International Science Index
Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City
In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.
A Comparative Study on Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Enabled Cluster Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has played a significant task in research for the recent years. Energy consumption and data delivery in time are the major parameters with the usage of sensor nodes that are significant criteria for these networks. The location of sensor nodes must not be prearranged. Clustering in WSN is a key methodology which is used to enlarge the life-time of a sensor network. It consists of numerous real-time applications. The features of WSNs are minimized the consumption of energy. Soft computing techniques can be included to accomplish improved performance. This paper surveys the modern trends in routing enclose fuzzy logic and Neuro-fuzzy logic based on the clustering techniques and implements a comparative study of the numerous related methodologies.
Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Routing Algorithm in Case of Disaster Prediction
Ubiquity of natural disasters during last few decades
have risen serious questions towards the prediction of such events
and human safety. Every disaster regardless its proportion has a
precursor which is manifested as a disruption of some environmental
parameter such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vibrations and
etc. In order to anticipate and monitor those changes, in this paper
we propose an overall system for disaster prediction and monitoring,
based on wireless sensor network (WSN). Furthermore, we introduce
a modified and simplified WSN routing protocol built on the top
of the trickle routing algorithm. Routing algorithm was deployed
using the bluetooth low energy protocol in order to achieve low
power consumption. Performance of the WSN network was analyzed
using a real life system implementation. Estimates of the WSN
parameters such as battery life time, network size and packet delay are
determined. Based on the performance of the WSN network, proposed
system can be utilized for disaster monitoring and prediction due to
its low power profile and mesh routing feature.
TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.
Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network
(WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with
the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability,
low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a
novel routing algorithm that complies with these design
requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks
and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This
division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and
hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may
be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and
allows the realization of the design requirements.
A Review on Enhanced Dynamic Clustering in WSN
Recent advancement in wireless internetworking has presented a number of dynamic routing protocols based on sensor networks. At present, a number of revisions are made based on their energy efficiency, lifetime and mobility. However, to the best of our knowledge no extensive survey of this special type has been prepared. At present, review is needed in this area where cluster-based structures for dynamic wireless networks are to be discussed. In this paper, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of some extensively explored hierarchical dynamic clustering protocols in wireless sensor networks. This document also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of dynamic hierarchical clustering in wireless sensor networks.
Multipath Routing Protocol Using Basic Reconstruction Routing (BRR) Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network
A sensory network consists of multiple detection
locations called sensor nodes, each of which is tiny, featherweight
and portable. A single path routing protocols in wireless sensor
network can lead to holes in the network, since only the nodes
present in the single path is used for the data transmission. Apart
from the advantages like reduced computation, complexity and
resource utilization, there are some drawbacks like throughput,
increased traffic load and delay in data delivery. Therefore, multipath
routing protocols are preferred for WSN. Distributing the traffic
among multiple paths increases the network lifetime. We propose a
scheme, for the data to be transmitted through a dominant path to
save energy. In order to obtain a high delivery ratio, a basic route
reconstruction protocol is utilized to reconstruct the path whenever a
failure is detected. A basic reconstruction routing (BRR) algorithm is
proposed, in which a node can leap over path failure by using the
already existing routing information from its neighbourhood while
the composed data is transmitted from the source to the sink. In order
to save the energy and attain high data delivery ratio, data is
transmitted along a multiple path, which is achieved by BRR
algorithm whenever a failure is detected. Further, the analysis of
how the proposed protocol overcomes the drawback of the existing
protocols is presented. The performance of our protocol is compared
to AOMDV and energy efficient node-disjoint multipath routing
protocol (EENDMRP). The system is implemented using NS-2.34.
The simulation results show that the proposed protocol has high
delivery ratio with low energy consumption.
Energy Aware Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Protocol for QoS Routing
Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) are
infrastructure-less, dynamic network of collections of wireless mobile
nodes communicating with each other without any centralized
authority. A MANET is a mobile device of interconnections through
wireless links, forming a dynamic topology. Routing protocols have a
big role in data transmission across a network. Routing protocols,
two major classifications are unipath and multipath. This study
evaluates performance of an on-demand multipath routing protocol
named Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing
(AOMDV). This study proposes Energy Aware AOMDV (EAAOMDV)
an extension of AOMDV which decreases energy
consumed on a route.
Game Theory Based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm for Routing in Wireless Sensor Network
Many cluster based routing protocols have been
proposed in the field of wireless sensor networks, in which a group of
nodes are formed as clusters. A cluster head is selected from one
among those nodes based on residual energy, coverage area, number
of hops and that cluster-head will perform data gathering from
various sensor nodes and forwards aggregated data to the base station
or to a relay node (another cluster-head), which will forward the
packet along with its own data packet to the base station. Here a
Game Theory based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm (GTDEA)
for routing is proposed. In GTDEA, the cluster head selection is done
with the help of game theory, a decision making process, that selects
a cluster-head based on three parameters such as residual energy
(RE), Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Packet Reception
Rate (PRR). Finding a feasible path to the destination with minimum
utilization of available energy improves the network lifetime and is
achieved by the proposed approach. In GTDEA, the packets are
forwarded to the base station using inter-cluster routing technique,
which will further forward it to the base station. Simulation results
reveal that GTDEA improves the network performance in terms of
throughput, lifetime, and power consumption.
Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have wide variety
of applications and provide limitless future potentials. Nodes in
WSNs are prone to failure due to energy depletion, hardware failure,
communication link errors, malicious attacks, and so on. Therefore,
fault tolerance is one of the critical issues in WSNs. We study how
fault tolerance is addressed in different applications of WSNs. Fault
tolerant routing is a critical task for sensor networks operating in
dynamic environments. Many routing, power management, and data
dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs
where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus,
however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ
depending on the application and network architecture.
Hybrid Hierarchical Routing Protocol for WSN Lifetime Maximization
Conceiving and developing routing protocols for
wireless sensor networks requires considerations on constraints such
as network lifetime and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose
a hybrid hierarchical routing protocol named HHRP combining both
clustering mechanism and multipath optimization taking into account
residual energy and RSSI measures. HHRP consists of classifying
dynamically nodes into clusters where coordinators nodes with extra
privileges are able to manipulate messages, aggregate data and ensure
transmission between nodes according to TDMA and CDMA
schedules. The reconfiguration of the network is carried out
dynamically based on a threshold value which is associated with the
number of nodes belonging to the smallest cluster. To show the
effectiveness of the proposed approach HHRP, a comparative study
with LEACH protocol is illustrated in simulations.
An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network
Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly
growing areas of research and finds different applications for
monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The
communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in
an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in
Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor
networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the
fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are
powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs.
This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly
focus on energy efficiency.
A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has
the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network
connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant
network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key
idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward
data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate
transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of
various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.
A Review: Comparative Study of Enhanced Hierarchical Clustering Protocols in WSN
Recent advances in wireless networking technologies
introduce several energy aware routing protocols in sensor networks.
Such protocols aim to extend the lifetime of network by reducing the
energy consumption of nodes. Many researchers are looking for
certain challenges that are predominant in the grounds of energy
consumption. One such protocol that addresses this energy
consumption issue is ‘Cluster based hierarchical routing protocol’. In
this paper, we intend to discuss some of the major hierarchical
routing protocols adhering towards sensor networks. Furthermore, we
examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of few
widely explored hierarchical clustering protocols, and its operations
in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This paper also presents a
discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of
hierarchical clustering in WSNs.
Impact of Node Density and Transmission Range on the Performance of OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in VANET City Scenarios
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) used to establish communications and exchange information among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed infrastructure. VANET is seen as a promising technology used to provide safety, efficiency, assistance and comfort to the road users. Routing is an important issue in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to find and maintain communication between vehicles due to the highly dynamic topology, frequently disconnected network and mobility constraints.
This paper evaluates the performance of two most popular proactive routing protocols OLSR and DSDV in real city traffic scenario on the basis of three metrics namely Packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end to end delay by varying vehicles density and transmission range.
Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a network without infrastructure dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depend on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper we survey various energy efficient routing protocols. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.
A Comprehensive Survey and Comparative Analysis of Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self managing network consists of versatile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other without having any fixed infrastructure. These nodes may be routers and/or hosts. Due to this dynamic nature of the network, routing protocols are vulnerable to various kinds of attacks. The black hole attack is one of the conspicuous security threats in MANETs. As the route discovery process is obligatory and customary, attackers make use of this loophole to get success in their motives to destruct the network. In Black hole attack the packet is redirected to a node that actually does not exist in the network. Many researchers have proposed different techniques to detect and prevent this type of attack. In this paper, we have analyzed various routing protocols in this context. Further we have shown a critical comparison among various protocols. We have shown various routing metrics are required proper and significant analysis of the protocol.
Broadcasting Mechanism with Less Flooding Packets by Optimally Constructing Forwarding and Non-Forwarding Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
The conventional routing protocol designed for MANET fail to handle dynamic movement and self-starting behavior of the node effectively. Every node in MANET is considered as forward as well receiver node and all of them participate in routing the packet from source to the destination. While the interconnection topology is highly dynamic, the performance of the most of the routing protocol is not encouraging. In this paper, a reliable broadcast approach for MANET is proposed for improving the transmission rate. The MANET is considered with asymmetric characteristics and the properties of the source and destination nodes are different. The non-forwarding node list is generated with a downstream node and they do not participate in the routing. While the forwarding and non-forwarding node is constructed in a conventional way, the number of nodes in non-forwarding list is more and increases the load. In this work, we construct the forwarding and non-forwarding node optimally so that the flooding and broadcasting is reduced to certain extent. The forwarded packet is considered as acknowledgements and the non-forwarding nodes explicitly send the acknowledgements to the source. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in NS2 environment. Since the proposed approach reduces the flooding, we have considered functionality of the proposed approach with AODV variants. The effect of network density on the overhead and collision rate is considered for performance evaluation. The performance is compared with the AODV variants found that the proposed approach outperforms all the variants.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.
Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid Communications
Smart Grids employ wireless sensor networks for
their control and monitoring. Sensors are characterized by limitations
in the processing power, energy supply and memory spaces, which
require a particular attention on the design of routing and data
Since most routing algorithms for sensor networks, focus on
finding energy efficient paths to prolong the lifetime of sensor
networks, the power of sensors on efficient paths depletes quickly,
and consequently sensor networks become incapable of monitoring
events from some parts of their target areas. In consequence, the
design of routing protocols should consider not only energy
efficiency paths, but also energy efficient algorithms in general.
In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing protocol for
wireless sensor networks without the support of any location
information system. The reliability and the efficiency of this protocol
have been demonstrated by simulation studies where we compare
them to the legacy protocols. Our simulation results show that these
algorithms scale well with network size and density.
Adaptive Fuzzy Routing in Opportunistic Network (AFRON)
Opportunistic network is a kind of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) where the nodes in this network come into contact with each other opportunistically and communicate wirelessly and, an end-to-end path between source and destination may have never existed, and disconnection and reconnection is common in the network. In such a network, because of the nature of opportunistic network, perhaps there is no a complete path from source to destination for most of the time and even if there is a path; the path can be very unstable and may change or break quickly. Therefore, routing is one of the main challenges in this environment and, in order to make communication possible in an opportunistic network, the intermediate nodes have to play important role in the opportunistic routing protocols. In this paper we proposed an Adaptive Fuzzy Routing in opportunistic network (AFRON). This protocol is using the simple parameters as input parameters to find the path to the destination node. Using Message Transmission Count, Message Size and Time To Live parameters as input fuzzy to increase delivery ratio and decrease the buffer consumption in the all nodes of network.
An Efficient Heuristic for the Minimum Connected Dominating Set Problem on Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
Connected dominating set (CDS) problem in unit disk
graph has signi£cant impact on an ef£cient design of routing protocols
in wireless sensor networks, where the searching space for a
route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the
nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the
set. In this paper, a simple and ef£cient heuristic method is proposed
for £nding a minimum connected dominating set (MCDS) in ad hoc
wireless networks based on the new parameter support of vertices.
With this parameter the proposed heuristic approach effectively
£nds the MCDS of a graph. Extensive computational experiments
show that the proposed approach outperforms the recently proposed
heuristics found in the literature for the MCD
Local Algorithm for Establishing a Virtual Backbone in 3D Ad Hoc Network
Due to the limited lifetime of the nodes in ad hoc and sensor networks, energy efficiency needs to be an important design consideration in any routing algorithm. It is known that by employing a virtual backbone in a wireless network, the efficiency of any routing scheme for the network can be improved. One common design for routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks is to use positioning information; we use the node-s geometric locations to introduce an algorithm that can construct the virtual backbone structure locally in 3D environment. The algorithm construction has a constant time.
Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO
The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol
A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes
communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in
which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this
paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for
wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of
proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per
route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator.
Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were
taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols
has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis
(four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average
media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four
different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is
observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow
different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from
1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to
0.48Mbps which is around 35%).
Performance of QoS Parameters in MANET Application Traffics in Large Scale Scenarios
A mobile Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes
communicating without the need for a centralized administration. A
user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a
network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt
dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad
hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which
include DSR, OLSR and AODV. This paper presents a study on the
QoS parameters for MANET application traffics in large-scale
scenarios with 50 and 120 nodes. The application traffics analyzed in
this study is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In large scale networks
(120 nodes) OLSR shows better performance and in smaller scale
networks (50 nodes)AODV shows less packet drop rate and OLSR
shows better throughput.
Energy Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
The wireless link can be unreliable in realistic wireless
sensor networks (WSNs). Energy efficient and reliable data
forwarding is important because each node has limited resources.
Therefore, we must suggest an optimal solution that considers using
the information of the node-s characteristics. Previous routing
protocols were unsuited to realistic asymmetric WSNs. In this paper,
we propose a Protocol that considers Both sides of Link-quality and
Energy (PBLE), an optimal routing protocol that balances modified
link-quality, distance and energy. Additionally, we propose a node
scheduling method. PBLE achieves a longer lifetime than previous
routing protocols and is more energy-efficient. PBLE uses energy,
local information and both sides of PRR in a 1-hop distance. We
explain how to send data packets to the destination node using the
node's information. Simulation shows PBLE improves delivery rate
and network lifetime compared to previous schemes. Moreover, we
show the improvement in various WSN environments.
Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network is a network of mobile nodes
without any notion of centralized administration. In such a network,
each mobile node behaves not only as a host which runs applications
but also as a router to forward packets on behalf of others. Clustering
has been applied to routing protocols to achieve efficient
communications. A CH network expresses the connected relationship
among cluster-heads. This paper discusses the methods for
constructing a CH network, and produces the following results: (1)
The required running costs of 3 traditional methods for constructing a
CH network are not so different from each other in the static
circumstance, or in the dynamic circumstance. Their running costs in
the static circumstance do not differ from their costs in the dynamic
circumstance. Meanwhile, although the routing costs required for the
above 3 methods are not so different in the static circumstance, the
costs are considerably different from each other in the dynamic
circumstance. Their routing costs in the static circumstance are also
very different from their costs in the dynamic circumstance, and the
former is one tenths of the latter. The routing cost in the dynamic
circumstance is mostly the cost for re-routing. (2) On the strength of
the above results, we discuss new 2 methods regarding whether they
are tolerable or not in the dynamic circumstance, that is, whether the
times of re-routing are small or not. These new methods are revised
methods that are based on the traditional methods. We recommended
the method which produces the smallest routing cost in the dynamic
circumstance, therefore producing the smallest total cost.
Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network
Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.
An Energy Reverse AODV Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Mobile Networks
In this paper we present a full performance analysis of an energy conserving routing protocol in mobile ad hoc network, named ER-AODV (Energy Reverse Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing). ER-AODV is a reactive routing protocol based on a policy which combines two mechanisms used in the basic AODV protocol. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along reverse path. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request messages, the node obtains a reply message, and this increases in power consumption. To avoid these problems, we propose a mechanism which tries multiple route replies. The second mechanism proposes a new adaptive approach which seeks to incorporate the metric "residual energy " in the process route selection, Indeed the residual energy of mobile nodes were considered when making routing decisions. The results of simulation show that protocol ER-AODV answers a better energy conservation.