International Science Index
Static and Dynamical Analysis on Clutch Discs on Different Material and Geometries
This paper presents the static and cyclic stresses in combination with fatigue analysis resultant of loads applied on the friction discs usually utilized on industrial clutches. The material chosen to simulate the friction discs under load is aluminum. The numerical simulation was done by software COMSOLTM Multiphysics. The results obtained for static loads showed enough stiffness for both geometries and the material utilized. On the other hand, in the fatigue standpoint, failure is clearly verified, what demonstrates the importance of both approaches, mainly dynamical analysis. The results and the conclusion are based on the stresses on disc, counted stress cycles, and fatigue usage factor.
Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System
With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.
Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity
Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution characteristics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different; the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of the FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault PGV.
Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger
Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.
Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle
Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported. Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.
Perforation Analysis of the Aluminum Alloy Sheets Subjected to High Rate of Loading and Heated Using Thermal Chamber: Experimental and Numerical Approach
The analysis of the mechanical characteristics and dynamic behavior of aluminum alloy sheet due to perforation tests based on the experimental tests coupled with the numerical simulation is presented. The impact problems (penetration and perforation) of the metallic plates have been of interest for a long time. Experimental, analytical as well as numerical studies have been carried out to analyze in details the perforation process. Based on these approaches, the ballistic properties of the material have been studied. The initial and residual velocities laser sensor is used during experiments to obtain the ballistic curve and the ballistic limit. The energy balance is also reported together with the energy absorbed by the aluminum including the ballistic curve and ballistic limit. The high speed camera helps to estimate the failure time and to calculate the impact force. A wide range of initial impact velocities from 40 up to 180 m/s has been covered during the tests. The mass of the conical nose shaped projectile is 28 g, its diameter is 12 mm, and the thickness of the aluminum sheet is equal to 1.0 mm. The ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to simulate the perforation processes. The comparison of the ballistic curve was obtained numerically and was verified experimentally, and the failure patterns are presented using the optimal mesh densities which provide the stability of the results. A good agreement of the numerical and experimental results is observed.
Transport of Analytes under Mixed Electroosmotic and Pressure Driven Flow of Power Law Fluid
In this study, we have analyzed the transport of analytes
under a two dimensional steady incompressible flow of power-law
fluids through rectangular nanochannel. A mathematical model
based on the Cauchy momentum-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is
considered to study the combined effect of mixed electroosmotic
(EO) and pressure driven (PD) flow. The coupled governing
equations are solved numerically by finite volume method. We
have studied extensively the effect of key parameters, e.g., flow
behavior index, concentration of the electrolyte, surface potential,
imposed pressure gradient and imposed electric field strength on
the net average flow across the channel. In addition to study
the effect of mixed EOF and PD on the analyte distribution
across the channel, we consider a nonlinear model based on
general convective-diffusion-electromigration equation. We have also
presented the retention factor for various values of electrolyte
concentration and flow behavior index.
Dynamic Analysis of a Moderately Thick Plate on Pasternak Type Foundation under Impact and Moving Loads
In this study, dynamic responses of composite plates on elastic foundations subjected to impact and moving loads are investigated. The first order shear deformation (FSDT) theory is used for moderately thick plates. Pasternak-type (two-parameter) elastic foundation is assumed. Elastic foundation effects are integrated into the governing equations. It is assumed that plate is first hit by a mass as an impact type loading then the mass continues to move on the composite plate as a distributed moving loading, which resembles the aircraft landing on airport pavements. Impact and moving loadings are modeled by a mass-spring-damper system with a wheel. The wheel is assumed to be continuously in contact with the plate after impact. The governing partial differential equations of motion for displacements are converted into the ordinary differential equations in the time domain by using Galerkin’s method. Then, these sets of equations are solved by using the Runge-Kutta method. Several parameters such as vertical and horizontal velocities of the aircraft, volume fractions of the steel rebar in the reinforced concrete layer, and the different touchdown locations of the aircraft tire on the runway are considered in the numerical simulation. The results are compared with those of the ABAQUS, which is a commercial finite element code.
Obtaining Constants of Johnson-Cook Material Model Using a Combined Experimental, Numerical Simulation and Optimization Method
In this article, the Johnson-Cook material model’s constants for structural steel ST.37 have been determined by a method which integrates experimental tests, numerical simulation, and optimization. In the first step, a quasi-static test was carried out on a plain specimen. Next, the constants were calculated for it by minimizing the difference between the results acquired from the experiment and numerical simulation. Then, a quasi-static tension test was performed on three notched specimens with different notch radii. At last, in order to verify the results, they were used in numerical simulation of notched specimens and it was observed that experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Changing the diameter size of the plain specimen in the necking area was set as the objective function in the optimization step. For final validation of the proposed method, diameter variation was considered as a parameter and its sensitivity to a change in any of the model constants was examined and the results were completely corroborating.
Numerical Simulation of the Flowing of Ice Slurry in Seawater Pipe of Polar Ships
In recent years, as global warming, the sea-ice extent of North Arctic undergoes an evident decrease and Arctic channel has attracted the attention of shipping industry. Ice crystals existing in the seawater of Arctic channel which enter the seawater system of the ship with the seawater were found blocking the seawater pipe. The appearance of cooler paralysis, auxiliary machine error and even ship power system paralysis may be happened if seriously. In order to reduce the effect of high temperature in auxiliary equipment, seawater system will use external ice-water to participate in the cooling cycle and achieve the state of its flow. The distribution of ice crystals in seawater pipe can be achieved. As the ice slurry system is solid liquid two-phase system, the flow process of ice-water mixture is very complex and diverse. In this paper, the flow process in seawater pipe of ice slurry is simulated with fluid dynamics simulation software based on k-ε turbulence model. As the ice packing fraction is a key factor effecting the distribution of ice crystals, the influence of ice packing fraction on the flowing process of ice slurry is analyzed. In this work, the simulation results show that as the ice packing fraction is relatively large, the distribution of ice crystals is uneven in the flowing process of the seawater which has such disadvantage as increase the possibility of blocking, that will provide scientific forecasting methods for the forming of ice block in seawater piping system. It has important significance for the reliability of the operating of polar ships in the future.
Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank
The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.
Out-of-Plane Bending Properties of Out-of-Autoclave Thermosetting Prepregs during Forming Processes
In order to predict and model wrinkling which is caused by out of plane deformation due to compressive loading in the plane of the material during composite prepregs forming, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the relative magnitude of the bending stiffness. This study aims to examine the bending properties of out-of-autoclave (OOA) thermosetting prepreg under vertical cantilever test condition. A direct method for characterizing the bending behavior of composite prepregs was developed. The results from direct measurement were compared with results derived from an image-processing procedure that analyses the captured image during the vertical bending test. A numerical simulation was performed using ABAQUS to confirm the bending stiffness value.
Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures
Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.
Hydrodynamic Performance of a Moored Barge in Irregular Wave
Motion response of floating structures is of great
concern in marine engineering. Nonlinearity is an inherent property
of any floating bodies subjected to irregular waves. These floating
structures are continuously subjected to environmental loadings from
wave, current, wind etc. This can result in undesirable motions of the
vessel which may challenge the operability. For a floating body to
remain in its position, it should be able to induce a restoring force
when displaced. Mooring is provided to enable this restoring force.
This paper discusses the hydrodynamic performance and motion
characteristics of an 8 point spread mooring system applied to a pipe
laying barge operating in the West African sea. The modelling of the
barge is done using a computer aided-design (CAD) software
RHINOCEROS. Irregular waves are generated using a suitable wave
spectrum. Both frequency domain and time domain analysis is done.
Numerical simulations based on potential theory are carried out to
find the responses and hydrodynamic performance of the barge in
both free floating as well as moored conditions. Initially, potential
flow frequency domain analysis is done to obtain the Response
Amplitude Operator (RAO) which gives an idea about the structural
motion in free floating state. RAOs for different wave headings are
analyzed. In the following step, a time domain analysis is carried out
to obtain the responses of the structure in the moored condition. In
this study, wave induced motions are only taken into consideration.
Wind and current loads are ruled out and shall be included in further
studies. For the current study, 2000 seconds simulation is taken. The
results represent wave induced motion responses, mooring line
tensions and identify critical mooring lines.
Numerical Investigation of Unsteady MHD Flow of Second Order Fluid in a Tube of Elliptical Cross-Section on the Porous Boundary
Exact solution of an unsteady MHD flow of elasticoviscous
fluid through a porous media in a tube of elliptic cross
section under the influence of magnetic field and constant pressure
gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is
generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady
state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting
fluid motion in a tube of elliptical cross section by taking into
account of the porosity factor and magnetic parameter of the
bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in two-stages
the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a
constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady
motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables
technique. The results are expressed in terms of a non-dimensional
porosity parameter, magnetic parameter and elastico-viscosity
parameter, which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The
flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case
as elastic-viscosity parameter, magnetic parameter tends to zero, and
porosity tends to infinity. The numerical results were simulated in
MATLAB software to analyze the effect of Elastico-viscous
parameter, porosity parameter, and magnetic parameter on velocity
profile. Boundary conditions were satisfied. It is seen that the effect
of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter and magnetic
parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the
Discrete Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots: Backstepping Design Approach
In this paper we propose a discrete tracking control of
nonholonomic mobile robots with two degrees of freedom. The
electromechanical model of a mobile robot moving on a horizontal
surface without slipping, with two rear wheels controlled by two
independent DC electric, and one front roal wheel is considered. We
present backstepping design based on the Euler approximate discretetime
model of a continuous-time plant. Theoretical considerations are
verified by numerical simulation.
Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence
Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of GaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current
Thermal Carpet Cloaking Achieved by Layered Metamaterial
We have devised a thermal carpet cloak theoretically
and implemented in silicon using layered metamaterial. The layered
metamaterial is composed of single crystalline silicon and its phononic
crystal. The design is based on a coordinate transformation. We
demonstrate the result with numerical simulation. Great cloaking
performance is achieved as a thermal insulator is well hidden under the
thermal carpet cloak. We also show that the thermal carpet cloak can
even the temperature on irregular surface. Using thermal carpet cloak
to manipulate the heat conduction is effective because of its low
A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current
In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with
extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and
its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D)
numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with
conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the
drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S)
have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical
simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable
short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased
on state drain current (I
on) and a large normalized I
the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating
effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET
is excellent for nanoscale device.
Mathematical Model of Depletion of Forestry Resource: Effect of Synthetic Based Industries
A mathematical model is proposed considering the forest biomass density B(t), density of wood based industries W(t) and density of synthetic industries S(t). It is assumed that the forest biomass grows logistically in the absence of wood based industries, but depletion of forestry biomass is due to presence of wood based industries. The growth of wood based industries depends on B(t), while S(t) grows at a constant rate, independent of B(t). Further there is a competition between W(t) and S(t) according to market demand. The proposed model has four ecologically feasible steady states, namely, E1: forest biomass free and wood industries free equilibrium; E2: wood industries free equilibrium and two coexisting equilibria E∗1 , E∗2 . Behavior of the system near all feasible equilibria is analyzed using the stability theory of differential equations. In the proposed model, the natural depletion rate h1 is a crucial parameter and system exhibits Hopf-bifurcation about the non-trivial equilibrium with respect to h1. The analytical results are verified using numerical simulation.
Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection in a Square Cavity Heated from Below and Cooled from Other Walls
Magnetohydrodynamic free convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a square cavity filled with an electric conductive fluid with Prandtl number of 0.7 has been investigated numerically. The horizontal bottom wall of the cavity was kept at Th while the side and the top walls of the cavity were maintained at a constant temperature Tc with Th>Tc. The governing equations written in terms of the primitive variables were solved numerically using the finite volume method while the SIMPLER algorithm was used to couple the velocity and pressure fields. Using the developed code, a parametric study was performed, and the effects of the Rayleigh number and the Hartman number on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the cavity were investigated. The obtained results showed that temperature distribution and flow pattern inside the cavity depended on both strength of the magnetic field and Rayleigh number. For all cases two counter rotating eddies were formed inside the cavity. The magnetic field decreased the intensity of free convection and flow velocity. Also it was found that for higher Rayleigh numbers a relatively stronger magnetic field was needed to decrease the heat transfer through free convection.
Using ANSYS to Realize a Semi-Analytical Method for Predicting Temperature Profile in Injection/Production Well
Determination of wellbore problems during a
production/injection process might be evaluated thorough
temperature log analysis. Other applications of this kind of log
analysis may also include evaluation of fluid distribution analysis
along the wellbore and identification of anomalies encountered
during production/injection process. While the accuracy of such
prediction is paramount, the common method of determination of a
wellbore temperature log includes use of steady-state energy balance
equations, which hardly describe the real conditions as observed in
typical oil and gas flowing wells during production operation; and
thus increase level of uncertainties. In this study, a practical method
has been proposed through development of a simplified semianalytical
model to apply for predicting temperature profile along the
wellbore. The developed model includes an overall heat transfer
coefficient accounting all modes of heat transferring mechanism,
which has been focused on the prediction of a temperature profile as
a function of depth for the injection/production wells. The model has
been validated with the results obtained from numerical simulation.
Computational Study on Cardiac-Coronary Interaction in Terms of Coronary Flow-Pressure Waveforms in Presence of Drugs: Comparison Between Simulated and In Vivo Data
Cardiovascular human simulator can be a useful tool
in understanding complex physiopathological process in
cardiocirculatory system. It can also be a useful tool in order to
investigate the effects of different drugs on hemodynamic
parameters. The aim of this work is to test the potentiality of our
cardiovascular numerical simulator CARDIOSIM© in reproducing
flow/pressure coronary waveforms in presence of two different
drugs: Amlodipine (AMLO) and Adenosine (ADO). In particular a
time-varying intramyocardial compression, assumed to be
proportional to the left ventricular pressure, was related to the venous
coronary compliances in order to study its effects on the coronary
blood flow and the flow/pressure loop. Considering that coronary
circulation dynamics is strongly interrelated with the mechanics of
the left ventricular contraction, relaxation, and filling, the numerical
model allowed to analyze the effects induced by the left ventricular
pressure on the coronary flow.
Fin Spacing Effect of the Tube Fin Heat Exchanger at the Floor Heating Convector
This article deals with numerical simulation of the
floor heating convector in 3D. Numerical simulation is focused on
cooling mode of the floor heating convector. Geometrical model
represents section of the heat exchanger – two fins with the gap
between, pipes are not involved. Two types of fin are examined –
sinusoidal and angular shape with different fin spacing. Results of fin
spacing in case of constant Reynolds number are presented. For the
numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.
The MUST ADS Concept
The presented work is motivated by a French law
regarding nuclear waste management. A new conceptual Accelerator
Driven System (ADS) designed for the Minor Actinides (MA)
transmutation has been assessed by numerical simulation. The
MUltiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS combines high thermal power (up to 1.4 GWth) and high specific power. A 30 mA and 1
GeV proton beam is divided into three secondary beams transmitted on three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. Neutron and thermalhydraulic
simulations have been performed with the code MURE, based on the Monte-Carlo transport code MCNPX. A methodology has been developed to define characteristic of the MUST ADS concept according to a specific transmutation scenario. The reference
scenario is based on a MA flux (neptunium, americium and curium)
providing from European Fast Reactor (EPR) and a plutonium multireprocessing
strategy is accounted for. The MUST ADS reference
concept is a sodium cooled fast reactor. The MA fuel at equilibrium is mixed with MgO inert matrix to limit the core reactivity and
improve the fuel thermal conductivity. The fuel is irradiated over five
years. Five years of cooling and two years for the fuel fabrication are
taken into account. The MUST ADS reference concept burns about 50% of the initial MA inventory during a complete cycle. In term of
mass, up to 570 kg/year are transmuted in one concept. The methodology to design the MUST ADS and to calculate fuel
composition at equilibrium is precisely described in the paper. A detailed fuel evolution analysis is performed and the reference scenario is compared to a scenario where only americium transmutation is performed.
Temperature Field Study of Brake Disc in a Belt Conveyor Brake
To reveal the temperature field distribution of disc
brake in downward belt conveyor, mathematical models of heat
transfer for disc brake were established combined with heat transfer
theory. Then, the simulation process was stated in detail and the
temperature field of disc brake under conditions of dynamic speed and
dynamic braking torque was numerically simulated by using ANSYS
software. Finally the distribution and variation laws of temperature
field in the braking process were analyzed. Results indicate that the
maximum surface temperature occurs at a time before the brake end
and there exist large temperature gradients in both radial and axial
directions, while it is relatively small in the circumferential direction.
MAS Simulations of Optical Antenna Structures
A semi-analytic boundary discretization method, the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is used to analyze Optical Antennas consisting of metallic parts. In addition to standard dipoletype antennas, consisting of two pieces of metal, a new structure consisting of a single metal piece with a tiny groove in the center is analyzed. It is demonstrated that difficult numerical problems are caused because optical antennas exhibit strong material dispersion, loss, and plasmon-polariton effects that require a very accurate numerical simulation. This structure takes advantage of the Channel Plasmon-Polariton (CPP) effect and exhibits a strong enhancement of the electric field in the groove. Also primitive 3D antenna model with spherical nano particles is analyzed.
Analytical and Numerical Approaches in Coagulation of Particles
In this paper we discuss the effect of unbounded particle interaction operator on particle growth and we study how this can address the choice of appropriate time steps of the numerical simulation. We provide also rigorous mathematical proofs showing that large particles become dominating with increasing time while small particles contribute negligibly. Second, we discuss the efficiency of the algorithm by performing numerical simulations tests and by comparing the simulated solutions with some known analytic solutions to the Smoluchowski equation.
Numerical Simulation of Deoilin Hydrocyclones
In this research the separation efficiency of deoiling hydrocyclone is evaluated using three-dimensional simulation of multiphase flow based on Eulerian-Eulerian finite volume method. The mixture approach of Reynolds Stress Model is also employed to capture the features of turbulent multiphase swirling flow. The obtained separation efficiency of Colman's design is compared with available experimental data and showed that the separation curve of deoiling hydrocyclones can be predicted using numerical simulation.
Three Dimensional Analysis of Pollution Dispersion in Street Canyon
Three dimensional simulations are carried out to estimate the effect of wind direction, wind speed and geometry on the flow and dispersion of vehicular pollutant in a street canyon. The pollutant sources are motor vehicles passing between the two buildings. Suitable emission factors for petrol and diesel vehicles at varying vehicle speed are used for the estimation of the rate of emission from the streets. The dispersion of automobile pollutant released from the street is simulated by introducing vehicular emission source term as a fixed-flux boundary condition at the ground level over the road. The emission source term is suitably calculated by adopting emission factors from literature for varying conditions of street traffic. It is observed that increase in wind angle disturbs the symmetric pattern of pollution distribution along the street length. The concentration increases in the far end of the street as compared to the near end.