International Science Index
Analysis of Impact Load Induced by Ultrasonic Cavitation Bubble Collapse Using Thin Film Pressure Sensors
The understanding of generation and collapse of acoustic cavitation bubbles are prerequisites for application of cavitation erosion. Microbubbles generated due to rapid fluctuation of pressure induced by propagation of ultrasonic wave lead to formation of high velocity microjets and or shock waves upon collapse. Due to vast application of ultrasonic, it is important to characterize and understand cavitation collapse pressure under the radiating surface at different conditions. A comparative investigation is carried out to determine impact load and dynamic pressure distribution exerted upon bubble collapse using thin film pressure sensors. Measurements were recorded at different input conditions such as amplitude, stand-off distance, insertion depth of the horn inside the liquid and pulse on-off time of acoustic vibrations. Impact force of 2.97 N is recorded at amplitude of 108 μm and stand-off distance of 1 mm from the sensor film, whereas impulsive force as low as 0.4 N is recorded at amplitude of 12 μm and stand-off distance of 5 mm from the sensor film. The results drawn from the investigation indicated that variety of impact loads can be achieved by controlling generation and collapse of bubbles, making it suitable to use for numerous application.
Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend
This study investigates experimentally the effects
of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator
operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental
apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests
in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted
of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that
was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to
determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer
coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a
digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel
consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust
gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was
installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature.
In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data
acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL
optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized
with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure
consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold
at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel
mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15,
20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen
addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased
and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases
of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test
results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function
of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon
dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned
hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased.
On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due
to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There
was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release
rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller
due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen
promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can
be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.
Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments
Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.
A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters
The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Energy Efficient Autonomous Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Human Motion Enhancement
The paper describes conceptual design, control strategies, and partial simulation for a new fully autonomous lower limb wearable exoskeleton system for human motion enhancement that can support its weight and increase strength and endurance. Various problems still remain to be solved where the most important is the creation of a power and cost efficient system that will allow an exoskeleton to operate for extended period without batteries being frequently recharged. The designed exoskeleton is enabling to decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the system from the forward motion function which reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The decoupling takes place by blocking the motion at knee joint by placing passive air cylinder across the joint. The cylinder is actuated when the knee angle has reached the minimum allowed value to bend. The value of the minimum bending angle depends on usual walk style of the subject. The mechanism of the exoskeleton features a seat to rest the subject’s body weight at the moment of blocking the knee joint motion. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee, and one at the ankle. Exoskeleton legs are attached to subject legs by using flexible cuffs. The operation of all actuators depends on the amount of pressure felt by the feet pressure sensors and knee angle sensor. The sensor readings depend on actual posture of the subject and can be classified in three distinct cases: subject stands on one leg, subject stands still on both legs and subject stands on both legs but transit its weight from one leg to other. This exoskeleton is power efficient because electrical motors are smaller in size and did not participate in supporting the weight like in all other existing exoskeleton designs.
The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9 DOF Platform
Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are
already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated
pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing
monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure
sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of
membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity
by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms
while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed
static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm
supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of
maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the
sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity
was also examined through simulation.
Molecular Dynamics Study on Mechanical Responses of Circular Graphene Nanoflake under Nanoindentation
Graphene, a single-atom sheet, has been considered as
the most promising material for making future nanoelectromechanical
systems as well as purely electrical switching with graphene
transistors. Graphene-based devices have advantages in scaled-up
device fabrication due to the recent progress in large area graphene
growth and lithographic patterning of graphene nanostructures. Here
we investigated its mechanical responses of circular graphene
nanoflake under the nanoindentation using classical molecular
dynamics simulations. A correlation between the load and the
indentation depth was constructed. The nanoindented force in this
work was applied to the center point of the circular graphene nanoflake
and then, the resonance frequency could be tuned by a nanoindented
depth. We found the hardening or the softening of the graphene
nanoflake during its nanoindented-deflections, and such properties
were recognized by the shift of the resonance frequency. The
calculated mechanical parameters in the force-vs-deflection plot were
in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical works.
This proposed schematics can detect the pressure via the deflection
change or/and the resonance frequency shift, and also have great
potential for versatile applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.
Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications
The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and
presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of
operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the
fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed.
Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire
pressure-monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are
explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the
pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The
NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well
as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many
Training Isolated Respiratory in Rehabilitation
A game for training of breath (TRABR) for continuous
monitoring of pulmonary ventilation during the patients’ therapy
focuses especially on monitoring of their ventilation processes. It is
necessary to detect, monitor and differentiate abdominal and thoracic
breathing during the therapy. It is a fun form of rehabilitation where
the patient plays and also practicing isolated breathing. Finally the
game to practice breath was designed to evaluate whether the patient
uses two types of breathing or not.
Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors
A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can
be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the
auscultatory method or the oscillometric method.
The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an
inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds
generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery.
An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to
monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects
vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls.
The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the
accuracy of the measurements taken.
Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack
In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length
changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by
the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by
internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to
be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain
information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm
estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor
fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of
disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect
various of sensor fault mode.
Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers
The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb.
The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process
The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.
Resonant-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensor Read-Out Oscillating at 1.67 GHz in 0.18
This paper presents a resonant-based read-out circuit for capacitive pressure sensors. The proposed read-out circuit consists of an LC oscillator and a counter. The circuit detects the capacitance changes of a capacitive pressure sensor by means of frequency shifts from its nominal operation frequency. The proposed circuit is designed in 0.18m CMOS with an estimated power consumption of 43.1mW. Simulation results show that the circuit has a capacitive resolution of 8.06kHz/fF, which enables it for high resolution pressure detection.
A Micro-Watt Second Order Filter for a Chopper Stabilized MEMS Pressure Sensor Interface
This paper describes a low-power second-order filter
for a continuous-time chopper stabilized capacitive sensor interface,
integrated with a fully differential post-CMOS surface-micromachined
MEMS pressure sensor. The circuit uses a single-ended
folded-cascode operational amplifier and two GM-C filters connected
in cascade. The circuit is realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and
offers differential to single-ended conversion. The novelty of the
scheme is the cascade of two GM-C filters to achieve a second-order
filter while minimizing power dissipation. The simulated filter cutoff
frequency is 1.14 kHz at common-mode voltage 1.65 V,
operating from a 3.3 V supply while dissipating 172μW of power.
The filter achieves an operating range of 1V for an output load of
1MOhm and 10pF.
Development of Position Changing System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient using HRV
Obstructive sleep apnea in patients, between 70 and 80
percent, can be cured with just a posture correcting. The most import
thing to do this is detection of obstructive sleep apnea. Detection of
obstructive sleep apnea can be performed through heart rate variability
analysis using power spectrum density analysis. After HRV analysis
we needed to know the current position information for correcting the
position. The pressure sensors of the array type were used to obtain
position information. These sensors can obtain information from the
experimenter about position. In addition, air cylinder corrected the
position of the experimenter by lifting the bed. The experimenter can
be changed position without breaking during sleep by the system.
Polysomnograph recording were obtained from 10 patients. The
results of HRV analysis were that NLF and LF/HF ratio increased,
while NHF decreased during OSA. Position change had to be done the
Design of SiC Capacitive Pressure Sensor with LC-Based Oscillator Readout Circuit
This paper presents the characterization and design of a capacitive pressure sensor with LC-based 0.35 µm CMOS readout circuit. SPICE is employed to evaluate the characteristics of the readout circuit and COMSOL multiphysics structural analysis is used to simulate the behavior of the pressure sensor. The readout circuit converts the capacitance variation of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. Simulation results show that the proposed pressure sensor has output frequency from 2.50 to 2.28 GHz in a pressure range from 0.1 to 2 MPa almost linearly. The sensitivity of the frequency shift with respect to the applied pressure load is 0.11 GHz/MPa.
Measuring Pressure Wave Velocity in a Hydraulic System
Pressure wave velocity in a hydraulic system was
determined using piezo pressure sensors without removing fluid from
the system. The measurements were carried out in a low pressure
range (0.2 – 6 bar) and the results were compared with the results of
other studies. This method is not as accurate as measurement with
separate measurement equipment, but the fluid is in the actual
machine the whole time and the effect of air is taken into
consideration if air is present in the system. The amount of air is
estimated by calculations and comparisons between other studies.
This measurement equipment can also be installed in an existing
machine and it can be programmed so that it measures in real time.
Thus, it could be used e.g. to control dampers.
Automation of Heat Exchanger using Neural Network
In this paper the development of a heat exchanger as a
pilot plant for educational purpose is discussed and the use of neural
network for controlling the process is being presented. The aim of the
study is to highlight the need of a specific Pseudo Random Binary
Sequence (PRBS) to excite a process under control. As the neural
network is a data driven technique, the method for data generation
plays an important role. In light of this a careful experimentation
procedure for data generation was crucial task. Heat exchange is a
complex process, which has a capacity and a time lag as process
elements. The proposed system is a typical pipe-in- pipe type heat
exchanger. The complexity of the system demands careful selection,
proper installation and commissioning. The temperature, flow, and
pressure sensors play a vital role in the control performance. The
final control element used is a pneumatically operated control valve.
While carrying out the experimentation on heat exchanger a welldrafted
procedure is followed giving utmost attention towards safety
of the system. The results obtained are encouraging and revealing
the fact that if the process details are known completely as far as
process parameters are concerned and utilities are well stabilized then
feedback systems are suitable, whereas neural network control
paradigm is useful for the processes with nonlinearity and less
knowledge about process. The implementation of NN control
reinforces the concepts of process control and NN control paradigm.
The result also underlined the importance of excitation signal
typically for that process. Data acquisition, processing, and
presentation in a typical format are the most important parameters
while validating the results.
Gas Detection via Machine Learning
We present an Electronic Nose (ENose), which is
aimed at identifying the presence of one out of two gases, possibly
detecting the presence of a mixture of the two. Estimation of the
concentrations of the components is also performed for a volatile
organic compound (VOC) constituted by methanol and acetone, for
the ranges 40-400 and 22-220 ppm (parts-per-million), respectively.
Our system contains 8 sensors, 5 of them being gas sensors (of the
class TGS from FIGARO USA, INC., whose sensing element is a tin
dioxide (SnO2) semiconductor), the remaining being a temperature
sensor (LM35 from National Semiconductor Corporation), a
humidity sensor (HIH–3610 from Honeywell), and a pressure sensor
(XFAM from Fujikura Ltd.).
Our integrated hardware–software system uses some machine
learning principles and least square regression principle to identify at
first a new gas sample, or a mixture, and then to estimate the
concentrations. In particular we adopt a training model using the
Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach with linear kernel to teach
the system how discriminate among different gases. Then we apply
another training model using the least square regression, to predict
The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed
multiclassification and regression scheme is effective in the
identification of the tested VOCs of methanol and acetone with
96.61% correctness. The concentration prediction is obtained with
0.979 and 0.964 correlation coefficient for the predicted versus real
concentrations of methanol and acetone, respectively.
Auto-Selective Three Term Control of Position and Compliance of a Pneumatic Actuator
Due to their high power-to-weight ratio and low cost, pneumatic actuators are attractive for robotics and automation applications; however, achieving fast and accurate control of their position have been known as a complex control problem. The paper presents a methodology for obtaining controllers that achieve high position accuracy and preserve the closed-loop characteristics over a broad operating range. Experimentation with a number of conventional (or "classical") three-term controllers shows that, as repeated operations accumulate, the characteristics of the pneumatic actuator change requiring frequent re-tuning of the controller parameters (PID gains). Furthermore, three-term controllers are found to perform poorly in recovering the closed-loop system after the application of load or other external disturbances. The key reason for these problems lies in the non-linear exchange of energy inside the cylinder relating, in particular, to the complex friction forces that develop on the piston-wall interface. In order to overcome this problem but still remain within the boundaries of classical control methods, we designed an auto selective classicaql controller so that the system performance would benefit from all three control gains (KP, Kd, Ki) according to system requirements and the characteristics of each type of controller. This challenging experimentation took place for consistent performance in the face of modelling imprecision and disturbances. In the work presented, a selective PID controller is presented for an experimental rig comprising an air cylinder driven by a variable-opening pneumatic valve and equipped with position and pressure sensors. The paper reports on tests carried out to investigate the capability of this specific controller to achieve consistent control performance under, repeated operations and other changes in operating conditions.