International Science Index
Method of Cluster Based Cross-Domain Knowledge Acquisition for Biologically Inspired Design
Biologically inspired design inspires inventions and new technologies in the field of engineering by mimicking functions, principles, and structures in the biological domain. To deal with the obstacles of cross-domain knowledge acquisition in the existing biologically inspired design process, functional semantic clustering based on functional feature semantic correlation and environmental constraint clustering composition based on environmental characteristic constraining adaptability are proposed. A knowledge cell clustering algorithm and the corresponding prototype system is developed. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the visual prosthetic device design.
Investigating the Dynamics of Knowledge Acquisition in Learning Using Differential Equations
A mathematical model for knowledge acquisition in
teaching and learning is proposed. In this study we adopt the
mathematical model that is normally used for disease modelling
into teaching and learning. We derive mathematical conditions which
facilitate knowledge acquisition. This study compares the effects
of dropping out of the course at early stages with later stages of
learning. The study also investigates effect of individual interaction
and learning from other sources to facilitate learning. The study fits
actual data to a general mathematical model using Matlab ODE45
and lsqnonlin to obtain a unique mathematical model that can be
used to predict knowledge acquisition. The data used in this study
was obtained from the tutorial test results for mathematics 2 students
from the Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa
in the department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. The study
confirms already known results that increasing dropout rates and
forgetting taught concepts reduce the population of knowledgeable
students. Increasing teaching contacts and access to other learning
materials facilitate knowledge acquisition. The effect of increasing
dropout rates is more enhanced in the later stages of learning
than earlier stages. The study opens up a new direction in further
investigations in teaching and learning using differential equations.
Domain Knowledge Representation through Multiple Sub Ontologies: An Application Interoperability
The issues that limit application interoperability is lack of common vocabulary, common structure, application domain knowledge ontology based semantic technology provides solutions that resolves application interoperability issues. Ontology is broadly used in diverse applications such as artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, biomedical, information integration, etc. Ontology can be used to interpret the knowledge of various domains. To reuse, enrich the available ontologies and reduce the duplication of ontologies of the same domain, there is a strong need to integrate the ontologies of the particular domain. The integrated ontology gives complete knowledge about the domain by sharing this comprehensive domain ontology among the groups. As per the literature survey there is no well-defined methodology to represent knowledge of a whole domain. The current research addresses a systematic methodology for knowledge representation using multiple sub-ontologies at different levels that addresses application interoperability and enables semantic information retrieval. The current method represents complete knowledge of a domain by importing concepts from multiple sub ontologies of same and relative domains that reduces ontology duplication, rework, implementation cost through ontology reusability.
Mobile Learning in Developing Countries: A Synthesis of the Past to Define the Future
Mobile learning (m-learning) is a novel approach to knowledge acquisition and dissemination and is gaining global attention. Steady progress in wireless technologies and the portability of communication devices continue to broaden the scope and use of mobiles. With the convergence of Web functionality onto mobile platforms and the affordability and availability of mobile technology, m-learning has the potential of being the next prevalent channel of education in both formal and informal settings. There is substantive literature on developed countries but the state in developing countries (DCs) however appears vague. This paper is a synthesis of extant literature on mobile learning in DCs. The research interest is based on the fact that in DCs, mobile communication and internet connectivity are popular. However, its use in education is under explored. There are some reviews on the state, conceptualizations, trends and teacher education, but to the authors’ knowledge, no study has focused on mobile learning adoption and integration issues. This study examines issues and gaps associated with its adoption and integration in DCs higher education institutions. A qualitative build-up of literature was conducted using articles pooled from electronic databases (Google Scholar and ERIC). To enable criteria for inclusion and incorporate diverse study perspectives, search terms used were m-learning, DCs, higher education institutions, challenges, benefits, impact, gaps and issues. The synthesis revealed that though mobile technology has diffused globally, its pedagogical pursuit in DCs remains quite low. The absence of a mobile Web and the difficulty of resource conversion into mobile format due to lack of funding and technical competence is a stumbling block. Again, the lack of established design and implementation rules to guide the development of m-learning platforms in DCs is a hindrance. The absence of access restrictions on devices poses security threats to institutional systems. Negative perceptions that devices are taking over faculty roles lead to resistance in some situations. Resistance to change can be a hindrance to the acceptance and success of new systems. Lack of interest for m-learning is also attributed to lower technological literacy levels of the underprivileged masses. Scholarly works on m-learning in DCs is yet to mature. Most technological innovations are handed down from developed countries, and this constantly creates a lag for DCs. Lack of theoretical grounding was also identified which reduces the objectivity of study reports. The socio-cultural terrain of DCs results in societies with different views and needs that have been identified as a hindrance to research. Institutional commitment decisions, adequate funding for the necessary infrastructural development as well as multiple stakeholder participation is important for project success. Evidence suggests that while adoption decisions are readily made, successful integration of the concept for its full benefits to be realized is often neglected. Recommendations to findings were made to provide possible remedies to identified issues.
Knowledge Management as Tool for Environmental Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institutions
The most significant changes in the characteristics of consumers have contributed to the development and adoption of methodologies and tools that enable organizations to be more competitive in the marketplace. One of these methodologies is the integration of Knowledge Management (KM) phases and Environmental Management Systems (EMS). This integration allows companies to manage and share the required knowledge for EMS adoption, from the place where it is generated to the place where it is going to be exploited. The aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between KM phases as a tool for the adoption of EMS in HEI. The methodology has a descriptive scope and a qualitative approach. It is based on a case study and a review of the literature about KM and EMS. We conducted 266 surveys to students, professors and staff at Minuto de Dios University (Colombia). Data derived from the study indicate that if a HEI wants to achieve an adequate knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer, it must have clear goals for implementing an EMS. Also, HEI should create empowerment and training spaces for students, professors and staff. In the case study, HEI must generate alternatives that enhance spaces of knowledge appropriation. It was found that 85% of respondents have not received any training from HEI about EMS. 88% of respondents believe that the actions taken by the university are not efficient to knowledge transfer in order to develop an EMS.
Remote Training with Self-Assessment in Electrical Engineering
The paper focuses on the distance laboratory
organisation for training the electrical engineering staff and students
in the fields of electrical drive and power electronics. To support
online knowledge acquisition and professional enhancement, new
challenges in remote education based on an active learning approach
with self-assessment have been emerged by the authors. Following
the literature review and explanation of the improved assessment
methodology, the concept and technological basis of the labs
arrangement are presented. To decrease the gap between the distance
study of the up-to-date equipment and other educational activities in
electrical engineering, the improvements in the following-up the
learners’ progress and feedback composition are introduced. An
authoring methodology that helps to personalise knowledge
acquisition and enlarge Web-based possibilities is described.
Educational management based on self-assessment is discussed.
Development of the Structure of the Knowledgebase for Countermeasures in the Knowledge Acquisition Process for Trouble Prediction in Healthcare Processes
Healthcare safety has been perceived important. It is
essential to prevent troubles in healthcare processes for healthcare
safety. Trouble prevention is based on trouble prediction using
accumulated knowledge on processes, troubles, and countermeasures.
However, information on troubles has not been accumulated in
hospitals in the appropriate structure, and it has not been utilized
effectively to prevent troubles. In the previous study, however a
detailed knowledge acquisition process for trouble prediction was
proposed, the knowledgebase for countermeasures was not involved.
In this paper, we aim to propose the structure of the knowledgebase for
countermeasures, in the knowledge acquisition process for trouble
prediction in healthcare process. We first design the structure of
countermeasures and propose the knowledge representation form on
countermeasures. Then, we evaluate the validity of the proposal, by
applying it into an actual hospital.
The Relationship between Absorptive Capacity and Green Innovation
Absorptive capacity generally facilitates the adoption
of innovation. How does this relationship change when economic
return is not the sole driver of innovation uptake? We investigate
whether absorptive capacity facilitates the adoption of green
innovation based on a survey of 79 construction companies in
Scotland. Based on the results of multiple regression analyses, we
confirm that existing knowledge utilisation (EKU), knowledge
building (KB) and external knowledge acquisition (EKA) are
significant predictors of green process GP), green administrative
(GA) and green technical innovation (GT), respectively. We discuss
the implications for theories of innovation adoption and knowledge
enhancement associated with environmentally-friendly practices.
RASPE – Risk Advisory Smart System for Pipeline Projects in Egypt
A knowledge-based expert system with the acronym
RASPE is developed as an application tool to help decision makers in
construction companies make informed decisions about managing
risks in pipeline construction projects. Choosing to use expert
systems from all available artificial intelligence techniques is due to
the fact that an expert system is more suited to representing a
domain’s knowledge and the reasoning behind domain-specific
decisions. The knowledge-based expert system can capture the
knowledge in the form of conditional rules which represent various
project scenarios and potential risk mitigation/response actions. The
built knowledge in RASPE is utilized through the underlying
inference engine that allows the firing of rules relevant to a project
scenario into consideration. Paper provides an overview of the
knowledge acquisition process and goes about describing the
knowledge structure which is divided up into four major modules.
The paper shows one module in full detail for illustration purposes
and concludes with insightful remarks.
A Knowledge Acquisition Model Using Multi-Agents for KaaS
These days customer satisfaction plays vital role in
any business. When customer searches for a product, significantly a
junk of irrelevant information is what is given, leading to customer
dissatisfaction. To provide exactly relevant information on the
searched product, we are proposing a model of KaaS (Knowledge as
a Service), which pre-processes the information using decision
making paradigm using Multi-agents.
Information obtained from various sources is taken to derive
knowledge and they are linked to Cloud to capture new idea. The
main focus of this work is to acquire relevant information
(knowledge) related to product, then convert this knowledge into a
service for customer satisfaction and deploy on cloud.
For achieving these objectives we are have opted to use multi
agents. They are communicating and interacting with each other,
manipulate information, provide knowledge, to take decisions. The
paper discusses about KaaS as an intelligent approach for Knowledge
Knowledge Acquisition as Determinant of Outputs of Innovative Business in Regions of the Czech Republic
The aim of this paper is to analyze the ability to
identify and acquire knowledge from external sources at the regional
level in the Czech Republic. The results show that the most important
sources of knowledge for innovative activities are sources within the
businesses themselves, followed by customers and suppliers.
Furthermore, the analysis of relationships between the objective of
the innovative activity and the ability to identify and acquire
knowledge implies that knowledge obtained from (1) customers aims
at replacing outdated products and increasing product quality; (2)
suppliers aims at increasing capacity and flexibility of production;
and (3) competing businesses aims at growing market share and
increasing the flexibility of production and services. Regions should
therefore direct their support especially into development and
strengthening of networks within the value chain.
Knowledge Management Model for Modern Retail Business: A Conceptual Framework
This paper reviewed the relationships between the Knowledge Management (KM) activities and its perceived benefits in the knowledge based organisations. KM activities include: knowledge identification, knowledge acquisition, knowledge application, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation and knowledge preservation. And the perceived benefits of KM are fast customer responsiveness, operation excellence and high innovative intensity. Based on the above review, a conceptual framework for KM implementation in retail business organisations has been proposed. Finally the paper forwarded some limitations of the framework and based on which, directions for future research had been suggested.
A Semantic Web Based Ontology in the Financial Domain
The paper describes design of an ontology in the
financial domain for mutual funds. The design of this ontology
consists of four steps, namely, specification, knowledge acquisition,
implementation and semantic query. Specification includes a
description of the taxonomy and different types mutual funds and
their scope. Knowledge acquisition involves the information
extraction from heterogeneous resources. Implementation describes
the conceptualization and encoding of this data. Finally, semantic
query permits complex queries to integrated data, mapping of these
database entities to ontological concepts.
Stereotype Student Model for an Adaptive e-Learning System
This paper describes a concept of stereotype student
model in adaptive knowledge acquisition e-learning system. Defined
knowledge stereotypes are based on student's proficiency level and
on Bloom's knowledge taxonomy. The teacher module is responsible
for the whole adaptivity process: the automatic generation of
courseware elements, their dynamic selection and sorting, as well as
their adaptive presentation using templates for statements and
questions. The adaptation of courseware is realized according to
student-s knowledge stereotype.
Lexical Database for Multiple Languages: Multilingual Word Semantic Network
Data mining and knowledge engineering have become a tough task due to the availability of large amount of data in the web nowadays. Validity and reliability of data also become a main debate in knowledge acquisition. Besides, acquiring knowledge from different languages has become another concern. There are many language translators and corpora developed but the function of these translators and corpora are usually limited to certain languages and domains. Furthermore, search results from engines with traditional 'keyword' approach are no longer satisfying. More intelligent knowledge engineering agents are needed. To address to these problems, a system known as Multilingual Word Semantic Network is proposed. This system adapted semantic network to organize words according to concepts and relations. The system also uses open source as the development philosophy to enable the native language speakers and experts to contribute their knowledge to the system. The contributed words are then defined and linked using lexical and semantic relations. Thus, related words and derivatives can be identified and linked. From the outcome of the system implementation, it contributes to the development of semantic web and knowledge engineering.
Knowledge Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study of Taiwan's Knowledge-Intensive Industries
This study investigates the roles of knowledge
acquisition, absorptive capacity, and innovation capability in finance
and manufacturing industries. With 362 valid questionnaires from
manufactures and financial industries in Taiwan, we examine the
relationships between absorptive capacity, knowledge acquisition and
innovation capability using a structural equation model. The results
indicate that absorptive capacity is the mediator between knowledge
acquisition and innovation capability, and that knowledge acquisition
has a positive effect on absorptive capacity.
Knowledge Acquisition for the Construction of an Evolving Ontology: Application to Augmented Surgery
This work concerns the evolution and the maintenance
of an ontological resource in relation with the evolution of the corpus
of texts from which it had been built.
The knowledge forming a text corpus, especially in dynamic domains,
is in continuous evolution. When a change in the corpus occurs, the
domain ontology must evolve accordingly. Most methods manage
ontology evolution independently from the corpus from which it is
built; in addition, they treat evolution just as a process of knowledge
addition, not considering other knowledge changes. We propose a
methodology for managing an evolving ontology from a text corpus
that evolves over time, while preserving the consistency and the
persistence of this ontology.
Our methodology is based on the changes made on the corpus to
reflect the evolution of the considered domain - augmented surgery
in our case. In this context, the results of text mining techniques,
as well as the ARCHONTE method slightly modified, are used to
support the evolution process.
Implementing an Intuitive Reasoner with a Large Weather Database
In this paper, the implementation of a rule-based
intuitive reasoner is presented. The implementation included two
parts: the rule induction module and the intuitive reasoner. A large
weather database was acquired as the data source. Twelve weather
variables from those data were chosen as the “target variables"
whose values were predicted by the intuitive reasoner. A “complex"
situation was simulated by making only subsets of the data available
to the rule induction module. As a result, the rules induced were
based on incomplete information with variable levels of certainty.
The certainty level was modeled by a metric called "Strength of
Belief", which was assigned to each rule or datum as ancillary
information about the confidence in its accuracy. Two techniques
were employed to induce rules from the data subsets: decision tree
and multi-polynomial regression, respectively for the discrete and the
continuous type of target variables. The intuitive reasoner was tested
for its ability to use the induced rules to predict the classes of the
discrete target variables and the values of the continuous target
variables. The intuitive reasoner implemented two types of
reasoning: fast and broad where, by analogy to human thought, the
former corresponds to fast decision making and the latter to deeper
contemplation. . For reference, a weather data analysis approach
which had been applied on similar tasks was adopted to analyze the
complete database and create predictive models for the same 12
target variables. The values predicted by the intuitive reasoner and
the reference approach were compared with actual data. The intuitive
reasoner reached near-100% accuracy for two continuous target
variables. For the discrete target variables, the intuitive reasoner
predicted at least 70% as accurately as the reference reasoner. Since
the intuitive reasoner operated on rules derived from only about 10%
of the total data, it demonstrated the potential advantages in dealing
with sparse data sets as compared with conventional methods.
Graphical Programming of Programmable Logic Controllers -Case Study for a Punching Machine-
The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) plays a
vital role in automation and process control. Grafcet is used for
representing the control logic, and traditional programming
languages are used for describing the pure algorithms. Grafcet is used
for dividing the process to be automated in elementary sequences that
can be easily implemented. Each sequence represent a step that has
associated actions programmed using textual or graphical languages
after case. The programming task is simplified by using a set of
subroutines that are used in several steps. The paper presents an
example of implementation for a punching machine for sheets and
plates. The use the graphical languages the programming of a
complex sequential process is a necessary solution. The state of
Grafcet can be used for debugging and malfunction determination.
The use of the method combined with a set of knowledge acquisition
for process application reduces the downtime of the machine and
improve the productivity.
An Approach for a Bidding Process Knowledge Capitalization
Preparation and negotiation of innovative and future
projects can be characterized as a strategic-type decision situation,
involving many uncertainties and an unpredictable environment.
We will focus in this paper on the bidding process. It includes cooperative
and strategic decisions.
Our approach for bidding process knowledge capitalization is
aimed at information management in project-oriented organizations,
based on the MUSIC (Management and Use of Co-operative
Information Systems) model.
We will show how to capitalize the company strategic knowledge
and also how to organize the corporate memory. The result of the
adopted approach is improvement of corporate memory quality.
The Role of Faith-based Organizations in Building Democratic Process: Achieving Universal Primary Education in Sierra Leone
This paper aims to argue that religion and Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) contribute to building democratic process through the provision of education in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone experienced a civil war from 1991 to 2002 and about 70 percent of the population lives in poverty. While the government has been in the process of rebuilding the nation, many forms of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), including FBOs, have played a significant role in promoting social development. Education plays an important role in supporting people-s democratic movements through knowledge acquisition, spiritual enlightenment and empowerment. This paper discusses religious tolerance in Sierra Leone and how FBOs have contributed to the provision of primary education in Sierra Leone. This study is based on the author-s field research, which involved interviews with teachers and development stakeholders, notably government officials, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and FBOs, as well as questionnaires completed by pupils, parents and teachers.
Toward a Model for Knowledge Development in Virtual Environments: Strategies for Student Ownership
This article discusses the concept of student ownership of knowledge and seeks to determine how to move students from knowledge acquisition to knowledge application and ultimately to knowledge generation in a virtual setting. Instructional strategies for fostering student engagement in a virtual environment are critical to the learner-s strategic ownership of the knowledge. A number of relevant theories that focus on learning, affect, needs and adult concerns are presented to provide a basis for exploring the transfer of knowledge from teacher to learner. A model under development is presented that combines the dimensions of knowledge approach, the teacher-student relationship with regards to knowledge authority and teaching approach to demonstrate the recursive and scaffolded design for creation of virtual learning environments.
[The] Creative Art [of] Education
In our current political climate of assessment and
accountability initiatives we are failing to prepare our children for a
participatory role in the creative economy. The field of education is
increasingly falling prey to didactic methodologies which train a
nation of competent test takers, foregoing the opportunity to educate
students to find problems and develop multiple solutions. No where is
this more evident than in the area of art education. Due to a myriad of
issues including budgetary shortfalls, time constraints and a general
misconception that anyone who enjoys the arts is capable of teaching
the arts, our students are not developing the skills they require to
become fully literate in critical thinking and creative processing.
Although art integrated curriculum is increasingly being viewed as a
reform strategy for motivating students by offering alternative
presentation of concepts and representation of knowledge acquisition,
misinformed administrators are often excluding the art teacher from
the integration equation. The paper to follow addresses the problem
of the need for divergent thinking and conceptualization in our
schools. Furthermore, this paper explores the role of education, and
specifically, art education in the development of a creatively literate
Virtual Mechanical Engineering Education – A Case Study
Virtual engineering technology has undergone rapid progress in recent years and is being adopted increasingly by manufacturing companies of many engineering disciplines. There is an increasing demand from industry for qualified virtual engineers. The qualified virtual engineers should have the ability of applying engineering principles and mechanical design methods within the commercial software package environment. It is a challenge to the engineering education in universities which traditionally tends to lack the integration of knowledge and skills required for solving real world problems. In this paper, a case study shows some recent development of a MSc Mechanical Engineering course at Department of Engineering and Technology in MMU, and in particular, two units Simulation of Mechanical Systems(SMS) and Computer Aided Fatigue Analysis(CAFA) that emphasize virtual engineering education and promote integration of knowledge acquisition, skill training and industrial application.
Case Based Reasoning Technology for Medical Diagnosis
Case based reasoning (CBR) methodology presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computeraided diagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust and maintenance. This paper discusses the CBR methodology, the research issues and technical aspects of implementing intelligent medical diagnoses systems. Successful applications in cancer and heart diseases developed by Medical Informatics Research Group at Ain Shams University are also discussed.