International Science Index
Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking
In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.
VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions
Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors
that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure
(V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future
provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic
congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how
to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If
security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur,
thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of
the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and
unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed
in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security
solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses
various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas
of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric
key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security.
The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to
overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive
overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its
security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future
Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.
Transforming Health Information from Manual to Digital (Electronic) World–Reference and Guide
Introduction: To update ourselves and understand the
concept of latest electronic formats available for Health care
providers and how it could be used and developed as per standards.
The idea is to correlate between the patients Manual Medical Records
keeping and maintaining patients Electronic Information in a Health
care setup in this world. Furthermore, this stands with adapting to the
right technology depending upon the organization and improve our
quality and quantity of Healthcare providing skills. Objective: The
concept and theory is to explain the terms of Electronic Medical
Record (EMR), Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health
Record (PHR) and selecting the best technical among the available
Electronic sources and software before implementing. It is to guide
and make sure the technology used by the end users without any
doubts and difficulties. The idea is to evaluate is to admire the uses
and barriers of EMR-EHR-PHR. Aim and Scope: The target is to
achieve the health care providers like Physicians, Nurses, Therapists,
Medical Bill reimbursements, Insurances and Government to assess
the patient’s information on easy and systematic manner without
diluting the confidentiality of patient’s information. Method: Health
Information Technology can be implemented with the help of
Organisations providing with legal guidelines and help to stand by
the health care provider. The main objective is to select the correct
embedded and affordable database management software and
generating large-scale data. The parallel need is to know how the
latest software available in the market. Conclusion: The question lies
here is implementing the Electronic information system with
healthcare providers and organization. The clinicians are the main
users of the technology and manage us to “go paperless”. The fact is
that day today changing technologically is very sound and up to date.
Basically, the idea is to tell how to store the data electronically safe
and secure. All three exemplifies the fact that an electronic format
has its own benefit as well as barriers.
User Behavior Based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP) for Secure Near Field Communication
With increase in the unauthorized users access, it is required to increase the security in the Near Field Communication (NFC). In the paper we propose a user behavior based enhanced protocol entitled ‘User Behavior based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP)’ to increase the security in NFC enabled devices. The UBEP works on the history of interaction of a user with system.The propose protocol considers four different factors (touch, time and distance & angle) of user behavior to know the authenticity or authorization of the users. These factors can be same for a user during interaction with the system. The UBEP uses two phase user verification system to authenticate a user. Firstly the acquisition phase is used to acquire and store the user interaction with NFC device and the same information is used in future to detect the authenticity of the user. The second phase (recognition) uses analysis of current and previous scenario of user interaction and digital signature verification system to finally authenticate user. The analysis of user based input makes a NFC transaction more advance and secure. This security is very tactical because it is completely depends on usage of the device.
E-government Security Modeling: Explaining Main Factors and Analysing Existing Models
E-government is becoming more important these days. However, the adoption of e-government is often slowed down by technical and non-technical security factors. Nowadays, there many security models that can make the e-government services more secure. This paper will explain the main security factors that affected the level of e-government security. Moreover, it will also analyse current existing models. Finally, the paper will suggest a comprehensive security model that will contain most of technical and non-technical factors.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.
Information Security in E-Learning through Identification of Humans
During recent years, the traditional learning
approaches have undergone fundamental changes due to the
emergence of new technologies such as multimedia, hypermedia and
telecommunication. E-learning is a modern world phenomenon that
has come into existence in the information age and in a knowledgebased
society. E-learning has developed significantly within a short
period of time. Thus it is of a great significant to secure information,
allow a confident access and prevent unauthorized accesses. Making
use of individuals- physiologic or behavioral (biometric) properties is
a confident method to make the information secure. Among the
biometrics, fingerprint is more acceptable and most countries use it as
an efficient methods of identification. This article provides a new
method to compare the fingerprint comparison by pattern recognition
and image processing techniques. To verify fingerprint, the shortest
distance method is used together with perceptronic multilayer neural
network functioning based on minutiae. This method is highly
accurate in the extraction of minutiae and it accelerates comparisons
due to elimination of false minutiae and is more reliable compared
with methods that merely use directional images.
An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks
We propose an enhanced key management scheme
based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors.
The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node
capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node
deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on
the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use
common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each
node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then
each node can establish the session key using common neighbors-
secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few
communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without
losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against
eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.
Secret Communications Using Synchronized Sixth-Order Chuas's Circuits
In this paper, we use Generalized Hamiltonian systems approach to synchronize a modified sixth-order Chua's circuit, which generates hyperchaotic dynamics. Synchronization is obtained between the master and slave dynamics with the slave being given by an observer. We apply this approach to transmit private information (analog and binary), while the encoding remains potentially secure.
Random Oracle Model of Information Hiding System
Random Oracle Model (ROM) is an effective method
for measuring the practical security of cryptograph. In this paper, we
try to use it into information hiding system (IHS). Because IHS has its
own properties, the ROM must be modified if it is used into IHS.
Firstly, we fully discuss why and how to modify each part of ROM
respectively. The main changes include: 1) Divide the attacks that IHS
may be suffered into two phases and divide the attacks of each phase
into several kinds. 2) Distinguish Oracles and Black-boxes clearly. 3)
Define Oracle and four Black-boxes that IHS used. 4) Propose the
formalized adversary model. And 5) Give the definition of judge.
Secondly, based on ROM of IHS, the security against known original
cover attack (KOCA-KOCA-security) is defined. Then, we give an
actual information hiding scheme and prove that it is
KOCA-KOCA-secure. Finally, we conclude the paper and propose the
open problems of further research.
Novel Security Strategy for Real Time Digital Videos
Now a days video data embedding approach is a very challenging and interesting task towards keeping real time video data secure. We can implement and use this technique with high-level applications. As the rate-distortion of any image is not confirmed, because the gain provided by accurate image frame segmentation are balanced by the inefficiency of coding objects of arbitrary shape, with a lot factors like losses that depend on both the coding scheme and the object structure. By using rate controller in association with the encoder one can dynamically adjust the target bitrate. This paper discusses about to keep secure videos by mixing signature data with negligible distortion in the original video, and to keep steganographic video as closely as possible to the quality of the original video. In this discussion we propose the method for embedding the signature data into separate video frames by the use of block Discrete Cosine Transform. These frames are then encoded by real time encoding H.264 scheme concepts. After processing, at receiver end recovery of original video and the signature data is proposed.
Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection
As the number of networked computers grows,
intrusion detection is an essential component in keeping networks
secure. Various approaches for intrusion detection are currently
being in use with each one has its own merits and demerits. This
paper presents our work to test and improve the performance of a
new class of decision tree c-fuzzy decision tree to detect intrusion.
The work also includes identifying best candidate feature sub set to
build the efficient c-fuzzy decision tree based Intrusion Detection
System (IDS). We investigated the usefulness of c-fuzzy decision
tree for developing IDS with a data partition based on horizontal
fragmentation. Empirical results indicate the usefulness of our
approach in developing the efficient IDS.
A Multi-Level WEB Based Parallel Processing System A Hierarchical Volunteer Computing Approach
Over the past few years, a number of efforts have
been exerted to build parallel processing systems that utilize the idle
power of LAN-s and PC-s available in many homes and corporations.
The main advantage of these approaches is that they provide cheap
parallel processing environments for those who cannot afford the
expenses of supercomputers and parallel processing hardware.
However, most of the solutions provided are not very flexible in the
use of available resources and very difficult to install and setup.
In this paper, a multi-level web-based parallel processing system
(MWPS) is designed (appendix). MWPS is based on the idea of
volunteer computing, very flexible, easy to setup and easy to use.
MWPS allows three types of subscribers: simple volunteers (single
computers), super volunteers (full networks) and end users. All of
these entities are coordinated transparently through a secure web site.
Volunteer nodes provide the required processing power needed by
the system end users. There is no limit on the number of volunteer
nodes, and accordingly the system can grow indefinitely. Both
volunteer and system users must register and subscribe. Once, they
subscribe, each entity is provided with the appropriate MWPS
components. These components are very easy to install.
Super volunteer nodes are provided with special components that
make it possible to delegate some of the load to their inner nodes.
These inner nodes may also delegate some of the load to some other
lower level inner nodes .... and so on. It is the responsibility of the
parent super nodes to coordinate the delegation process and deliver
the results back to the user.
MWPS uses a simple behavior-based scheduler that takes into
consideration the current load and previous behavior of processing
nodes. Nodes that fulfill their contracts within the expected time get a
high degree of trust. Nodes that fail to satisfy their contract get a
lower degree of trust.
MWPS is based on the .NET framework and provides the minimal
level of security expected in distributed processing environments.
Users and processing nodes are fully authenticated. Communications
and messages between nodes are very secure. The system has been
implemented using C#.
MWPS may be used by any group of people or companies to
establish a parallel processing or grid environment.
Agent-Based Offline Electronic Voting
Many electronic voting systems, classified mainly as homomorphic cryptography based, mix-net based and blind signature based, appear after the eighties when zero knowledge proofs were introduced. The common ground for all these three systems is that none of them works without real time cryptologic calculations that should be held on a server. As far as known, the agent-based approach has not been used in a secure electronic voting system. In this study, an agent-based electronic voting schema, which does not contain real time calculations on the server side, is proposed. Conventional cryptologic methods are used in the proposed schema and some of the requirements of an electronic voting system are constructed within the schema. The schema seems quite secure if the used cryptologic methods and agents are secure. In this paper, proposed schema will be explained and compared with already known electronic voting systems.
ISCS (Information Security Check Service) for the Safety and Reliability of Communications
Recent widespread use of information and
communication technology has greatly changed information security
risks that businesses and institutions encounter. Along with this
situation, in order to ensure security and have confidence in electronic
trading, it has become important for organizations to take competent
information security measures to provide international confidence that
sensitive information is secure. Against this backdrop, the approach to
information security checking has come to an important issue, which
is believed to be common to all countries. The purpose of this paper is
to introduce the new system of information security checking program
in Korea and to propose synthetic information security
countermeasures under domestic circumstances in order to protect
physical equipment, security management and technology, and the
operation of security check for securing services on ISP(Internet
Service Provider), IDC(Internet Data Center), and
e-commerce(shopping malls, etc.)