Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.
Chronic Kidney Disease is considered a serious public health problem. The exploitation of resilience has been guided by studies conducted in various contexts, especially in hemodialysis, since the impact of diagnosis and restrictions produced during the treatment process because, despite advances in treatment, remains the stigma of the disease and the feeling of pain, hopelessness, low self-esteem and disability. The objective was to evaluate the level of resilience of patients in chronic renal dialysis. This is a descriptive, correlational, cross and quantitative research. The sample consisted of 100 patients from a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the countryside of São Paulo. For data collection were used the characterization instrument of Participants and the Resilience Scale. There was a predominance of males (70.0%) were Caucasian (45.0%) and had completed elementary education (34.0%). The average score obtained through the Resilience Scale was 131.3 (± 20.06) points. The resiliency level submitted may be considered satisfactory. It is expected that this study will assist in the preparation of programs and actions in order to avoid possible situations of crises faced by chronic renal patients.
Oxytocin is a nine-amino acid peptide synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin promotes contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during breast feeding. Although oxytocin receptors are found predominantly in the breasts and uterus of females, many tissues and organs express oxytocin receptors, including the pituitary, heart, kidney, thymus, vascular endothelium, adipocytes, osteoblasts, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, and many cell lines. On the other hand, in pancreatic islets, oxytocin receptors are expressed in both α-cells and β-cells with stronger expression in α- cells. However, to our knowledge there are no reports yet about the effect of oxytocin on cytosolic calcium reaction on α and β-cell. This study aims to investigate the effect of oxytocin on α-cells and β-cells and its oscillation pattern. Islet of Langerhans from wild type mice were isolated by collagenase digestion. Isolated and dissociated single cells either α-cells or β-cells on coverslips were mounted in an open chamber and superfused in HKRB. Cytosolic concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single cells were measured by fura-2 microfluorimetry. After measurement of [Ca2+]i, α-cells were identified by subsequent immunocytochemical staining using an anti-glucagon antiserum. In β-cells, the [Ca2+]i increase in response to oxytocin was observed only under 8.3 mM glucose condition, whereas in α-cells, [Ca2+]i an increase induced by oxytocin was observed in both 2.8 mM and 8.3 mM glucose. The oscillation incidence was induced more frequently in β-cells compared to α-cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that oxytocin directly interacts with both α-cells and β-cells and induces increase of [Ca2+]i and its specific patterns.
Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.
Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.
Lead is among the heavy metals and it is one of the highly toxic metals, recognized in most countries. This metal accumulates in animal organs as liver and kidney. The present investigation provides the concentrations of lead in cow's meat and different animal organs collected from three Egyptian environments. The results revealed that lead levels in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and heart in industrial areas were higher than those detected in the same organs of other two areas (heavy traffic and rural), which recorded mean values of 3.0091, 1.7070, 1.8609, 0.6401 and 0.5332 mg/kg, respectively, followed by traffic areas, 2.9166, 1.4443, 1.6967, 0.4042 and 0.4103 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values of rural areas were 1.8895, 0.9550, 0.9117, 0.3215 and 0.2856 mg/kg, in the same order. It could be recommended that monitoring and evaluation of lead levels in meat at regular intervals are very important.
The textile industry plays a major role in the economy of India and on the other side of the coin it is the major source for water pollution. As azo dyes is the largest dye class they are extensively used in many fields such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, food, color photography, pharmaceuticals and medicine, cosmetic, hair colorings, wood staining, agricultural, biological and chemical research etc. In addition to these, they can have acute and/or chronic effects on organisms depending on their concentration and length of exposure when they discharged as effluent in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic and histotoxic potentials of environmentally relevant concentrations of C. I. Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on Catla catla, important edible freshwater fingerlings. For this, healthy Catla catla fingerlings were procured from the Government Fish Farm and acclimatized in 100 L capacity and continuously aerated glass aquarium in laboratory for 15 days. According to APHA some physic-chemical parameters were measured and maintained such as temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen, alkalinity, total hardness. Water along with excreta had been changed every 24 hrs. All fingerlings were fed artificial food palates once a day @ body weight. After 15 days fingerlings were grouped in 5 (10 in each) and exposed to various concentrations of RR 120 (Control, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg.l-1) and samples (peripheral blood and gills, kidney) were collected and analyzed at 96 hrs. All results were compared with the control. Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), fragmented-apoptotic (FA) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells in blood smears and in tissues (gills and kidney cells) were observed. Prominent histopathological alterations were noticed in gills such as aneurism, hyperplasia, degenerated central axis, lifting of gill epithelium, curved secondary gill lamellae etc. Similarly kidney showed some detrimental changes like shrunken glomeruli with increased periglomerular space, degenerated renal tubules etc. Both haematological and histopathological changes clearly reveal the toxic potential of RR 120. This work concludes that water pollution assessment can be done by these two biomarkers which provide baseline to the further chromosomal or molecular work.
Ocimum americanum L (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.
The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Nacetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or Nacetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00a.m and 4.00p.m on some Liver and Kidney function indices of diabetic rats as well as investigate the effect of time of harvest on the observed effect. Experimental animals were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C and D). Diabetes mellitus was induced in all animals, except the normal control group (Group A), by injecting 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Group A received distilled water while group B (diabetic control group) was not treated. Group C and D were treated with leaf essential oil of C. sinensis harvested at 7.00 a.m and 4.00p.m respectively at a dose of 110 mg/kg body weight every other day for 15 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) activity was evaluated in the serum, Liver and Kidney of studied animals. Total and Direct Bilirubin level, Total Protein and Globulin, Creatinine and Urea level were also evaluated. Result showed that creatinine and urea, serum ALP, AST and ALT levels was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), while the levels of total Protein and Globulin increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the treated animals compared to the diabetic control group. In conclusion, the leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis ameliorated the impaired renal and liver function; however, the time of harvest of the leaf does not significantly affect its ameliorative effect.
The MyD88 is an evolutionarily conserved host-expressed adaptor protein that is essential for proper TLR/ IL1R immune-response signaling. A previously identified complete cDNA (1626 bp) of OfMyD88 comprised an ORF of 867 bp encoding a protein of 288 amino acids (32.9 kDa). The gDNA (3761 bp) of OfMyD88 revealed a quinquepartite genome organization composed of 5 exons (with the sizes of 310, 132, 178, 92 and 155 bp) separated by 4 introns. All the introns displayed splice signals consistent with the consensus GT/AG rule. A bipartite domain structure with two domains namely death domain (24-103) coded by 1st exon, and TIR domain (151-288) coded by last 3 exons were identified through in silico analysis. Moreover, homology modeling of these two domains revealed a similar quaternary folding nature between human and rock bream homologs. A comprehensive comparison of vertebrate MyD88 genes showed that they possess a 5-exonic structure.In this structure, the last three exons were strongly conserved, and this suggests that a rigid structure has been maintained during vertebrate evolution.A cluster of TATA box-like sequences were found 0.25 kb upstream of cDNA starting position. In addition, putative 5'-flanking region of OfMyD88 was predicted to have TFBS implicated with TLR signaling, including copies of NFkB1, APRF/ STAT3, Sp1, IRF1 and 2 and Stat1/2. Using qPCR technique, a ubiquitous mRNA expression was detected in liver and blood. Furthermore, a significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of OfMyD88 was detected in head kidney (12-24 h; >2-fold), spleen (6 h; 1.5-fold), liver (3 h; 1.9-fold) and intestine (24 h; ~2-fold) post-Fla challenge. These data suggest a crucial role for MyD88 in antibacterial immunity of teleosts.
Three legumes i.e. soybean, kidney bean and mung bean, and jojoba seed as an oil seed were processed into tempeh, a fermented food. Changes in phytic acid, total phenols and trypsin inhibitor were monitored during the pretreatments (soaking, soaking– dehulling, washing and cooking) and fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus. Soaking was found to reduce total phenol and trypsin inhibitor levels in soybean, kidney bean and mung bean. However, phytic acid was reduced by soaking in kidney bean and mung bean. Cooking was the most effective in reducing the activity of trypsin inhibitor. During fermentation, a slight increase in the level of trypsin inhibitor was noticed in soybean. Phytic acid and total phenols were decreased during fermentation in soybean, kidney bean but mung bean faild to form tempeh because the antifungal activity of herein a protein in mung bean, which exerts both chitinase activity and antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species. On the other hand, solid- state fermentation of jojoba seeds was not effective in reducing their content from cyanogenic glycosides (simmondsin).
Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multilayered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Further, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.
This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days), group 3: treated with L‐ carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐ carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐ glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the parameters mentioned above as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of kidney asscociated with gentamicin induced‐nephrotoxicity.
This experiment aims to demonstrate the efficacy of ceramic powder derived from various sources to inactivate avian influenza virus and its possibility to use in the environment. The ceramics used in the present experiment were derived from chicken feces (CF), scallop shell (SS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and soybean (SB). All ceramics were mixed with low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H7N1, and then kept at room temperature. The recovered virus was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All ceramics were assessed the inactivation stability in the environment by keeping under sunlight and under wet-dry condition until reached 7 week or 7 resuspension times respectively. The results indicate that all ceramics have excellent efficacy to inactivate LPAIV. This efficacy can be maintained under the simulated condition. The ceramics are expected to be the good materials for application in the biosecurity system at farms.
This research aims to study consumer acceptance of Tempeh from various raw materials (type of bean) and determine protein contents for comparison. Tempeh made from soybean, peanut, white kidney bean and sesame in the ratio: - soybean:sesame =1:0.1, soybean:white kidney:sesame =1:1:0.1, soybean:peanut:sesame =1:1:0.1 and peanut:white kidney bean: sesame =1:1:0.1. The study found that consumer is most satisfied with appearances on soybean mixed with white kidney and black sesame tempeh (3.98). The most satisfied tempeh with textures is soybean mixed with peanut and black sesame tempeh (4.00). The most satisfied tempeh with odor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.04). And the most satisfied tempeh with flavor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.2). The amount of protein in production, soybean tempeh has the highest protein. When we add sesame seeds, it made the protein content slightly decreased (1.86 and 0.6 %). When we use peanut as raw material, the protein content decreased 15.3%. And when we use white kidney bean as raw material, the protein content decreased (22.77- 26.11%).
Mushrooms are a group of fleshy macroscopic fungi. They have been valued throughout the world as both edible and medicine. They are highly nutritious with good amount of quality proteins, vitamins and minerals. An edible mushroom, Calocybe indica was selected to validate its nutritional and medicinal properties. Since tissue damage in hyperglycemia has been related to oxidative stress, we evaluated the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in the serum, liver and kidney since they are the target organs in diabetic complications. From the results, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants might be related to the causation of diabetes mellitus. The treatment in the diabetic rats with the Calocybe indica showed an increase in the antioxidant system and decrease in the production of free radicals. The mushrooms which contain antioxidant phytochemicals has potential free radical scavenging capacity and hence can induce the antioxidant system in the body significantly reduces the generated free radicals thereby maintaining the normal levels of the antioxidants
In the present research, two nutraceuticals made from red grape and walnut that showed previously to improve kidney dysfunction were incorporated separately into functional foods' bread made from barley and rice bran. The functional foods were evaluated in rats in which chronic renal failure was induced through feeding diet rich in adenine and phosphate (APD). The evaluation based on assessing kidney function, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and body weight gain. Results showed induction of chronic kidney failure reflected in significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor- α and low density lipoprotein cholesterol along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, and total antioxidant and creatinine clearance and body weight gain on feeding APD compared to control healthy group. Feeding the functional foods produced amelioration in the different biochemical parameters and body weight gain indicating improvement in kidney function.
Essential hypertension (HTN) usually clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors such as age, overweight, diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The target organ damage (TOD) such as left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria (MA), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke and cognitive dysfunction takes place early in course of hypertension. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between microalbuminuria and target organ damage in hypertension is not well studied. This study aim at detecting MA in essential hypertension and its relation to severity of HTN, duration of HTN, body mass index (BMI), age and TOD such as HTN retinopathy and acute coronary syndrome The present study was done in 100 patients of essential hypertension non diabetics admitted to B.L.D.E.University-s Sri B.M.Patil Medical College, Bijapur, from October 2008 to April 2011. The patients underwent detailed history and clinical examination. Early morning 5 ml of urine sample was collected & MA was estimated by immunoturbidometry method. The relationship of MA with the duration & severity of HTN, BMI, age, sex and TOD's like hypertensive retinopathy, ACS was assessed by univariate analysis. The prevalence of MA in this study was found to be 63 %. In that 42% were male & 21% were female. In this study a significant association between MA and the duration of hypertension (p = 0.036) & (OR =0.438). Longer the duration of hypertension, more possibility of microalbumin in urine. Also there was a significant association between severity of hypertension and MA (p=0.045) and (OR=0.093). MA was positive in 50 (79.4%) patients out of 63, whose blood pressure was >160/100 mm Hg. In this study a significant association between MA and the grades of hypertensive retinopathy (p =0.011) and acute coronary syndrome (p = 0.041) (OR =2.805). Gender and BMI did not pose high risk for MA in this study.The prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high in this part of the community and MA will increase the risk of developing target organ damage.Early screening of patients with essential hypertension for MA and aggressive management of positive cases might reduce the burden of chronic kidney diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the community.