International Science Index
Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices
Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.
Design and Fabrication of Micro-Bubble Oxygenator
This paper applies the MEMS technology to design and fabricate a micro-bubble generator by a piezoelectric actuator. Coupled with a nickel nozzle plate, an annular piezoelectric ceramic was utilized as the primary structure of the generator. In operations, the piezoelectric element deforms transversely under an electric field applied across the thickness of the generator. The surface of the nozzle plate can expand or contract because of the induction of radial strain, resulting in the whole structure to bend, and successively transport oxygen micro-bubbles into the blood flow for enhancing the oxygen content in blood. In the tests, a high magnification microscope and a high speed CCD camera were employed to photograph the time evolution of meniscus shape of gaseous bubbles dispensed from the micro-bubble generator for flow visualization. This investigation thus explored the bubble formation process including the influences of inlet gas pressure along with driving voltage and resonance frequency on the formed bubble extent.
Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic
Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.
Active Control of Multiferroic Composite Shells Using 1-3 Piezoelectric Composites
This article deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart multiferroic or magneto-electro-elastic doubly curved shells. The kinematics of deformations of the multiferroic doubly curved shell is described by a layer-wise shear deformation theory. A three-dimensional finite element model of multiferroic shells has been developed taking into account the electro-elastic and magneto-elastic couplings. A simple velocity feedback control law is employed to incorporate the active damping. Influence of layer stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the response of the multiferroic doubly curved shell has been studied. In addition, for the different orientation of the fibers of the constraining layer, the performance of the ACLD treatment has been studied.
Feasibility Study of the Quadcopter Propeller Vibrations for the Energy Production
The concept of converting the kinetic energy of quadcopter propellers into electrical energy is considered in this contribution following the feasibility study of the propeller vibrations, theoretical energy conversion, and simulation techniques. Analysis of the propeller vibration performance is presented via graphical representation of calculated and simulated parameters, in order to demonstrate the possibility of recovering the harvested energy from the propeller vibrations of the quadcopter while the quadcopter is in operation. Consideration of using piezoelectric materials in such concept, converting the mechanical energy of the propeller into the electrical energy, is given. Photographic evidence of the propeller in operation is presented and discussed together with experimental results to validate the theoretical concept.
H-Infinity and RST Position Controllers of Rotary Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor
Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM) is a compact, precise, and silent actuator generating high torque at low speed without gears. Moreover, the TWUM has a high holding torque without supply, which makes this motor as an attractive solution for holding position of robotic arms. However, their nonlinear dynamics, and the presence of load-dependent dead zones often limit their use. Those issues can be overcome in closed loop with effective and precise controllers. In this paper, robust H-infinity (H∞) and discrete time RST position controllers are presented. The H∞ controller is designed in continuous time with additional weighting filters to ensure the robustness in the case of uncertain motor model and external disturbances. Robust RST controller based on the pole placement method is also designed and compared to the H∞. Simulink model of TWUM is used to validate the stability and the robustness of the two proposed controllers.
Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures
Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.
Non-Local Behavior of a Mixed-Mode Crack in a Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Medium
In this paper, the problem of a mixed-Mode crack embedded in an infinite medium made of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) with crack surfaces subjected to electro-mechanical loadings is investigated. Eringen’s non-local theory of elasticity is adopted to formulate the governing electro-elastic equations. The properties of the piezoelectric material are assumed to vary exponentially along a perpendicular plane to the crack. Using Fourier transform, three integral equations are obtained in which the unknown variables are the jumps of mechanical displacements and electric potentials across the crack surfaces. To solve the integral equations, the unknowns are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials, and the resulting equations solved using the Schmidt method. In contrast to the classical solutions based on the local theory, it is found that no mechanical stress and electric displacement singularities are present at the crack tips when nonlocal theory is employed to investigate the problem. A direct benefit is the ability to use the calculated maximum stress as a fracture criterion. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crack length, material gradient parameter describing FGPMs, and lattice parameter on the mechanical stress and electric displacement field near crack tips.
Fractional Order Controller Design for Vibration Attenuation in an Airplane Wing
The wing is one of the most important parts of an airplane because it ensures stability, sustenance and maneuverability of the airplane. Because of its shape, the airplane wing can be simplified to a smart beam. Active vibration suppression is realized using piezoelectric actuators that are mounted on the surface of the beam. This work presents a tuning procedure of fractional order controllers based on a graphical approach of the frequency domain representation. The efficacy of the method is proven by practically testing the controller on a laboratory scale experimental stand.
Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure
In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.
Innovation and Analysis of Vibrating Fork Level Switch
A vibrating-fork sensor can measure the level height of solids and liquids and operates according to the principle that vibrations created by piezoelectric ceramics are transmitted to the vibrating fork, which produces resonance. When the vibrating fork touches an object, its resonance frequency changes and produces a signal that returns to a controller for immediate adjustment, so as to effectively monitor raw material loading. The design of the vibrating fork in a vibrating-fork material sensor is crucial. In this paper, ANSYS finite element analysis software is used to perform modal analysis on the vibrations of the vibrating fork. In addition, to design and produce a superior vibrating fork, the dimensions and welding shape of the vibrating fork are compared in a simulation performed using the Taguchi method.
Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation
In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.
Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Matching an embedded electronic application with a
cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour
due to the large number of factors influencing the output power.
In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester
parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of
harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved
by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general
parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward
harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and
implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester
benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated
by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide
V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and
frequency as variables.
Design of Wireless Readout System for Resonant Gas Sensors
This paper presents a design of a wireless read out system for tracking the frequency shift of the polymer coated piezoelectric micro electromechanical resonator due to gas absorption. The measure of this frequency shift indicates the percentage of a particular gas the sensor is exposed to. It is measured using an oscillator and an FPGA based frequency counter by employing the resonator as a frequency determining element in the oscillator. This system consists of a Gas Sensing Wireless Readout (GSWR) and an USB Wireless Transceiver (UWT). GSWR consists of an oscillator based on a trans-impedance sustaining amplifier, an FPGA based frequency readout, a sub 1GHz wireless transceiver and a micro controller. UWT can be plugged into the computer via USB port and function as a wireless module to transfer gas sensor data from GSWR to the computer through its USB port. GUI program running on the computer periodically polls for sensor data through UWT - GSWR wireless link, the response from GSWR is logged in a file for post processing as well as displayed on screen.
A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application
This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.
Wetting Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures by Gigahertz Acoustic Reflectometry
Wetting efficiency of microstructures or nanostructures patterned on Si wafers is a real challenge in integrated circuits manufacturing. In fact, bad or non-uniform wetting during wet processes limits chemical reactions and can lead to non-complete etching or cleaning inside the patterns and device defectivity. This issue is more and more important with the transistors size shrinkage and concerns mainly high aspect ratio structures. Deep Trench Isolation (DTI) structures enabling pixels’ isolation in imaging devices are subject to this phenomenon. While low-frequency acoustic reflectometry principle is a well-known method for Non Destructive Test applications, we have recently shown that it is also well suited for nanostructures wetting characterization in a higher frequency range. In this paper, we present a high-frequency acoustic reflectometry characterization of DTI wetting through a confrontation of both experimental and modeling results. The acoustic method proposed is based on the evaluation of the reflection of a longitudinal acoustic wave generated by a 100 µm diameter ZnO piezoelectric transducer sputtered on the silicon wafer backside using MEMS technologies. The transducers have been fabricated to work at 5 GHz corresponding to a wavelength of 1.7 µm in silicon. The DTI studied structures, manufactured on the wafer frontside, are crossing trenches of 200 nm wide and 4 µm deep (aspect ratio of 20) etched into a Si wafer frontside. In that case, the acoustic signal reflection occurs at the bottom and at the top of the DTI enabling its characterization by monitoring the electrical reflection coefficient of the transducer. A Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) model has been developed to predict the behavior of the emitted wave. The model shows that the separation of the reflected echoes (top and bottom of the DTI) from different acoustic modes is possible at 5 Ghz. A good correspondence between experimental and theoretical signals is observed. The model enables the identification of the different acoustic modes. The evaluation of DTI wetting is then performed by focusing on the first reflected echo obtained through the reflection at Si bottom interface, where wetting efficiency is crucial. The reflection coefficient is measured with different water / ethanol mixtures (tunable surface tension) deposited on the wafer frontside. Two cases are studied: with and without PFTS hydrophobic treatment. In the untreated surface case, acoustic reflection coefficient values with water show that liquid imbibition is partial. In the treated surface case, the acoustic reflection is total with water (no liquid in DTI). The impalement of the liquid occurs for a specific surface tension but it is still partial for pure ethanol. DTI bottom shape and local pattern collapse of the trenches can explain these incomplete wetting phenomena. This high-frequency acoustic method sensitivity coupled with a FDTD propagative model thus enables the local determination of the wetting state of a liquid on real structures. Partial wetting states for non-hydrophobic surfaces or low surface tension liquids are then detectable with this method.
Computational Feasibility Study of a Torsional Wave Transducer for Tissue Stiffness Monitoring
A torsional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer design
is proposed to measure shear moduli in soft tissue with direct
access availability, using shear wave elastography technique. The
measurement of shear moduli of tissues is a challenging problem,
mainly derived from a) the difficulty of isolating a pure shear wave,
given the interference of multiple waves of different types (P, S,
even guided) emitted by the transducers and reflected in geometric
boundaries, and b) the highly attenuating nature of soft tissular
materials. An immediate application, overcoming these drawbacks,
is the measurement of changes in cervix stiffness to estimate the
gestational age at delivery. The design has been optimized using
a finite element model (FEM) and a semi-analytical estimator of
the probability of detection (POD) to determine a suitable geometry,
materials and generated waves. The technique is based on the time
of flight measurement between emitter and receiver, to infer shear
wave velocity. Current research is centered in prototype testing and
validation. The geometric optimization of the transducer was able
to annihilate the compressional wave emission, generating a quite
pure shear torsional wave. Currently, mechanical and electromagnetic
coupling between emitter and receiver signals are being the research
focus. Conclusions: the design overcomes the main described
problems. The almost pure shear torsional wave along with the short
time of flight avoids the possibility of multiple wave interference.
This short propagation distance reduce the effect of attenuation, and
allow the emission of very low energies assuring a good biological
security for human use.
Effect of Coupling Media on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete: A Preliminary Investigation
Measurement of the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is an important tool in diagnostic examination of concrete. In this method piezoelectric transducers are normally held in direct contact with the concrete surface. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that a preferential coupling effect might exist i.e. that the speed of sound measured depends on the couplant used. In this study, different coupling media of varying acoustic impedance were placed between the transducers and concrete samples made with constant aggregate content but with different compressive strengths. The preliminary results show that using coupling materials (both solid and a range of liquid substances) has an effect on the pulse velocity measured in a given concrete. The effect varies depending on the material used. The UPV measurements with solid coupling were higher than these from the liquid coupling at all strength levels. The tests using couplants generally recorded lower UPV values than the conventional test, except when carbon fiber composite was used, which retuned higher values. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed to confirm that there are statistically significant differences between the measurements recorded using a conventional system and a coupled system.
Critical Analysis of Different Actuation Techniques for a Micro Cantilever
The objective of this work is to carryout critical
comparison of different actuation mechanisms like electrostatic,
thermal, piezoelectric, and magnetic with reference to a micro
cantilever. The relevant parameters like force generated,
displacement are compared in actuation methods. With these results,
helps in choosing the best actuation method for a particular
application. In this study, Comsol/Multiphysics software is used.
Modeling and simulation is done by considering the micro cantilever
of same dimensions as an actuator using all the above mentioned
actuation techniques. In addition to their small size, micro actuators
consume very little power and are capable of accurate results. In this
work, a comparison of actuation mechanisms is done to decide the
efficient system in micro domain.
Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy
An Acoustic Micro-Energy Harvester (AMEH) is
developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical
energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using Lumped Element
Modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An
experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess
the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental
data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed
the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable.
Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance
optimization. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9V/(m/s^2) and
1.79μW/(m^2/s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only
show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. At 1g and
60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about
2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and
communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design
for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.
Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load
Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is
modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications,
arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional
arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with
circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be
used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the
object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is
constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage
difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for
unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the
controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With
the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled
smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The
appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.
Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application
We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT)
actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring
resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We
design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of
eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a
channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically
structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric
material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on
the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying
longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi
stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length
is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at
1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each
channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to
establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel
spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will
elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring
resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in
refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the
output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength
in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as
Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator
This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses
the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a
bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence,
we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with
remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing
the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists
of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber
plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber
and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel
electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by
etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured
by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected
droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic
Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micro Pumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design
This paper presents the design and fabrication of a
novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micro pump with check valve
having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power
consumption. The micro pump is designed to have eight major
components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric
actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two
stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check
valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic
substrate. A prototype of the gas micro pump, with a size of 52 mm ×
50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device
is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the
self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke
volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via
minimization of the dead volume of the micro pump chamber and
channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time
values of the flow rate of micro pump and the displacement of the
piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micro pump obtained
higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp.
The micro pump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185
ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency
of 120 and 50 Hz.
Performance of Piezoelectric Cooling Fan with Rectangular Blade
Using the numerical and experimental methods, this paper discusses some primary studies on the vibration and cooling performances of the piezoelectric cooling fan with the rectangular blade. When the fan works at its natural frequency, the vibrating displacement is largest and the cooling performance is best. Due to the vibration behavior, the cooling performance is affected by the geometry, material property, and working frequency of the piezoelectric cooling fan.
Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified with Li-Sb
In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with
optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with
Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant)
(K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper)
have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and
conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the
narrow range of 1050°C-1090°C for 2-3 h to get precise information
about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of
microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering
conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility
of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to
sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely
reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we
saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by
the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density
directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other
dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we
approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and
duration combination. The detailed results are reported in this paper.
Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers
This study investigates the cleaning performance of
high intensity 360 kHz frequency on removal of nano-dimensional
and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the
cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The
uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different
methods i.e. 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC)
technique. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more
uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners
and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is
applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz
frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher
cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When
megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric
transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and
generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic
streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the
particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning
performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for
various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote
Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics
Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric
material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate
(K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch
PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h,
25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average
particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm
to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in
agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous
increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were
observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h
respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were
used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure,
dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of
the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT
was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time
increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit
enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%,
room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and
piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For
this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the
maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc)
to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase
transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling
time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of
relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.
Micromechanics Modeling of 3D Network Smart Orthotropic Structures
Two micromechanical models for 3D smart composite
with embedded periodic or nearly periodic network of generally
orthotropic reinforcements and actuators are developed and applied to
cubic structures with unidirectional orientation of constituents.
Analytical formulas for the effective piezothermoelastic coefficients
are derived using the Asymptotic Homogenization Method (AHM).
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is subsequently developed and used
to examine the aforementioned periodic 3D network reinforced smart
structures. The deformation responses from the FE simulations are
used to extract effective coefficients. The results from both
techniques are compared. This work considers piezoelectric materials
that respond linearly to changes in electric field, electric
displacement, mechanical stress and strain and thermal effects. This
combination of electric fields and thermo-mechanical response in
smart composite structures is characterized by piezoelectric and
thermal expansion coefficients. The problem is represented by unitcell
and the models are developed using the AHM and the FEA to
determine the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion
coefficients. Each unit cell contains a number of orthotropic
inclusions in the form of structural reinforcements and actuators.
Using matrix representation of the coupled response of the unit cell,
the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients are
calculated and compared with results of the asymptotic
homogenization method. A very good agreement is shown between
these two approaches.
Static Study of Piezoelectric Bimorph Beams with Delamination Zone
The FOSDT (the First Order Shear Deformation
Theory) is taking into consideration to study the static behavior of a
bimorph beam, with a delamination zone between the upper and the
lower layer. The effect of limit conditions and lengths of the
delamination zone are presented in this paper, with a PVDF
piezoelectric material application. A FEM “Finite Element Method”
is used to discretize the beam. In the axial displacement, a
displacement field appears in the debonded zone with inverse effect
between the upper and the lower layer was observed.