaluation of toxicity by biological tests is very important when deciding the suitability for safe water discharge or for irrigation applications.
The main purpose of the present work was to assess the potential impacts of waters after been treated for heavy metal removal by hazelnut and almond shells adsorption systems, with short term acute toxicity tests.
To conduct the study, water at pH 6 with 25 mg.L-1 of lead, was treated with 10 g of shell per litre of wastewater, for 24 hours. This procedure was followed for each bark. Afterwards the water was collected for toxicological assays; namely bacterial resistance, seed germination, Lemna minor L. test and plant grow. The effect in isolated bacteria strains was determined by disc diffusion method and the germination index of seed was evaluated using lettuce, with temperature and humidity germination control for 7 days. For aquatic higher organism, Lemnas were used with 4 days contact time with shell solutions, in controlled light and temperature. For terrestrial higher plants, biomass production was evaluated after 14 days of tomato germination had occurred in soil, with controlled humidity, light and temperature.
Toxicity tests of water treated with shells revealed in some extent effects in the tested organisms, with the test assays showing a close behaviour as the control, leading to the conclusion that its further utilization may not be considered to create a serious risk to the environment.
Salt stress adversely affects plant growth at various stages of development including seed germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth and finally reproduction. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to salt stress. Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated SHG1 (salt hypersensitive germination 1), whose disruption leads to reduced germination rate under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin-repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. The shg1-disrupted Arabidopsis mutant died at the cotyledon stage when sown on salt-containing medium, although wild-type plants could form true leaves under the same conditions. On the other hand, this mutant showed similar phenotypes to wild-type plants when sown on medium without salt and transferred to salt-containing medium at the vegetative stage. These results suggested that SHG1 played indispensable role in the seed germination and seedling establishment under moderate salt stress conditions. SHG1 may be involved in the release of seed dormancy.
Germination and seedling responses of seven safflower seed genotypes (Dinçer, Remzibey, Black Sun2 cultivars and A19, F4, I1, J19 lines) to different salinity concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 20g l-1) and temperatures (10 and 20oC) evaluated in Completely Randomized Factorial Designs in Department of Field Crops of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. Seeds in the control (distilled water) had at 10 and 20oC the highest germination percentage (93.88 and 94.32%), shoot length (4.60 and 8.72cm) and root length (4.27 and 6.54cm) shoot dry weight (22.37mg and 25.99mg) and root dry weight (2.22 and 2.47mg). As the salt concentration increased, values of all characters were decreased. In this experiment, in 20g l-1 salt concentration found germination percentage (21.28 and 26.66%), shoot (1.32 and 1.35cm) and root length (1.04 and 1.10cm) shoot (8.05mg and 7.49mg) and root dry weight (0.83 and 0.98mg) at 10 and 20oC.
Sodium nitrate has been used industrially in a number of work fields ranging from agriculture to food industry. Sodium nitrate and nitrite are associated with a higher risk of cancer in human beings. In present study, the effect of sodium nitrate on germinating seeds was studied. Two different sets of ungerminated Vigna radiata seeds were taken. In one set Vigna radiata seeds were soaked in distilled water for 4 hours and they were allowed to germinate in distilled water (Control) and 0.1 to 1% and 10% concentrations of sodium nitrate (NaNo3). In soaked seed set, on 2nd day radical developed in control and 0.1 to 1% concentrations of sodium nitrate. Seeds size was enlarged in 1% and 10% concentrations of sodium nitrate. On 3rd day in 0.1% sodium nitrate length of the radicle was 7.5cm with one leaf let and control sample showed 9cm with one leaflet. On 5th day in 0.1% sodium nitrate length of the radicle was 10 cm with one leaf let and control sample showed 11.5cm with one leaflet. No radicle developed in 1 and 10% NaNo3 concentrations. On 10th day all plants including control were dead. More number of mitotic cells was observed in apical root meristems of control germinating seeds and less mitotic cells were observed in 0.1% NaNo3 germinating seeds. But cells were elongated in 0.9%NaNo3 concentration and particles are deposited in the cells and no mitotic cells were observed. In other sets, dry seeds were allowed to germinate in Distilled water (control) and in 0.1 to 1% and 10% concentrations of sodium nitrate. In dry seed set, on 2nd day radicle developed from control set. In 0.1 to 1% concentrations of sodium nitration seed enlarged in size but but not allowed germination. But in 10% NaNo3 seeds coat colour was changed from dark green to brown. On 3rd day the radicle was developed in 0.1% concentration of NaNo3. No growth of radicle was observed in 0.3 to 10% concentrations of NaNo3 but plumule was observed in control plant. Seed coat color was changed from dark green to brown in color in 1% and 10% NaNo3. On 5th day in control seeds the radicle growth was 11cm and 0.1% NaNo3 concentration was 1.3 cm. On 10th day all plants including control were dead. More number of mitotic cells was observed in apical root meristems of control germinating seeds and less mitotic cells were observed in 0.1% NaNo3 germinating seeds. At higher concentrations of NaNo3 allowed seed germination in soaked seeds but produced radicle decay. In comparison to it, in dry seed set, germination of seeds observed only in 0.1% NaNo3 concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaNo3 on seed germination is due to reduction of water imbibition and mitotic activity.
Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (Nox) gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Soil has a greater buffering capacity than aquatic systems. However excessive amount of acids introduced by acid rains may disturb the entire soil chemistry. Acidity and harmful action of toxic elements damage vegetation while susceptible microbial species are eliminated. In present study, the effects of simulated sulphuric acid and nitric acid rains were investigated on crop Glycine max. The effect of acid rain on change in soil fertility was detected in which pH of control sample was 6.5 and pH of 1%H2SO4 and 1%HNO3 were 3.5. Nitrogen nitrate in soil was high in 1% HNO3 treated soil & Control sample. Ammonium nitrogen in soil was low in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 treated soil. Ammonium nitrogen was medium in control and other samples. The effect of acid rain on seed germination on 3rd day of germination control sample growth was 7 cm, 0.1% HNO3 was 8cm, and 0.001% HNO3 & 0.001% H2SO4 was 6cm each. On 10th day fungal growth was observed in 1% and 0.1%H2SO4 concentrations, when all plants were dead. The effect of acid rain on crop productivity was investigated on 3rd day roots were developed in plants. On12th day Glycine max showed more growth in 0.1% HNO3, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants growth were same as compare to control plants. On 20th day development of discoloration of plant pigments were observed on acid treated plants leaves. On 38th day, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants and control plants were showing flower growth. On 42th day, acid treated Glycine max variety and control plants were showed seeds on plants. In Glycine max variety 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 treated plants were dead on 46th day and fungal growth was observed. The toxicological study was carried out on Glycine max plants exposed to 1% HNO3 cells were damaged more than 1% H2SO4. Leaf sections exposed to 0.001% HNO3 & H2SO4 showed less damaged of cells and pigmentation observed in entire slide when compare with control plant. The soil analysis was done to find microorganisms in HNO3 & H2SO4 treated Glycine max and control plants. No microorganism growth was observed in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 but control plant showed microbial growth.