International Science Index
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Direct Power Control Applied on 5-Level Diode Clamped Inverter Powered by a Renewable Energy Source
This paper presents an improved Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme applied to the multilevel inverter that forms a Distributed Generation Unit (DGU). This paper demonstrates the performance of active and reactive power injected by the DGU to the smart grid. The DPC is traditionally operated by the hysteresis controller with the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) which is applied on the 2-level inverters or 3-level inverters. In this paper, the DPC is operated by the PI controller with the Phase-Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM) applied to the 5-level diode clamped inverter. The new combination of the DPC, PI controller, PD-PWM and multilevel inverter proves that its performance is much better than the conventional hysteresis-SVM based DPC. Simulations results have been presented to validate the performance of the suggested control scheme in the grid-connected mode.
Comparative Analysis of SVPWM and the Standard PWM Technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor
The multi-level inverters present an important novelty in the field of energy control with high voltage and power. The major advantage of all multi-level inverters is the improvement and spectral quality of its generated output signals. In recent years, various pulse width modulation techniques have been developed. From these technics we have: Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM). This work presents a detailed analysis of the comparative advantage of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and the standard SPWM technique for Three Level Diode Clamped Inverter fed Induction Motor. The comparison is based on the evaluation of harmonic distortion THD.
Generalized Mathematical Description and Simulation of Grid-Tied Thyristor Converters
Thyristor rectifiers, inverters grid-tied, and AC voltage regulators are widely used in industry, and on electrified transport, they have a lot in common both in the power circuit and in the control system. They have a common mathematical structure and switching processes. At the same time, the rectifier, but the inverter units and thyristor regulators of alternating voltage are considered separately both theoretically and practically. They are written about in different books as completely different devices. The aim of this work is to combine them into one class based on the unity of the equations describing electromagnetic processes, and then, to show this unity on the mathematical model and experimental setup. Based on research from mathematics to the product, a conclusion is made about the methodology for the rapid conduct of research and experimental design work, preparation for production and serial production of converters with a unified bundle. In recent years, there has been a transition from thyristor circuits and transistor in modular design. Showing the example of thyristor rectifiers and AC voltage regulators, we can conclude that there is a unity of mathematical structures and grid-tied thyristor converters.
BLDC Motor Driven for Solar Photo Voltaic Powered Air Cooling System
Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power systems can be
employed as electrical power sources to meet the daily residential
energy needs of rural areas that have no access to grid systems.
In view of this, a standalone SPV powered air cooling system is
proposed in this paper, which constitutes a dc-dc boost converter,
two voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to two brushless dc
(BLDC) motors which are coupled to a centrifugal water pump and
a fan blower. A simple and efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking
(MPPT) technique based on Silver Mean Method (SMM) is utilized
in this paper. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using
the MATLAB / Simulink environment considering the dynamic and
steady state variation in the solar irradiance.
Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network
The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.
Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates
In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.
Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier
This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.
An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.
Cascaded Neural Network for Internal Temperature Forecasting in Induction Motor
In this study, two systems were created to predict interior temperature in induction motor. One of them consisted of a simple ANN model which has two layers, ten input parameters and one output parameter. The other one consisted of eight ANN models connected each other as cascaded. Cascaded ANN system has 17 inputs. Main reason of cascaded system being used in this study is to accomplish more accurate estimation by increasing inputs in the ANN system. Cascaded ANN system is compared with simple conventional ANN model to prove mentioned advantages. Dataset was obtained from experimental applications. Small part of the dataset was used to obtain more understandable graphs. Number of data is 329. 30% of the data was used for testing and validation. Test data and validation data were determined for each ANN model separately and reliability of each model was tested. As a result of this study, it has been understood that the cascaded ANN system produced more accurate estimates than conventional ANN model.
Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants
Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.
Single Phase 13-Level D-STATCOM Inverter with Distributed System
The global energy consumption is increasing persistently and need for distributed power generation through renewable energy is essential. To meet the power requirements for consumers without any voltage fluctuations and losses, modeling and design of multilevel inverter with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) capability is presented. The presented inverter is provided with 13-level cascaded H-bridge topology of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) connected along with inbuilt Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM device provides control of power factor stability at local feeder lines and the inverter eliminates Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The 13-level inverter utilizes 52 switches of each H-bridge is fed with single DC sources separately and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used for switching IGBTs. The control strategy implemented for inverter transmits active power to grid as well as it maintains power factor to be stable with achievement of steady state power transmission. Significant outcome of this project is improvement of output voltage quality with steady state power transmission with low THD. Simulation of inverter with DSTATCOM is performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The scaled prototype model of proposed inverter is built and its results were validated with simulated results.
Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application
The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.
Suppressing Ambipolar Conduction Using Dual Material Gate in Tunnel-FETs Having Heavily Doped Drain
In this paper, using 2D TCAD simulations, the application of a dual material gate (DMG) for suppressing ambipolar conduction in a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is demonstrated. Using the proposed DMG concept, the ambipolar conduction can be effectively suppressed even if the drain doping is as high as that of the source doping. Achieving this symmetrical doping, without the ambipolar conduction in TFETs, gives the advantage of realizing both n-type and p-type devices with the same doping sequences. Furthermore, the output characteristics of the DMG TFET exhibit a good saturation when compared to that of the gate-drain underlap approach. This improved behavior of the DMG TFET makes it a good candidate for inverter based logic circuits.
Active Islanding Detection Method Using Intelligent Controller
An active islanding detection method using disturbance signal injection with intelligent controller is proposed in this study. First, a DC\AC power inverter is emulated in the distributed generator (DG) system to implement the tracking control of active power, reactive power outputs and the islanding detection. The proposed active islanding detection method is based on injecting a disturbance signal into the power inverter system through the d-axis current which leads to a frequency deviation at the terminal of the RLC load when the utility power is disconnected. Moreover, in order to improve the transient and steady-state responses of the active power and reactive power outputs of the power inverter, and to further improve the performance of the islanding detection method, two probabilistic fuzzy neural networks (PFNN) are adopted to replace the traditional proportional-integral (PI) controllers for the tracking control and the islanding detection. Furthermore, the network structure and the online learning algorithm of the PFNN are introduced in detail. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the tracking control and the proposed active islanding detection method are verified with experimental results.
Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive
This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.
Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips
This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.
A Comparative Analysis of Multicarrier SPWM Strategies for Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter
Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). This paper focuses on Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) strategy for the three phase Five-Level Flying Capacitor Inverter (5LFCI). The inverter is simulated for Induction Motor (IM) load and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for output waveforms is observed for different controlling schemes.
Energy Management System in Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery Hybrid Energy Storage
The paper presents and energy management strategy for a Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery hybrid energy storage. The fuel cell hybrid power system is devised basically for emergency power requirements and transient load applications. The power density of an Ultracapacitor is extremely high and for a battery, it is subtle. For a fuel cell, the value of power density is medium. The energy density of these three stockpiling gadgets is contrarily about the power density, i.e. for the batteries it is most noteworthy and for the Ultracapacitor, it is least. Again the fuel cell has medium energy density. The proposed Energy Management System (EMS) is trying to rationalize these parameters viz. the energy density and power density. The working of the fuel cell, Ultracapacitor and batteries are controlled in a coordinated environment in a way to optimize the energy usage and at the same time to get benefits of power and energy density from their inherent characteristics. MATLAB/ Simulink® based test bench is created by using different DC-DC converters for all energy storage devices and an inverter is modeled to supply the time varying load. The results provided by the EMS are highly satisfactory that proves its adaptability.
High Performance Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive Fed from Photovoltaic System
Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an AC drive control
method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses. In
this paper a progressive algorithm for direct torque control of threephase
induction drive system supplied by photovoltaic arrays using
voltage source inverter to control motor torque and flux with
maximum power point tracking at different level of insolation is
presented. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by
an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented.
Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system
gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching
Comparative Analysis of Photovoltaic Systems
This paper presents comparative analysis of
photovoltaic systems (PVS) and propose practical techniques to
improve operational efficiency of the PVS. The best engineering and
construction practices for PVS are identified and field oriented
recommendation are made. Comparative analysis of central and
string inverter based, as well as 600 and 1000VDC PVS are
performed. In addition, direct current (DC) and alternating current
(AC) photovoltaic (PV) module based systems are compared.
Comparison shows that 1000V DC String Inverters based PVS is the
Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic
(PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase
locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric
grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI
model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter
(VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the
sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated
using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation
results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the
Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System
Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting
depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the
application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of
decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple
to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even
sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water
using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive
design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW,
temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant
using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit
with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main
objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar
desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control
using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to
reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means
of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out
using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed.
Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control,
which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal
collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW
and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in
accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the
efficiency of the thermal collectors.
FPGA Based Implementation of Simplified Space Vector PWM Algorithm for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation is popular for
variable frequency drives. The method has several advantages over
carried based PWM and is computation intensive. The
implementation of SVPWM for multilevel inverter requires special
attention and at the same time consumes considerable resources. Due
to faster processing power and reduced over all computational
burden, FPGAs are being investigated as an alternative for other
controllers. In this paper, a space vector PWM algorithm is
implemented using FPGA which requires less computational area and
is modular in structure. The algorithm is verified experimentally for
Neutral Point Clamped inverter using FPGA development board
Performance Enhancement of Analog Voltage Inverter with Adaptive Gain Control for Capacitive Load
Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is
modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications,
arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional
arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with
circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be
used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the
object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is
constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage
difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for
unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the
controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With
the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled
smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The
appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.
Three Phase PWM Inverter for Low Rating Energy Efficient Systems
The paper presents a practical three-phase PWM
inverter suitable for low voltage, low rating energy efficient systems.
The work in the paper is conducted with the view to establishing the
significance of the loss contribution from the PWM inverter in the
determination of the complete losses of a photovoltaic (PV) arraypowered
induction motor drive water pumping system. Losses
investigated include; conduction and switching loss of the devices
and gate drive losses. It is found that the PWM inverter operates at a
reasonable variable efficiency that does not fall below 92%
depending on the load. The results between the simulated and
experimental results for the system with or without a maximum
power tracker (MPT) compares very well, within an acceptable range
of 2% margin.
Advanced Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for Z Source Multi Level Inverter
This paper proposes five level diode clamped Z source
Inverter. The existing PWM techniques used for ZSI are restricted for
two level. The two level Z Source Inverter have high harmonic
distortions which effects the performance of the grid connected PV
system. To improve the performance of the system the number of
voltage levels in the output waveform need to be increased. This
paper presents comparative analysis of a five level diode clamped Z
source Inverter with different carrier based Modified Pulse Width
Modulation techniques. The parameters considered for comparison
are output voltage, voltage gain, voltage stress across switch and total
harmonic distortion when powered by same DC supply. Analytical
results are verified using MATLAB.
Replacing MOSFETs with Single Electron Transistors (SET) to Reduce Power Consumption of an Inverter Circuit
According to the rules of quantum mechanics there is a non-vanishing probability of for an electron to tunnel through a thin insulating barrier or a thin capacitor which is not possible according to the laws of classical physics. Tunneling of electron through a thin insulating barrier or tunnel junction is a random event and the magnitude of current flowing due to the tunneling of electron is very low. As the current flowing through a Single Electron Transistor (SET) is the result of electron tunneling through tunnel junctions of its source and drain the supply voltage requirement is also very low. As a result, the power consumption across a Single Electron Transistor is ultra-low in comparison to that of a MOSFET. In this paper simulations have been done with PSPICE for an inverter built with both SETs and MOSFETs. 35mV supply voltage was used for a SET built inverter circuit and the supply voltage used for a CMOS inverter was 3.5V.
Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Different Control Methods of ZSI Feeding Industrial Drives
Industrial drives are source of serious power quality problems. In this, two typical industrial drives have been dealt with, namely, FOC induction motor drives and DTC induction motor drive. The Z-source inverter is an emerging topology of power electronic converters which is capable of buck boost characteristics. The performances of different control methods based Z-source inverters feeding these industrial drives have been investigated, in this work. The test systems have been modeled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained after carrying out these simulations have been used to draw the conclusions.
Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation
This paper presents the simulation results of the
effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width
modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms.
The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting
techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is
an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up
to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model
becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation
between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to
the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is
better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most
frequency range, including the range where the performance of the
former is irregular.