International Science Index
Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources
Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.
Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source
Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.
Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer
Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.
The Influence of Travel Experience within Perceived Public Transport Quality
The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by passengers. Among the “traditional” public transport quality attributes there are, for example: travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, and ticket price. By contrast, there are some “non-conventional” attributes that could significantly influence customer satisfaction jointly with the “traditional” ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how munch) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a “long trip” (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as “low” the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the “short trip” passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if confirmed through other case studies, will allow to conclude that the “travel experience impact" must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.
A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell
The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.
PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá
One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.
Process Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel 825 Using Artificial Neural Network
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), a non-conventional machining process, finds wide applications for shaping difficult-to-cut alloys. Process modeling of EDM is required to exploit the process to the fullest. Process modeling of EDM is a challenging task owing to involvement of so many electrical and non-electrical parameters. This work is an attempt to model the EDM process using artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM taking Inconel 825 as work material. ANN modeling has been performed using experimental data. The prediction ability of trained network has been verified experimentally. Results indicate that ANN can predict the values of performance measures of EDM satisfactorily.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy
Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining for Inconel 718
Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-conventional manufacturing process to shape difficult-to-cut materials. The process yield, in terms of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate, of EDM may considerably be improved by selecting the optimal combination(s) of process parameters. This paper employs Multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) ratio technique to find the optimal combination(s) of the process parameters during EDM of Inconel 718. Three cases v.i.z. high cutting efficiency, high surface finish, and normal machining have been taken and the optimal combinations of input parameters have been obtained for each case. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to find the dominant parameter(s) in all three cases. The experimental verification of the obtained results has also been made. MRSN ratio technique found to be a simple and effective multi-objective optimization technique.
Dependence of Densification, Hardness and Wear Behaviors of Ti6Al4V Powders on Sintering Temperature
The sintering step in powder metallurgy (P/M) processes is very sensitive as it determines to a large extent the properties of the final component produced. Spark plasma sintering over the past decade has been extensively used in consolidating a wide range of materials including metallic alloy powders. This novel, non-conventional sintering method has proven to be advantageous offering full densification of materials, high heating rates, low sintering temperatures, and short sintering cycles over conventional sintering methods. Ti6Al4V has been adjudged the most widely used α+β alloy due to its impressive mechanical performance in service environments, especially in the aerospace and automobile industries being a light metal alloy with the capacity for fuel efficiency needed in these industries. The P/M route has been a promising method for the fabrication of parts made from Ti6Al4V alloy due to its cost and material loss reductions and the ability to produce near net and intricate shapes. However, the use of this alloy has been largely limited owing to its relatively poor hardness and wear properties. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification, hardness, and wear behaviors of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al4V powders was investigated in this present study. Sintering of the alloy powders was performed in the 650–850°C temperature range at a constant heating rate, applied pressure and holding time of 100°C/min, 50 MPa and 5 min, respectively. Density measurements were carried out according to Archimedes’ principle and microhardness tests were performed on sectioned as-polished surfaces at a load of 100gf and dwell time of 15 s. Dry sliding wear tests were performed at varied sliding loads of 5, 15, 25 and 35 N using the ball-on-disc tribometer configuration with WC as the counterface material. Microstructural characterization of the sintered samples and wear tracks were carried out using SEM and EDX techniques. The density and hardness characteristics of sintered samples increased with increasing sintering temperature. Near full densification (99.6% of the theoretical density) and Vickers’ micro-indentation hardness of 360 HV were attained at 850°C. The coefficient of friction (COF) and wear depth improved significantly with increased sintering temperature under all the loading conditions examined, except at 25 N indicating better mechanical properties at high sintering temperatures. Worn surface analyses showed the wear mechanism was a synergy of adhesive and abrasive wears, although the former was prevalent.
Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions
The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics.
Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex
due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery
life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and
sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing
protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN
routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing
and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a
better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data
aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.
F-IVT Actuation System to Power Artificial Knee Joint
The efficiency of the actuation system of exoskeletons
and active orthoses for lower limbs is a significant aspect of the
design of such devices because it affects their efficacy. The F-IVT is
an innovative actuation system to power artificial knee joint with
energy recovery capabilities. Its key and non-conventional elements
are a flywheel that acts as a mechanical energy storage system, and
an Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT). The design of the F-IVT
can be optimized for a certain walking condition, resulting in a heavy
reduction of both the electric energy consumption and of the electric
peak power. In this work, by means of simulations of level ground
walking at different speeds, it is demonstrated that the F-IVT is still
an advantageous actuator which permits to save energy consumption
and to downsize the electric motor even when it does not work in
Soft Computing Based Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Network Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable new
applications and need non-conventional paradigms for the protocol
because of energy and bandwidth constraints, In WSN, sensor node’s
life is a critical parameter. Research on life extension is based on
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) scheme,
which rotates Cluster Head (CH) among sensor nodes to distribute
energy consumption over all network nodes. CH selection in WSN
affects network energy efficiency greatly. This study proposes an
improved CH selection for efficient data aggregation in sensor
networks. This new algorithm is based on Bacterial Foraging
Optimization (BFO) incorporated in LEACH.
Management of Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Tree in Oman: The Case of Using Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Pods for Feeding Omani Sheep
This study evaluated the use of raw or processed
Prosopis juliflora (Meskit) pods as a major ingredient in a formulated
ration to provide an alternative non-conventional concentrate for
livestock feeding in Oman. Dry Meskit pods were reduced to lengths
of 0.5- 1.0 cm to ensure thorough mixing into three diets. Meskit
pods were subjected to two types of treatments; roasting and soaking.
They were roasted at 150оC for 30 minutes using a locally-made
roasting device (40 kg barrel container rotated by electric motor and
heated by flame gas cooker). Chopped pods were soaked in tap water
for 24 hours and dried for 2 days under the sun with frequent turning.
The Meskit-pod-based diets (MPBD) were formulated and pelleted
from 500 g/kg ground Meskit pods, 240 g/kg wheat bran, 200 g/kg
barley grain, 50 g/kg local dried sardines and 10 g/kg of salt. Twenty
four 10 months-old intact Omani male lambs with average body
weight of 27.3 kg (± 0.5 kg) were used in a feeding trial for 84 days.
They were divided (on body weight basis) and allocated to four diet
combination groups. These were: Rhodes grass hay (RGH) plus a
general ruminant concentrate (GRC); RGH plus raw Meskit pods
(RMP) based concentrate; RGH plus roasted Meskit pods (ROMP)
based concentrate; RGH plus soaked Meskit pods (SMP) based
concentrate Daily feed intakes and bi-weekly body weights were
recorded. MPBD had higher contents of crude protein (CP), acid
detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than the
GRC. Animals fed various types of MPBD did not show signs of ill
health. There was a significant effect of feeding ROMP on the
performance of Omani sheep compared to RMP and SMP. The
ROMP fed animals had similar performance to those fed the GRC in
terms of feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio
(FCR).This study indicated that roasted Meskit pods based diet may
be used instead of the commercial concentrate for feeding Omani
sheep without adverse effects on performance. It offers a cheap
alternative source of protein and energy for feeding Omani sheep.
Also, it might help in solving the spread impact of Meskit trees,
maintain the ecosystem and helping in preserving the local tree
Packaging in a Multivariate Conceptual Design Synthesis of a BWB Aircraft
A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major
aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between
internally placed components and the external surface, during the
conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design
space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the
Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size
the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and
avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform
parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the
surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the
cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection
is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like
the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and
resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases
the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in
locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.
Integrated Water Management for Lafarge Cement-Jordan
This study aims at implementing integrated water resources management principles to the Lafarge Cement Jordan at Al-Fuhais plant. This was accomplished by conducting water audits at all water consuming units in the plant. Based on the findings of the water audit, an action plan to improve water use efficiency in the plant was proposed. The main elements of which are installing water saving devices, re-use of the treated wastewater, water harvesting, raising the awareness of the employees, and linking the plant to the water demand management unit at the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.
The analysis showed that by implementing the proposed action plan, it is expected that the industrial water demand can be satisfied from non-conventional resources including treated wastewater and harvested water. As a consequence, fresh water can be used to increase the supply to Al-Fuhais city which is expected to reflect positively on the relationship between the factory and the city.
Cost Optimization of Concentric Braced Steel Building Structures
Seismic design may require non-conventional
concept, due to the fact that the stiffness and layout of the structure
have a great effect on the overall structural behaviour, on the seismic
load intensity as well as on the internal force distribution. To find an
economical and optimal structural configuration the key issue is the
optimal design of the lateral load resisting system. This paper focuses
on the optimal design of regular, concentric braced frame (CBF)
multi-storey steel building structures. The optimal configurations are
determined by a numerical method using genetic algorithm approach,
developed by the authors. Aim is to find structural configurations
with minimum structural cost. The design constraints of objective
function are assigned in accordance with Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 8
guidelines. In this paper the results are presented for various building
geometries, different seismic intensities, and levels of energy
Online Partial Discharge Source Localization and Characterization Using Non-Conventional Method
Power cables are vulnerable to failure due to aging or
defects that occur with the passage of time under continuous
operation and loading stresses. PD detection and characterization
provide information on the location, nature, form and extent of the
degradation. As a result, PD monitoring has become an important
part of condition based maintenance (CBM) program among power
utilities. Online partial discharge (PD) localization of defect sources
in power cable system is possible using the time of flight method.
The information regarding the time difference between the main and
reflected pulses and cable length can help in locating the partial
discharge source along the cable length. However, if the length of
the cable is not known and the defect source is located at the extreme
ends of the cable or in the middle of the cable, then double ended
measurement is required to indicate the location of PD source. Use of
multiple sensors can also help in discriminating the cable PD or local/
external PD. This paper presents the experience and results from
online partial discharge measurements conducted in the laboratory
and the challenges in partial discharge source localization.
What Creative Industries Have to Offer to Business? Creative Partnerships and Mutual Benefits
In the time of globalisation, growing uncertainty, ambiguity and change, traditional way of doing business are no longer sufficient and it is important to consider non-conventional methods and approaches to release creativity and facilitate innovation and growth. Thus, creative industries, as a natural source of creativity and innovation, draw particular attention. This paper explores feasibility of building creative partnerships between creative industries and business and brings attention to mutual benefits derived from such partnerships. Design/approach - This paper is a theoretical exploration of projects, practices and research findings addressing collaboration between creative industries and business. Thus, it concerns creative industries, arts, business and its representatives in order to define requirements for creative partnerships to work and succeed. Findings – Current practices in engaging into arts-business partnerships are still very few, although most of creative partnerships proved to be highly valuable and mutually beneficial. Certain conditions shall be provided in order to benefit from arts-business creative synergy. Originality/value- By integrating different sources of literature, this article provides a base for conducting empirical research in several dimensions within arts-business partnerships.
Removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Coffee Husks as Non-Conventional Low-Cost Sorbent
The purpose of this research is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P dye (CBY) from aqueous solutions by sorption onto coffee husks as a low-cost sorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial CBY dye concentration, sorbent mass, pH, temperature) were examined and the optimal experimental conditions were determined. The results indicated that the removal of the dye was pH dependent and at initial pH of 2, the dye was removed effectively. The CBY dye sorption data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equilibrium models. The maximum sorption capacity of CBY dye ions onto coffee husks increased from 24.04 to 35.04 mg g-1 when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K. The calculated sorption thermodynamic parameters including ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° indicated that the CBY dye sorption onto coffee husks is a spontaneous, endothermic and mainly physical in nature.
Enzymatic Esterification of Carboxylic Acids and Higher Alcohols in Organic Medium
The studying of enzymatic esterification of carboxylic
acids and higher alcohols was performed by esterase Saccharomyces
cerevisiae in water-organic medium. Investigation of the enzyme
specificity to acetic substrates showed the best result with acetic acid
in esterification reactions with ethanol whereas within other
carboxylic acids the esterification decreased with acids: hexanoic >
pentanoic > butyric > decanoic. In relation to higher alcohols C3-C5,
esterification increased with alcohols propanol < butanol < amylol.
Also it was determined that esterase was more specific to alcohols
with branched chain such as isobutyl alcohol and isoamyl alcohol.
Data obtained may have important practical implications, for
example, for application of yeast esterase in producing various
volatile esters as well as in enzymatic transformation of volatile acids
and toxic fusel alcohols into volatile esters by providing the
production of the high quality alcoholic beverages with redused
content of higher alcohols as well as with improved degustational and
Modelling of Soil Erosion by Non Conventional Methods
Soil erosion is the most serious problem faced at
global and local level. So planning of soil conservation measures has
become prominent agenda in the view of water basin managers. To
plan for the soil conservation measures, the information on soil
erosion is essential. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), Revised
Universal Soil Loss Equation 1 (RUSLE1or RUSLE) and Modified
Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), RUSLE 1.06, RUSLE1.06c,
RUSLE2 are most widely used conventional erosion estimation
methods. The essential drawbacks of USLE, RUSLE1 equations are
that they are based on average annual values of its parameters and so
their applicability to small temporal scale is questionable. Also these
equations do not estimate runoff generated soil erosion. So
applicability of these equations to estimate runoff generated soil
erosion is questionable. Data used in formation of USLE, RUSLE1
equations was plot data so its applicability at greater spatial scale
needs some scale correction factors to be induced. On the other hand
MUSLE is unsuitable for predicting sediment yield of small and large
events. Although the new revised forms of USLE like RUSLE 1.06,
RUSLE1.06c and RUSLE2 were land use independent and they have
almost cleared all the drawbacks in earlier versions like USLE and
RUSLE1, they are based on the regional data of specific area and
their applicability to other areas having different climate, soil, land
use is questionable. These conventional equations are applicable for
sheet and rill erosion and unable to predict gully erosion and spatial
pattern of rills. So the research was focused on development of nonconventional
(other than conventional) methods of soil erosion
estimation. When these non-conventional methods are combined with
GIS and RS, gives spatial distribution of soil erosion. In the present
paper the review of literature on non- conventional methods of soil
erosion estimation supported by GIS and RS is presented.
Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.
Adsorption of Copper by using Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA)
Many non-conventional adsorbent have been studied
as economic alternative to commercial activated carbon and mostly
agricultural waste have been introduced such as rubber leaf powder
and hazelnut shell. Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash
(MIRHA), produced from the rice husk is one of the low-cost
materials that were used as adsorbent of heavy metal. The aim of
this research was to study the feasibility of using MIRHA500 and
MIRHA800 as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) metal ions from
aqueous solutions by the batch studies. The adsorption of Cu(II) into
MIRHA500 and MIRH800 favors Fruendlich isotherm and imply
pseudo – kinetic second order which applied chemisorptions
Preliminary Evaluation of Different Water Qualities on Leucaena Leucocephala Seed Germination and Seedling Growth
The evaluation of non-conventional water resources
on seed germination and seedling growth performance at early
growth stages is still in progress especially in forage crops. This
study was designed to test the effect of four types of water qualities
(treated wastewater (TWW), industrial water (IW), grey water (GW),
and Distilled water (DW)) on germination and early seedling vigor of
Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed that the germination
was not significantly affected by the different water qualities. Seed
germination reached maximum after 17, 14, 14, and 21 days under
GW, IW, TWW, and DW treatments, respectively. The highest mean
of shoot length was scored under the GW treatment. And, the highest
mean of root length was scored under DW which was not significant
from GW treatment. The means of shoot fresh was the highest under
the TWW. The means of root fresh weight was not significantly
different from each other's under different treatments. The growth
performance was in progress with no mortality during 21 days of
growth. Thus, the best non-conventional water qualities alternatives
based on the cleanness, nutrients, and toxicity are the GW, TWW and
On Two Control Approaches for The Output Voltage Regulation of a Boost Converter
This paper deals with the comparison between two proposed control strategies for a DC-DC boost converter. The first control is a classical Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and the second one is a distance based Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). The SMC is an analytical control approach based on the boost mathematical model. However, the FSMC is a non-conventional control approach which does not need the controlled system mathematical model. It needs only the measures of the output voltage to perform the control signal. The obtained simulation results show that the two proposed control methods are robust for the case of load resistance and the input voltage variations. However, the proposed FSMC gives a better step voltage response than the one obtained by the SMC.
Improvement of Lipase Catalytic Properties by Immobilization in Hybrid Matrices
Lipases are enzymes particularly amenable for
immobilization by entrapment methods, as they can work equally
well in aqueous or non-conventional media and long-time stability of
enzyme activity and enantioselectivity is needed to elaborate more
efficient bioprocesses. The improvement of Pseudomonas
fluorescens (Amano AK) lipase characteristics was investigated by
optimizing the immobilization procedure in hybrid organic-inorganic
matrices using ionic liquids as additives. Ionic liquids containing a
more hydrophobic alkyl group in the cationic moiety are beneficial
for the activity of immobilized lipase. Silanes with alkyl- or aryl
nonhydrolizable groups used as precursors in combination with
tetramethoxysilane could generate composites with higher
enantioselectivity compared to the native enzyme in acylation
reactions of secondary alcohols. The optimal effect on both activity
and enantioselectivity was achieved for the composite made from
octyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane at 1:1 molar ratio (60%
increase of total activity following immobilization and enantiomeric
ratio of 30). Ionic liquids also demonstrated valuable properties as
reaction media for the studied reactions, comparable with the usual
organic solvent, hexane.
The Potential Use of Nanofilters to Supply Potable Water in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Watershed Basin
In a world worried about water resources with the
shadow of drought and famine looming all around, the quality of
water is as important as its quantity. The source of all concerns is the
constant reduction of per capita quality water for different uses.
Iran With an average annual precipitation of 250 mm compared to
the 800 mm world average, Iran is considered a water scarce country
and the disparity in the rainfall distribution, the limitations of
renewable resources and the population concentration in the margins
of desert and water scarce areas have intensified the problem.
The shortage of per capita renewable freshwater and its poor
quality in large areas of the country, which have saline, brackish or
hard water resources, and the profusion of natural and artificial
pollutant have caused the deterioration of water quality.
Among methods of treatment and use of these waters one can refer
to the application of membrane technologies, which have come into
focus in recent years due to their great advantages. This process is
quite efficient in eliminating multi-capacity ions; and due to the
possibilities of production at different capacities, application as
treatment process in points of use, and the need for less energy in
comparison to Reverse Osmosis processes, it can revolutionize the
water and wastewater sector in years to come. The article studied the
different capacities of water resources in the Persian Gulf and Oman
Sea watershed basins, and processes the possibility of using
nanofiltration process to treat brackish and non-conventional waters
in these basins.