International Science Index
Multivariate Analytical Insights into Spatial and Temporal Variation in Water Quality of a Major Drinking Water Reservoir
22 physicochemical variables have been determined in water samples collected weekly from January to December in 2013 from three sampling stations located within a major drinking water reservoir. Classical Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to investigate the environmental factors associated with the physico-chemical variability of the water samples at each of the sampling stations. Matrix augmentation MCR-ALS (MA-MCR-ALS) was also applied, and the two sets of results were compared for interpretative clarity. Links between these factors, reservoir inflows and catchment land-uses were investigated and interpreted in relation to chemical composition of the water and their resolved geographical distribution profiles. The results suggested that the major factors affecting reservoir water quality were those associated with agricultural runoff, with evidence of influence on algal photosynthesis within the water column. Water quality variability within the reservoir was also found to be strongly linked to physical parameters such as water temperature and the occurrence of thermal stratification. The two methods applied (MCR-ALS and MA-MCR-ALS) led to similar conclusions; however, MA-MCR-ALS appeared to provide results more amenable to interpretation of temporal and geological variation than those obtained through classical MCR-ALS.
Fish Catch Composition from Gobind Sagar Reservoir during 2006-2012
Gobind Sagar Reservoir has been created in Himachal Pradesh, India (31° 25´ N and 76 ° 25´E) by damming River Sutlej at village Bhakra in 1963. The average water spread area of this reservoir is 10,000 hectares. Fishermen have organized themselves in the form of co-operative societies. 26 fisheries co-operative societies were working in Gobind Sagar Reservoir up till 2012. June and July months were observed as closed season, no fishing was done during this period. Proper record maintaining of fish catch was done at different levels by the state fisheries department. Different measures like minimum harvestable size, mesh size regulation and prohibition of illegal fishing etc. were taken for fish conservation. Fishermen were actively involved in the management. Gill nets were used for catching fishes from this reservoir. State fisheries department is realizing 15% royalty of the sold fish. Data used in this paper is about the fish catch during 2006-2012 and were obtained from the state fisheries department, Himachal Pradesh. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Sperata seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Tor putitora, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo calbasu, Labeo dero and Ctenopharyngodon idella etc., were the fish species exploited for commercial purposes. Total number of individuals of all species caught was 3141236 weighing 5637108.9 kg during 2006-2012. H. molitrix was introduced accidently in this reservoir and was making a good share of fish catch in this reservoir. The annual catch of this species was varying between 161279.6 kg, caught in 2011 and 788030.8 kg caught in 2009. Total numbers of individuals of C. idella caught were 8966 weighing 64320.2 kg. The catch of Cyprinus carpio was varying between 144826.1 kg caught in 2006 and 214480.1 kg caught in 2010. Total catch of Tor putitora was 180263.2 kg during 2006-2012. Total catch of L. dero, S. seenghala and Catla catla remained 100637.4 kg, 75297.8 kg and 561802.9 kg, respectively, during 2006-2012. Maximum fish catch was observed during the months of August (after observing Closed Season). Maximum catch of exotic carps was from Bhakra area of the reservoir which has fewer fluctuations in water levels. The reservoir has been divided into eight beats for administrative purpose, to avoid conflicts between operating fisheries co-operative societies for area of operation. Fish catch was more by co-operative societies operating in the area of reservoir having fewer fluctuations in water level and catch was less by co-operative societies operating in the area of more fluctuations in water level. Species-wise fish catch by different co-operative societies from their allotted area was studied. This reservoir is one of most scientifically managed reservoirs.
The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran
Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.
An Approach to Correlate the Statistical-Based Lorenz Method, as a Way of Measuring Heterogeneity, with Kozeny-Carman Equation
Dealing with carbonate reservoirs can be mind-boggling for the reservoir engineers due to various digenetic processes that cause a variety of properties through the reservoir. A good estimation of the reservoir heterogeneity which is defined as the quality of variation in rock properties with location in a reservoir or formation, can better help modeling the reservoir and thus can offer better understanding of the behavior of that reservoir. Most of reservoirs are heterogeneous formations whose mineralogy, organic content, natural fractures, and other properties vary from place to place. Over years, reservoir engineers have tried to establish methods to describe the heterogeneity, because heterogeneity is important in modeling the reservoir flow and in well testing. Geological methods are used to describe the variations in the rock properties because of the similarities of environments in which different beds have deposited in. To illustrate the heterogeneity of a reservoir vertically, two methods are generally used in petroleum work: Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V) and Lorenz coefficient (L) that are reviewed briefly in this paper. The concept of Lorenz is based on statistics and has been used in petroleum from that point of view. In this paper, we correlated the statistical-based Lorenz method to a petroleum concept, i.e. Kozeny-Carman equation and derived the straight line plot of Lorenz graph for a homogeneous system. Finally, we applied the two methods on a heterogeneous field in South Iran and discussed each, separately, with numbers and figures. As expected, these methods show great departure from homogeneity. Therefore, for future investment, the reservoir needs to be treated carefully.
Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs
A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.
Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field
This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.
Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir
We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.
Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria
Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.
Effect of Fractional Flow Curves on the Heavy Oil and Light Oil Recoveries in Petroleum Reservoirs
This paper evaluates and compares the effect of fractional flow curves on the heavy oil and light oil recoveries in a petroleum reservoir. Fingering of flowing water is one of the serious problems of the oil displacement by water and another problem is the estimation of the amount of recover oil from a petroleum reservoir. To address these problems, the fractional flow of heavy oil and light oil are investigated. The fractional flow approach treats the multi-phases flow rate as a total mixed fluid and then describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. Laboratory experiments are implemented for two different types of oils, heavy oil, and light oil, to experimentally obtain relative permeability and fractional flow curves. Application of the light oil fractional curve, which exhibits a regular S-shape, to the water flooding method showed that a large amount of mobile oil in the reservoir is displaced by water injection. In contrast, the fractional flow curve of heavy oil does not display an S-shape because of its high viscosity. Although the advance of the injected waterfront is faster than in light oil reservoirs, a significant amount of mobile oil remains behind the waterfront.
Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir
The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.
Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique
Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important
stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract
hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas
production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means.
The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as
technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is
considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are
named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3
(lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which
gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process
yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three
respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the
rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height
(propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum
fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of
0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of
Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture
Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy
industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant
nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts.
Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper
pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there
can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus,
whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different
value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the
important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due
to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as
transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely
used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to
glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant
people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast,
whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work
was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase
enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate
Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have
been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have
also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced
intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested
for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the
maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal
cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050 was observed to be
the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.
Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR
There are various sources of energies available
worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery
is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery
methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies
like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known
as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery
(MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil
recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms.
Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which
is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent
which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil
and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the
oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results
besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with
other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we
produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC
2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which
resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted
in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil
recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in
length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine
sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil
saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was
done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection
of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil
recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by
injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since,
bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily
recovered from the porous sand packed column.
Implementation Gas Lift Selection Technique and Design in the Wafa Field of Ghadamis Basin, West Libya
Implementing of a continues flow gas lift system for one vertical oil well producer in Wafa field was investigated under five reservoir pressures and their dependent parameters. Well 03 producers were responded positively to the gas lift system despite of the high well head operating pressures. However, the flowing bottom hole pressures were reduced by a ratio from 6 to 33 % in the case A3 for example, for the design runs conducted under the existing operating conditions for years 2003, 2006 and 2009. This reduction in FBHP has increased the production rate by a ratio from 12 to 22.5%. The results indicated that continues flow gas lift system is a good candidate as an artificial lift system to be considered for the one vertical producer covered by this study. Most significantly, timing for artificial lift by a gas lift system for this field is highly dependent on the amount of gas available at the time of implementation because of the high gas production rate from the top of the reservoir.
Controlling Transient Flow in Pipeline Systems by Desurging Tank with Automatic Air Control
Desurging tank with automatic air control “DTAAC” is a water hammer protection device, operates either an open or closed surge tank according to the water level inside the surge tank, with the volume of air trapped in the filling phase, this protection device has the advantages of its easy maintenance, and does not need to run any external energy source (air compressor). A computer program has been developed based on the characteristic method to simulate flow transient phenomena in pressurized water pipeline systems, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occurring in this phenomena. The developed model applied to a simple main water pipeline system: pump combined with DTAAC connected to a reservoir. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover; using the DTAAC reduces the unfavorable effects of the transients.
Study on Status and Development of Hydraulic System Protection: Pump Combined With Air Chamber
Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems (wps). When transient conditions "water hammer" exists, the life expectancy of the wps can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of wps. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect wps. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in wps based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occur in the transient. The developed model applied for main wps: pump combined with closed surge tank connected to a reservoir. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.
Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System
CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.
Analysis Fraction Flow of Water versus Cumulative Oil Recoveries Using Buckley Leverett Method
To derive the fractional flow equation oil
displacement will be assumed to take place under the so-called
diffusive flow condition. The constraints are that fluid saturations at
any point in the linear displacement path are uniformly distributed
with respect to thickness; this allows the displacement to be described
mathematically in one dimension. The simultaneous flow of oil and
water can be modeled using thickness averaged relative permeability,
along the centerline of the reservoir. The condition for fluid potential
equilibrium is simply that of hydrostatic equilibrium for which the
saturation distribution can be determined as a function of capillary
pressure and therefore, height. That is the fluids are distributed in
accordance with capillary-gravity equilibrium.
This paper focused on the fraction flow of water versus
cumulative oil recoveries using Buckley Leverett method. Several
field cases have been developed to aid in analysis. Producing watercut
(at surface conditions) will be compared with the cumulative oil
recovery at breakthrough for the flowing fluid.
Assessment of Water Pollution of Kowsar Dam Reservoir
The reservoir of Kowsar dam supply water for
different usages such as aquaculture farms , drinking, agricultural and
industrial usages for some provinces in south of Iran. The Kowsar
dam is located next to the city of Dehdashat in Kohgiluye and
Boyerahmad province in southern Iran. There are some towns and
villages on the Kowsar dam watersheds, which Dehdasht and Choram
are the most important and populated twons in this area, which can to
be sources of pollution for water reservoir of the Kowsar dam . This
study was done to determine of water pollution of the Kowsar dam
reservoir which is one of the most important water resources of
Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad and Bushehr provinces in south-west
Iran. In this study , water samples during 12 months were collected to
examine Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Dissolved
Oxygen(DO) as a criterion for evaluation of water pollution of the
reservoir. In summary ,the study has shown Maximum, average and
minimum levels of BOD have observed 25.9 ,9.15 and 2.3 mg/L
respectively and statistical parameters of data such as standard
deviation , variance and skewness have calculated 7.88, 62 and 1.54
respectively. Finally the results were compared with Iranian national
standards. Among the analyzed samples, as the maximum value of
BOD (25.9 mg/L) was observed at the May 2010 , was within the
maximum admissible limits by the Iranian standards.
Investigation on Pore Water Pressure in Core of Karkheh Dam
Pore water pressure is normally because of
consolidation, compaction and water level fluctuation on reservoir.
Measuring, controlling and analyzing of pore water pressure have
significant importance in both of construction and operation period.
Since end of 2002, (dam start up) nature of KARKHEH dam has
been analyzed by using the gathered information from
instrumentation system of dam. In this lecture dam condition after
start up have been analyzed by using the gathered data from located
piezometers in core of dam. According to TERZAGHI equation and
records of piezometers, consolidation lasted around five years during
early years of construction stage, and current pore water pressure in
core of dam is caused by water level fluctuation in reservoir.
Although there is time lag between water level fluctuation and results
of piezometers. These time lags have been checked and the results
clearly show that one of the most important causes of it is distance
between piezometer and reservoir.
Hydrodynamic Modeling of Infinite Reservoir using Finite Element Method
In this paper, the dam-reservoir interaction is
analyzed using a finite element approach. The fluid is assumed to be
incompressible, irrotational and inviscid. The assumed boundary
conditions are that the interface of the dam and reservoir is vertical
and the bottom of reservoir is rigid and horizontal. The governing
equation for these boundary conditions is implemented in the
developed finite element code considering the horizontal and vertical
earthquake components. The weighted residual standard Galerkin
finite element technique with 8-node elements is used to discretize
the equation that produces a symmetric matrix equation for the damreservoir
system. A new boundary condition is proposed for
truncating surface of unbounded fluid domain to show the energy
dissipation in the reservoir, through radiation in the infinite upstream
direction. The Sommerfeld-s and perfect damping boundary
conditions are also implemented for a truncated boundary to compare
with the proposed far end boundary. The results are compared with
an analytical solution to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed
formulation and other truncated boundary conditions in modeling the
hydrodynamic response of an infinite reservoir.
Correlations between Cleaning Frequency of Reservoir and Water Tower and Parameters of Water Quality
This study was investigated on sampling and
analyzing water quality in water reservoir & water tower installed in
two kind of residential buildings and school facilities. Data of water
quality was collected for correlation analysis with frequency of
sanitization of water reservoir through questioning managers of
building about the inspection charts recorded on equipment for water
reservoir. Statistical software packages (SPSS) were applied to the
data of two groups (cleaning frequency and water quality) for
regression analysis to determine the optimal cleaning frequency of
sanitization. The correlation coefficient (R) in this paper represented
the degree of correlation, with values of R ranging from +1 to -1.After
investigating three categories of drinking water users; this study found
that the frequency of sanitization of water reservoir significantly
influenced the water quality of drinking water. A higher frequency of
sanitization (more than four times per 1 year) implied a higher quality
of drinking water. Results indicated that sanitizing water reservoir &
water tower should at least twice annually for achieving the aim of
safety of drinking water.
Removal of Phenylurea Herbicides from Waters by using Chemical Oxidation Treatments
Four phenylurea herbicides (isoproturon, chlortoluron, diuron and linuron) were dissolved in different water matrices in order to study their chemical degradation by using UV radiation, ozone and some advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2, Fenton reagent and the photo- Fenton system). The waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater and a surface water taken from a reservoir. Elimination levels were established for each herbicide and for several global quality parameters, and a kinetic study was performed in order to determine basic kinetic parameters of each reaction between the target phenylureas and these oxidizing systems.
Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa
Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is
well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons.
Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created
which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South
Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the
prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of
water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both
in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off
storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for
adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply
where it is probable.
Simulation of Snow Covers Area by a Physical based Model
Snow cover is an important phenomenon in
hydrology, hence modeling the snow accumulation and melting is an
important issue in places where snowmelt significantly contributes to
runoff and has significant effect on water balance. The physics-based
models are invariably distributed, with the basin disaggregated into
zones or grid cells. Satellites images provide valuable data to verify
the accuracy of spatially distributed model outputs. In this study a
spatially distributed physically based model (WetSpa) was applied to
predict snow cover and melting in the Latyan dam watershed in Iran.
Snowmelt is simulated based on an energy balance approach. The
model is applied and calibrated with one year of observed daily
precipitation, air temperature, windspeed, and daily potential
evaporation. The predicted snow-covered area is compared with
remotely sensed images (MODIS). The results show that simulated
snow cover area SCA has a good agreement with satellite image
snow cover area SCA from MODIS images. The model performance
is also tested by statistical and graphical comparison of simulated and
measured discharges entering the Latyan dam reservoir.
Artificial Neural Network based Modeling of Evaporation Losses in Reservoirs
An Artificial Neural Network based modeling
technique has been used to study the influence of different
combinations of meteorological parameters on evaporation from a
reservoir. The data set used is taken from an earlier reported study.
Several input combination were tried so as to find out the importance
of different input parameters in predicting the evaporation. The
prediction accuracy of Artificial Neural Network has also been
compared with the accuracy of linear regression for predicting
evaporation. The comparison demonstrated superior performance of
Artificial Neural Network over linear regression approach. The
findings of the study also revealed the requirement of all input
parameters considered together, instead of individual parameters
taken one at a time as reported in earlier studies, in predicting the
evaporation. The highest correlation coefficient (0.960) along with
lowest root mean square error (0.865) was obtained with the input
combination of air temperature, wind speed, sunshine hours and
mean relative humidity. A graph between the actual and predicted
values of evaporation suggests that most of the values lie within a
scatter of ±15% with all input parameters. The findings of this study
suggest the usefulness of ANN technique in predicting the
evaporation losses from reservoirs.
The Using of Mixing Amines in an Industrial Gas Sweetening Plant
Natural gas is defined as gas obtained from a natural underground reservoir. It generally contains a large quantity of methane along with heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, isobutene, normal butane; also in the raw state it often contains a considerable amount of non hydrocarbons, such as nitrogen and the acid gases (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide). The acid gases must be removed from natural gas before use. One of the processes witch are use in the industry to remove the acid gases from natural gas is the use of alkanolamine process. In this present paper, a simulation study for an industrial gas sweetening plant has been investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of using mixing amines as solvent on the gas treatment process using the software Hysys.