International Science Index

21
10007477
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite
Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Paper Detail
34
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20
10007045
Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles
Abstract:
This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.
Paper Detail
111
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19
10006838
Flexural Properties of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Aggressive Environment
Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the effect of aggressive environment on the flexural properties of halloysite nanotubes-polyester nanocomposites. Results showed that the addition of halloysite nanotubes into polyester matrix was found to improve flexural properties of the nanocomposites in dry condition and after water-methanol exposure. Significant increase in surface roughness was also observed and measured by Alicona Infinite Focus optical microscope.

Paper Detail
126
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18
10007018
Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers
Abstract:
During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.
Paper Detail
99
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17
10003989
Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.
Paper Detail
488
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16
10003461
Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites
Abstract:
The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new properties based on morphological modifications or electronic interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations. This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried. Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis measurements.
Paper Detail
1049
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15
10003723
Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures
Abstract:
This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100oC. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.
Paper Detail
713
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14
10003273
Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect
Abstract:
This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples, prepared using dry-mixing approach, demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties comparing to wet-mixing samples.
Paper Detail
1270
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13
10003310
Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle
Abstract:
Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.
Paper Detail
1229
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12
10000356
Barrier Properties of Starch - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites
Abstract:

Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1-15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Paper Detail
1931
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11
9999989
The Role of Halloysite’s Surface Area and Aspect Ratio on Tensile Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Nanocomposites
Abstract:

The influence of three different types of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different dimensions, namely as camel lake (CLA), Jarrahdale (JA) and Matauri Bay (MB), on their reinforcing ability of ethylene propylene dine monomer (EPDM) were investigated by varying the HNTs loading (from 0-15 phr). Mechanical properties of the nanocomposites improved with addition of all three HNTs, but CLA based nanocomposites exhibited a significant enhancement compared to the other HNTs. For instance, tensile properties of EPDM nanocomposites increased by 120%, 256% and 340% for MB, JA and CLA, respectively, with addition of 15 phr of HNTs. This could be due to the higher aspect ratio and higher surface area of CLA compared to others. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanocomposites at 15 phr of HNT loadings showed low amounts of pulled-out nanotubes which confirmed the presence of more embedded nanotubes inside the EPDM matrix, as well as aggregates within the fracture surface of EPDM/HNT nanocomposites

Paper Detail
1502
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10
10002600
Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite
Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Paper Detail
1073
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9
9997308
A Nanosensor System Based On Disuccinimydyl–CYP2E1 for Amperometric Detection of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug, Pyrazinamide
Abstract:

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line pro-drugs  in the tuberculosis (TB) combination chemotherapy used to treat  Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous reports have suggested that  hepatotoxicity due to pyrazinamide in patients is due to inappropriate  dosing. It is, therefore necessary to develop sensitive and reliable  techniques for determining the PZA metabolic profile of diagnosed  patients promptly and at point-of-care. This study reports the  determination of PZA based on nanobiosensor systems developed  from disuccinimidyl octanedioate modified Cytochrome P450-2E1  (CYP2E1) electrodeposited on gold substrates derivatised with  (poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid) PANSA/PVP-AgNPs  nanocomposites. The rapid and sensitive amperometric PZA  detection gave a dynamic linear range of 2µM to 16µM revealing a  limit of detection of 0.044µM and a sensitivity of 1.38µA/µM. The  Michaelis-Menten parameters; KM, KM app and IMAX were calculated to  be 6.0µM, 1.41µM and 1.51x10-6 A, respectively, indicating a  nanobiosensor suitable for use in serum.

Paper Detail
1538
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8
9997394
Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler
Abstract:

This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that larger aggregates of CNTs were disappeared upon addition of these two components leading to the enhancement of thermo-mechanical properties for such composites.

Paper Detail
2408
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7
9996676
Mechanical and Thermal Properties Characterisation of Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based On Layered Silicate: Effect of Processing Parameters
Abstract:

The mechanical properties including flexural and tensile of neat vinyl ester and polymer based on layered silicate nanocomposite materials of two different methodologies are discussed. Methodology 1 revealed that the addition of layered silicate into the polymer matrix increased the mechanical and thermal properties up to 1 wt.% clay loading. The incorporation of more clay resulted in decreasing the properties which was traced to the existence of aggregation layers. The aggregation layers imparted a negative impact on the overall mechanical and thermal properties. On the other hand, methodology 2 increased the mechanical and thermal properties up to 4 wt.% clay loading. The different amounts of improvements were assigned to the various preparation parameters. Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy were utilized in order to characterize the interlamellar structure of nanocomposites.

Paper Detail
1121
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6
9996688
Microbial Evaluation of Geophagic and Cosmetic Clays from Southern and Western Nigeria: Potential Natural Nanomaterials
Abstract:

Geophagic and cosmetic clays are among potential nanomaterial which occur naturally and are of various forms. The use of these nanoclays is a common practice in both rural and urban areas mostly due to tradition and medicinal reasons. These naturally occurring materials can be valuable sources of nanomaterial by serving as nanocomposites. The need to ascertain the safety of these materials is the motivation for this research. Physical Characterization based on the hue value and microbiological qualities of the nanoclays were carried out. The Microbial analysis of the clay samples showed considerable contamination with both bacteria and fungi with fungal contaminants taking the lead. This observation may not be unlikely due to the ability of fungi species to survive harsher growth conditions than bacteria. ‘Atike pupa’ showed no bacterial growth. The clay with the largest bacterial count was Calabash chalk (Igbanke), while that with the highest fungal count was ‘Eko grey’. The most commonly isolated bacteria in this study were Clostridium spp. and Corynebacterium spp. while fungi included Aspergillus spp. These results are an indication of the need to subject these clay materials to treatments such as heating before consumption or topical usage thereby ascertaining their safety.

Paper Detail
2117
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5
9996738
Contact Angle Measurement of the Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based On Layered Silicate
Abstract:

Contact angle measurement was utilized in order to study the subject of the wettability and surface chemistry of the nanocomposites materials. Water and glycerol droplets were used in this study. The incorporation of layered silicate into the vinyl ester matrix helped to improve the wettability and reduced the θ values of both liquids used. The addition of 2 wt.% clay loading reduced the θ values of water and glycerol by up to 21% and 6% respectively. Likewise, the incorporation of 4 wt.% clay loading reduced the water and glycerol θ values by 49% and 38% respectively. Also this study confirms the findings in the literature regarding the relationship between the intercalation nanocomposites level and the wettability. Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy were utilised in order to characterise the interlamellar structure of nanocomposites.

Paper Detail
1322
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4
16584
Mechanical and Thermal Properties Characterisation of Vinyl Ester Matrix Nanocomposites Based On Layered Silicate
Abstract:

The mechanical properties including flexural and tensile of neat vinyl ester and polymer based on layered silicate nanocomposite materials are discussed. The addition of layered silicate into the polymer matrix increased the tensile and flexural modulus up to 1 wt.% clay loading. The incorporation of more clay resulted in decreasing the mechanical properties which was traced to the existence of aggregation layers. Likewise, up to 1 wt.% clay loading, the thermal behaviour showed significant improvements and at higher clay loading the thermal pattern was reduced. The aggregation layers imparted a negative impact on the overall mechanical and thermal properties. Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy were utilised in order to characterise the interlamellar structure of nanocomposites.

Paper Detail
2626
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3
13189
Processing, Morphological, Thermal and Absorption Behavior of PLA/Thermoplastic Starch/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites
Abstract:
Thermoplastic starch, polylactic acid glycerol and maleic anhydride (MA) were compounded with natural montmorillonite (MMT) through a twin screw extruder to investigate the effects of different loading of MMT on structure, thermal and absorption behavior of the nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed that sample with MMT loading 4phr exhibited exfoliated structure while sample that contained MMT 8 phr exhibited intercalated structure. FESEM images showed big lump when MMT loading was at 8 phr. The thermal properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that MMT increased melting temperature and crystallization temperature of matrix but reduction in glass transition temperature was observed Meanwhile the addition of MMT has improved the water barrier property. The nanosize MMT particle is also able to block a tortuous pathway for water to enter the starch chain, thus reducing the water uptake and improved the physical barrier of nanocomposite.
Paper Detail
1521
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2
5695
STM Spectroscopy of Alloyed Nanocrystal Composite CdSxSe1-X
Abstract:
Nanocrystals (NC) alloyed composite CdSxSe1-x(x=0 to 1) have been prepared using the chemical solution deposition technique. The energy band gap of these alloyed nanocrystals of approximately the same size, have been determined by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. The values of the energy band gap obtained directly using STS are compared to those measured by optical spectroscopy. Increasing the molar fraction ratio x from 0 to 1 causes clearly observed increase in the band gap of the alloyed composite nanocrystal. Vegard-s law was applied to calculate the parameters of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model and the dimension obtained were compared to the values measured by STM. The good agreement of the calculated and measured values is a direct result of applying Vegard's law in the nanocomposites.
Paper Detail
907
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1
1181
Nanobiocomposites with Enhanced Cell Proliferation and Improved Mechanical Properties Based on Organomodified-Nanoclay and Silicone Rubber
Abstract:

Bionanotechnology deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. Polymer nanocomposites with optimized biological activity have attracted great attention. Nanoclay is considered as reinforcing nanofiller in manufacturing of high performance nanocomposites. In current study, organomodified-nanoclay with negatively charged silicate layers was incorporated into biomedical grade silicone rubber. Nanoparticle loading has been tailored to enhance cell behavior. Addition of nanoparticles led to improved mechanical properties of substrate with enhanced strength and stiffness while no toxic effects was observed. Results indicated improved viability and proliferation of cells by addition of nanofillers. The improved mechanical properties of the matrix result in proper cell response through adjustment and arrangement of cytoskeletal fibers. Results can be applied in tissue engineering when enhanced substrates are required for improvement of cell behavior for in vivo applications.

Paper Detail
1261
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