International Science Index
Quick Similarity Measurement of Binary Images via Probabilistic Pixel Mapping
In this paper we present a quick technique to measure the similarity between binary images. The technique is based on a probabilistic mapping approach and is fast because only a minute percentage of the image pixels need to be compared to measure the similarity, and not the whole image. We exploit the power of the Probabilistic Matching Model for Binary Images (PMMBI) to arrive at an estimate of the similarity. We show that the estimate is a good approximation of the actual value, and the quality of the estimate can be improved further with increased image mappings. Furthermore, the technique is image size invariant; the similarity between big images can be measured as fast as that for small images. Examples of trials conducted on real images are presented.
An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101
An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.
Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband
Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.
A Practical and Efficient Evaluation Function for 3D Model Based Vehicle Matching
3D model-based vehicle matching provides a new way
for vehicle recognition, localization and tracking. Its key is to
construct an evaluation function, also called fitness function, to
measure the degree of vehicle matching. The existing fitness functions
often poorly perform when the clutter and occlusion exist in traffic
scenarios. In this paper, we present a practical and efficient fitness
function. Unlike the existing evaluation functions, the proposed
fitness function is to study the vehicle matching problem from
both local and global perspectives, which exploits the pixel gradient
information as well as the silhouette information. In view of the
discrepancy between 3D vehicle model and real vehicle, a weighting
strategy is introduced to differently treat the fitting of the model’s
wireframes. Additionally, a normalization operation for the model’s
projection is performed to improve the accuracy of the matching.
Experimental results on real traffic videos reveal that the proposed
fitness function is efficient and robust to the cluttered background
and partial occlusion.
Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs
A uniquely restricted matching is defined to be a
matching M whose matched vertices induces a sub-graph which has
only one perfect matching. In this paper, we make progress on the
open question of the status of this problem on interval graphs (graphs
obtained as the intersection graph of intervals on a line). We give
an algorithm to compute maximum cardinality uniquely restricted
matchings on certain sub-classes of interval graphs. We consider two
sub-classes of interval graphs, the former contained in the latter, and
give O(|E|^2) time algorithms for both of them. It is to be noted that
both sub-classes are incomparable to proper interval graphs (graphs
obtained as the intersection graph of intervals in which no interval
completely contains another interval), on which the problem can be
solved in polynomial time.
A Survey of Model Comparison Strategies and Techniques in Model Driven Engineering
This survey paper shows the recent state of model
comparison as it’s applies to Model Driven engineering. In Model
Driven Engineering to calculate the difference between the models is
a very important and challenging task. There are number of tasks
involved in model differencing that firstly starts with identifying and
matching the elements of the model. In this paper, we discuss how
model matching is accomplished, the strategies, techniques and the
types of the model. We also discuss the future direction. We found
out that many of the latest model comparison strategies are geared
near enabling Meta model and similarity based matching. Therefore
model versioning is the most dominant application of the model
comparison. Recently to work on comparison for versioning has
begun to deteriorate, giving way to different applications. Ultimately
there is wide change among the tools in the measure of client exertion
needed to perform model comparisons, as some require more push to
encourage more sweeping statement and expressive force.
Accrual Based Scheduling for Cloud in Single and Multi Resource System: Study of Three Techniques
This paper evaluates the accrual based scheduling for
cloud in single and multi-resource system. Numerous organizations
benefit from Cloud computing by hosting their applications. The
cloud model provides needed access to computing with potentially
unlimited resources. Scheduling is tasks and resources mapping to a
certain optimal goal principle. Scheduling, schedules tasks to virtual
machines in accordance with adaptable time, in sequence under
transaction logic constraints. A good scheduling algorithm improves
CPU use, turnaround time, and throughput. In this paper, three realtime
cloud services scheduling algorithm for single resources and
multiple resources are investigated. Experimental results show
Resource matching algorithm performance to be superior for both
single and multi-resource scheduling when compared to benefit first
scheduling, Migration, Checkpoint algorithms.
Driver Fatigue State Recognition with Pixel Based Caveat Scheme Using Eye-Tracking
Driver fatigue is an important factor in the increasing
number of road accidents. Dynamic template matching method was
proposed to address the problem of real-time driver fatigue detection
system based on eye-tracking. An effective vision based approach
was used to analyze the driver’s eye state to detect fatigue. The driver
fatigue system consists of Face detection, Eye detection, Eye
tracking, and Fatigue detection. Initially frames are captured from a
color video in a car dashboard and transformed from RGB into YCbCr
color space to detect the driver’s face. Canny edge operator was used
to estimating the eye region and the locations of eyes are extracted.
The extracted eyes were considered as a template matching for eye
tracking. Edge Map Overlapping (EMO) and Edge Pixel Count
(EPC) matching function were used for eye tracking which is used to
improve the matching accuracy. The pixel of eyeball was tracked
from the eye regions which are used to determine the fatigue state of
Enhanced Bidirectional Selection Sort
An algorithm is a well-defined procedure that takes
some input in the form of some values, processes them and gives the
desired output. It forms the basis of many other algorithms such as
searching, pattern matching, digital filters etc., and other applications
have been found in database systems, data statistics and processing,
data communications and pattern matching. This paper introduces
algorithmic “Enhanced Bidirectional Selection” sort which is
bidirectional, stable. It is said to be bidirectional as it selects two
values smallest from the front and largest from the rear and assigns
them to their appropriate locations thus reducing the number of
passes by half the total number of elements as compared to selection
Tagged Grid Matching Based Object Detection in Wavelet Neural Network
Object detection using Wavelet Neural Network (WNN) plays a major contribution in the analysis of image processing. Existing cluster-based algorithm for co-saliency object detection performs the work on the multiple images. The co-saliency detection results are not desirable to handle the multi scale image objects in WNN. Existing Super Resolution (SR) scheme for landmark images identifies the corresponding regions in the images and reduces the mismatching rate. But the Structure-aware matching criterion is not paying attention to detect multiple regions in SR images and fail to enhance the result percentage of object detection. To detect the objects in the high-resolution remote sensing images, Tagged Grid Matching (TGM) technique is proposed in this paper. TGM technique consists of the three main components such as object determination, object searching and object verification in WNN. Initially, object determination in TGM technique specifies the position and size of objects in the current image. The specification of the position and size using the hierarchical grid easily determines the multiple objects. Second component, object searching in TGM technique is carried out using the cross-point searching. The cross out searching point of the objects is selected to faster the searching process and reduces the detection time. Final component performs the object verification process in TGM technique for identifying (i.e.,) detecting the dissimilarity of objects in the current frame. The verification process matches the search result grid points with the stored grid points to easily detect the objects using the Gabor wavelet Transform. The implementation of TGM technique offers a significant improvement on the multi-object detection rate, processing time, precision factor and detection accuracy level.
Automatic Intelligent Analysis of Malware Behaviour
In this paper, we describe the use of formal methods
to model malware behaviour. The modelling of harmful behaviour
rests upon syntactic structures that represent malicious procedures
inside malware. The malicious activities are modelled by a formal
grammar, where API calls’ components are the terminals and the set
of API calls used in combination to achieve a goal are designated
non-terminals. The combination of different non-terminals in various
ways and tiers make up the attack vectors that are used by harmful
software. Based on these syntactic structures a parser can be
generated which takes execution traces as input for pattern
Adaptive WiFi Fingerprinting for Location Approximation
WiFi has become an essential technology that is widely used nowadays. It is famous due to its convenience to be used with mobile devices. This is especially true for Internet users worldwide that use WiFi connections. There are many location based services that are available nowadays which uses Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) signal fingerprinting. A common example that is gaining popularity in this era would be Foursquare. In this work, the WiFi signal would be used to estimate the user or client’s location. Similar to GPS, fingerprinting method needs a floor plan to increase the accuracy of location estimation. Still, the factor of inconsistent WiFi signal makes the estimation defer at different time intervals. Given so, an adaptive method is needed to obtain the most accurate signal at all times. WiFi signals are heavily distorted by external factors such as physical objects, radio frequency interference, electrical interference, and environmental factors to name a few. Due to these factors, this work uses a method of reducing the signal noise and estimation using the Nearest Neighbour based on past activities of the signal to increase the signal accuracy up to more than 80%. The repository yet increases the accuracy by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern matching. The repository acts as the server cum support of the client side application decision. Numerous previous works has adapted the methods of collecting signal strengths in the repository over the years, but mostly were just static. In this work, proposed solutions on how the adaptive method is done to match the signal received to the data in the repository are highlighted. With the said approach, location estimation can be done more accurately. Adaptive update allows the latest location fingerprint to be stored in the repository. Furthermore, any redundant location fingerprints are removed and only the updated version of the fingerprint is stored in the repository. How the location estimation of the user can be predicted would be highlighted more in the proposed solution section. After some studies on previous works, it is found that the Artificial Neural Network is the most feasible method to deploy in updating the repository and making it adaptive. The Artificial Neural Network functions are to do the pattern matching of the WiFi signal to the existing data available in the repository.
Multiple Object Tracking using Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents a particle swarm optimization
(PSO) based approach for multiple object tracking based on histogram
matching. To start with, gray-level histograms are calculated to
establish a feature model for each of the target object. The difference
between the gray-level histogram corresponding to each particle in the
search space and the target object is used as the fitness value. Multiple
swarms are created depending on the number of the target objects
under tracking. Because of the efficiency and simplicity of the PSO
algorithm for global optimization, target objects can be tracked as
iterations continue. Experimental results confirm that the proposed
PSO algorithm can rapidly converge, allowing real-time tracking of
each target object. When the objects being tracked move outside the
tracking range, global search capability of the PSO resumes to re-trace
the target objects.
SURF Based Image Matching from Different Angle of Viewpoints using Rectification and Simplified Orientation Correction
Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) is commonly used for feature matching in stereovision because of their robustness towards scale changes and rotational changes. However, SURF feature cannot cope with large viewpoint changes or skew distortion. This paper introduces a method which can help to improve the wide baseline-s matching performance in term of accuracy by rectifying the image using two vanishing points. Simplified orientation correction was used to remove the false matching..
Eye Gesture Analysis with Head Movement for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
Road traffic accidents are a major cause of death worldwide. In an attempt to reduce accidents, some research efforts have focused on creating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions and to use this information to identify cues for potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Non-intrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver point of regard within vehicles. It uses an on-board CCD camera to observe the driver-s face. A template matching approach is used to compare the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with a set of eye-gesture templates of the driver looking at different focal points within the vehicle. The windscreen is divided into cells and comparison of the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with templates of a driver-s eyes looking at each cell is used to determine the driver-s point of regard on the windscreen. Results indicate that the proposed technique could be useful in situations where low resolution estimates of driver point of regard are adequate. For instance, To allow ADAS systems to alert the driver if he/she has positively failed to observe a hazard.
The Development of Flying Type Moving Robot Using Image Processing
Wheel-running type moving robot has the restriction
on the moving range caused by obstacles or stairs. Solving this
weakness, we studied the development of moving robot using airship.
Our airship robot moves by recognizing arrow marks on the path. To
have the airship robot recognize arrow marks, we used edge-based
template matching. To control propeller units, we used PID and PD
controller. The results of experiments demonstrated that the airship
robot can move along the marks and can go up and down the stairs. It is
shown the possibility that airship robot can become a robot which can
move at wide range facilities.
FPGA based Relative Distance Measurement using Stereo Vision Technology
In this paper, we propose a novel concept of relative
distance measurement using Stereo Vision Technology and discuss
its implementation on a FPGA based real-time image processor. We
capture two images using two CCD cameras and compare them.
Disparity is calculated for each pixel using a real time dense disparity
calculation algorithm. This algorithm is based on the concept of
indexed histogram for matching. Disparity being inversely
proportional to distance (Proved Later), we can thus get the relative
distances of objects in front of the camera. The output is displayed on
a TV screen in the form of a depth image (optionally using pseudo
colors). This system works in real time on a full PAL frame rate (720
x 576 active pixels @ 25 fps).
New Corneal Reflection Removal Method Used In Iris Recognition System
Images of human iris contain specular highlights due
to the reflective properties of the cornea. This corneal reflection
causes many errors not only in iris and pupil center estimation but
also to locate iris and pupil boundaries especially for methods that
use active contour. Each iris recognition system has four steps:
Segmentation, Normalization, Encoding and Matching. In order to
address the corneal reflection, a novel reflection removal method is
proposed in this paper. Comparative experiments of two existing
methods for reflection removal method are evaluated on CASIA iris
image databases V3. The experimental results reveal that the
proposed algorithm provides higher performance in reflection
Performance of Dual MRC Receiver for M-ary Modulations over Correlated Nakagami-m Fading Channels with Non-identical and Arbitrary Fading Parameter
Performance of a dual maximal ratio combining
receiver has been analyzed for M-ary coherent and non-coherent
modulations over correlated Nakagami-m fading channels with nonidentical
and arbitrary fading parameter. The classical probability
density function (PDF) based approach is used for analysis.
Expressions for outage probability and average symbol error
performance for M-ary coherent and non-coherent modulations have
been obtained. The obtained results are verified against the special
case published results and found to be matching. The effect of the
unequal fading parameters, branch correlation and unequal input
average SNR on the receiver performance has been studied.
XML Schema Automatic Matching Solution
Schema matching plays a key role in many different
applications, such as schema integration, data integration, data
warehousing, data transformation, E-commerce, peer-to-peer data
management, ontology matching and integration, semantic Web,
semantic query processing, etc. Manual matching is expensive and
error-prone, so it is therefore important to develop techniques to
automate the schema matching process. In this paper, we present a
solution for XML schema automated matching problem which
produces semantic mappings between corresponding schema
elements of given source and target schemas. This solution
contributed in solving more comprehensively and efficiently XML
schema automated matching problem. Our solution based on
combining linguistic similarity, data type compatibility and structural
similarity of XML schema elements. After describing our solution,
we present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of
Improved Feature Processing for Iris Biometric Authentication System
Iris-based biometric authentication is gaining importance
in recent times. Iris biometric processing however, is a complex
process and computationally very expensive. In the overall processing
of iris biometric in an iris-based biometric authentication system,
feature processing is an important task. In feature processing, we extract
iris features, which are ultimately used in matching. Since there
is a large number of iris features and computational time increases
as the number of features increases, it is therefore a challenge to
develop an iris processing system with as few as possible number of
features and at the same time without compromising the correctness.
In this paper, we address this issue and present an approach to feature
extraction and feature matching process. We apply Daubechies D4
wavelet with 4 levels to extract features from iris images. These
features are encoded with 2 bits by quantizing into 4 quantization
levels. With our proposed approach it is possible to represent an
iris template with only 304 bits, whereas existing approaches require
as many as 1024 bits. In addition, we assign different weights to
different iris region to compare two iris templates which significantly
increases the accuracy. Further, we match the iris template based on
a weighted similarity measure. Experimental results on several iris
databases substantiate the efficacy of our approach.
Automatic Feature Recognition for GPR Image Processing
This paper presents an automatic feature recognition
method based on center-surround difference detecting and fuzzy logic
that can be applied in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) image
processing. Adopted center-surround difference method, the salient
local image regions are extracted from the GPR images as features of
detected objects. And fuzzy logic strategy is used to match the
detected features and features in template database. This way, the
problem of objects detecting, which is the key problem in GPR image
processing, can be converted into two steps, feature extracting and
matching. The contributions of these skills make the system have the
ability to deal with changes in scale, antenna and noises. The results of
experiments also prove that the system has higher ratio of features
sensing in using GPR to image the subsurface structures.
A Thai to English Machine Translation System Using Thai LFG Tree Structure as Interlingua
Machine Translation (MT) between the Thai and English languages has been a challenging research topic in natural language processing. Most research has been done on English to Thai machine translation, but not the other way around. This paper presents a Thai to English Machine Translation System that translates a Thai sentence into interlingua of a Thai LFG tree using LFG grammar and a bottom up parser. The Thai LFG tree is then transformed into the corresponding English LFG tree by pattern matching and node transformation. Finally, an equivalent English sentence is created using structural information prescribed by the English LFG tree. Based on results of experiments designed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system, it can be stated that the system has been proven to be effective in providing a useful translation from Thai to English.
Experimental Modal Analysis and Model Validation of Antenna Structures
Numerical design optimization is a powerful tool that
can be used by engineers during any stage of the design process.
There are many different applications for structural optimization. A
specific application that will be discussed in the following paper is
experimental data matching. Data obtained through tests on a physical
structure will be matched with data from a numerical model of that
same structure. The data of interest will be the dynamic characteristics
of an antenna structure focusing on the mode shapes and modal
frequencies. The structure used was a scaled and simplified model of
the Karoo Array Telescope-7 (KAT-7) antenna structure.
This kind of data matching is a complex and difficult task. This
paper discusses how optimization can assist an engineer during the
process of correlating a finite element model with vibration test data.
Retrieval of Relevant Visual Data in Selected Machine Vision Tasks: Examples of Hardware-based and Software-based Solutions
To illustrate diversity of methods used to extract relevant (where the concept of relevance can be differently defined for different applications) visual data, the paper discusses three groups of such methods. They have been selected from a range of alternatives to highlight how hardware and software tools can be complementarily used in order to achieve various functionalities in case of different specifications of “relevant data". First, principles of gated imaging are presented (where relevance is determined by the range). The second methodology is intended for intelligent intrusion detection, while the last one is used for content-based image matching and retrieval. All methods have been developed within projects supervised by the author.
Security Analysis of Password Hardened Multimodal Biometric Fuzzy Vault
Biometric techniques are gaining importance for
personal authentication and identification as compared to the
traditional authentication methods. Biometric templates are
vulnerable to variety of attacks due to their inherent nature. When a
person-s biometric is compromised his identity is lost. In contrast to
password, biometric is not revocable. Therefore, providing security
to the stored biometric template is very crucial. Crypto biometric
systems are authentication systems, which blends the idea of
cryptography and biometrics. Fuzzy vault is a proven crypto
biometric construct which is used to secure the biometric templates.
However fuzzy vault suffer from certain limitations like nonrevocability,
cross matching. Security of the fuzzy vault is affected
by the non-uniform nature of the biometric data. Fuzzy vault when
hardened with password overcomes these limitations. Password
provides an additional layer of security and enhances user privacy.
Retina has certain advantages over other biometric traits. Retinal
scans are used in high-end security applications like access control to
areas or rooms in military installations, power plants, and other high
risk security areas. This work applies the idea of fuzzy vault for
retinal biometric template. Multimodal biometric system
performance is well compared to single modal biometric systems.
The proposed multi modal biometric fuzzy vault includes combined
feature points from retina and fingerprint. The combined vault is
hardened with user password for achieving high level of security.
The security of the combined vault is measured using min-entropy.
The proposed password hardened multi biometric fuzzy vault is
robust towards stored biometric template attacks.
Deep Web Content Mining
The rapid expansion of the web is causing the
constant growth of information, leading to several problems such as
increased difficulty of extracting potentially useful knowledge. Web
content mining confronts this problem gathering explicit information
from different web sites for its access and knowledge discovery.
Query interfaces of web databases share common building blocks.
After extracting information with parsing approach, we use a new
data mining algorithm to match a large number of schemas in
databases at a time. Using this algorithm increases the speed of
information matching. In addition, instead of simple 1:1 matching,
they do complex (m:n) matching between query interfaces. In this
paper we present a novel correlation mining algorithm that matches
correlated attributes with smaller cost. This algorithm uses Jaccard
measure to distinguish positive and negative correlated attributes.
After that, system matches the user query with different query
interfaces in special domain and finally chooses the nearest query
interface with user query to answer to it.
Sounds Alike Name Matching for Myanmar Language
Personal name matching system is the core of
essential task in national citizen database, text and web mining,
information retrieval, online library system, e-commerce and record
linkage system. It has necessitated to the all embracing research in
the vicinity of name matching. Traditional name matching methods
are suitable for English and other Latin based language. Asian
languages which have no word boundary such as Myanmar language
still requires sounds alike matching system in Unicode based
application. Hence we proposed matching algorithm to get analogous
sounds alike (phonetic) pattern that is convenient for Myanmar
character spelling. According to the nature of Myanmar character, we
consider for word boundary fragmentation, collation of character.
Thus we use pattern conversion algorithm which fabricates words in
pattern with fragmented and collated. We create the Myanmar sounds
alike phonetic group to help in the phonetic matching. The
experimental results show that fragmentation accuracy in 99.32% and
processing time in 1.72 ms.
Template-Based Object Detection through Partial Shape Matching and Boundary Verification
This paper presents a novel template-based method to
detect objects of interest from real images by shape matching. To
locate a target object that has a similar shape to a given template
boundary, the proposed method integrates three components: contour
grouping, partial shape matching, and boundary verification. In the
first component, low-level image features, including edges and
corners, are grouped into a set of perceptually salient closed contours
using an extended ratio-contour algorithm. In the second component,
we develop a partial shape matching algorithm to identify the
fractions of detected contours that partly match given template
boundaries. Specifically, we represent template boundaries and
detected contours using landmarks, and apply a greedy algorithm to
search the matched landmark subsequences. For each matched
fraction between a template and a detected contour, we estimate an
affine transform that transforms the whole template into a hypothetic
boundary. In the third component, we provide an efficient algorithm
based on oriented edge lists to determine the target boundary from
the hypothetic boundaries by checking each of them against image
edges. We evaluate the proposed method on recognizing and
localizing 12 template leaves in a data set of real images with clutter
back-grounds, illumination variations, occlusions, and image noises.
The experiments demonstrate the high performance of our proposed
Automatic Detection of Syllable Repetition in Read Speech for Objective Assessment of Stuttered Disfluencies
Automatic detection of syllable repetition is one of the
important parameter in assessing the stuttered speech objectively.
The existing method which uses artificial neural network (ANN)
requires high levels of agreement as prerequisite before attempting to
train and test ANNs to separate fluent and nonfluent. We propose
automatic detection method for syllable repetition in read speech for
objective assessment of stuttered disfluencies which uses a novel
approach and has four stages comprising of segmentation, feature
extraction, score matching and decision logic. Feature extraction is
implemented using well know Mel frequency Cepstra coefficient
(MFCC). Score matching is done using Dynamic Time Warping
(DTW) between the syllables. The Decision logic is implemented by
Perceptron based on the score given by score matching. Although
many methods are available for segmentation, in this paper it is done
manually. Here the assessment by human judges on the read speech
of 10 adults who stutter are described using corresponding method
and the result was 83%.