International Science Index

28
10007783
Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.
Paper Detail
16
downloads
27
10006912
A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform
Abstract:

In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.

Paper Detail
96
downloads
26
9997718
GPU Based High Speed Error Protection for Watermarked Medical Image Transmission
Abstract:

Medical image is an integral part of e-health care and e-diagnosis system. Medical image watermarking is widely used to protect patients’ information from malicious alteration and manipulation. The watermarked medical images are transmitted over the internet among patients, primary and referred physicians. The images are highly prone to corruption in the wireless transmission medium due to various noises, deflection, and refractions. Distortion in the received images leads to faulty watermark detection and inappropriate disease diagnosis. To address the issue, this paper utilizes error correction code (ECC) with (8, 4) Hamming code in an existing watermarking system. In addition, we implement the high complex ECC on a graphics processing units (GPU) to accelerate and support real-time requirement. Experimental results show that GPU achieves considerable speedup over the sequential CPU implementation, while maintaining 100% ECC efficiency.

Paper Detail
1074
downloads
25
16571
Deterministic Random Number Generators for Online Applications
Abstract:

Cryptography, Image watermarking and E-banking are filled with apparent oxymora and paradoxes. Random sequences are used as keys to encrypt information to be used as watermark during embedding the watermark and also to extract the watermark during detection. Also, the keys are very much utilized for 24x7x365 banking operations. Therefore a deterministic random sequence is very much useful for online applications. In order to obtain the same random sequence, we need to supply the same seed to the generator. Many researchers have used Deterministic Random Number Generators (DRNGs) for cryptographic applications and Pseudo Noise Random sequences (PNs) for watermarking. Even though, there are some weaknesses in PN due to attacks, the research community used it mostly in digital watermarking. On the other hand, DRNGs have not been widely used in online watermarking due to its computational complexity and non-robustness. Therefore, we have invented a new design of generating DRNG using Pi-series to make it useful for online Cryptographic, Digital watermarking and Banking applications.

Paper Detail
1328
downloads
24
13618
Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.
Paper Detail
1966
downloads
23
9997179
A Prediction-Based Reversible Watermarking for MRI Images
Abstract:

Reversible watermarking is a special branch of image watermarking, that is able to recover the original image after extracting the watermark from the image. In this paper, an adaptive prediction-based reversible watermarking scheme is presented, in order to increase the payload capacity of MRI medical images. The scheme divides the image into two parts, Region of Interest (ROI) and Region of Non-Interest (RONI). Two bits are embedded in each embeddable pixel of RONI and one bit is embedded in each embeddable pixel of ROI. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to achieve high embedding capacity. This is mainly caused by two reasons. First, the pixels that were excluded from data embedding due to overflow/underflow are used for data embedding. Second, large location map that need to be added to watermark data as overhead is eliminated and thus lower data embedding capacity is prevented. Moreover, the scheme provides good visual quality to the watermarked image.

Paper Detail
1166
downloads
22
834
An Artificial Intelligent Technique for Robust Digital Watermarking in Multiwavelet Domain
Abstract:
In this paper, an artificial intelligent technique for robust digital image watermarking in multiwavelet domain is proposed. The embedding technique is based on the quantization index modulation technique and the watermark extraction process does not require the original image. We have developed an optimization technique using the genetic algorithms to search for optimal quantization steps to improve the quality of watermarked image and robustness of the watermark. In addition, we construct a prediction model based on image moments and back propagation neural network to correct an attacked image geometrically before the watermark extraction process begins. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm yields watermarked image with good imperceptibility and very robust watermark against various image processing attacks.
Paper Detail
1346
downloads
21
4822
Reversible Medical Image Watermarking For Tamper Detection And Recovery With Run Length Encoding Compression
Abstract:
Digital watermarking in medical images can ensure the authenticity and integrity of the image. This design paper reviews some existing watermarking schemes and proposes a reversible tamper detection and recovery watermarking scheme. Watermark data from ROI (Region Of Interest) are stored in RONI (Region Of Non Interest). The embedded watermark allows tampering detection and tampered image recovery. The watermark is also reversible and data compression technique was used to allow higher embedding capacity.
Paper Detail
1271
downloads
20
5943
A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel feature-based image watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Paper Detail
1204
downloads
19
11749
A Normalization-based Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Using SVD and DCT
Abstract:
Digital watermarking is one of the techniques for copyright protection. In this paper, a normalization-based robust image watermarking scheme which encompasses singular value decomposition (SVD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) techniques is proposed. For the proposed scheme, the host image is first normalized to a standard form and divided into non-overlapping image blocks. SVD is applied to each block. By concatenating the first singular values (SV) of adjacent blocks of the normalized image, a SV block is obtained. DCT is then carried out on the SV blocks to produce SVD-DCT blocks. A watermark bit is embedded in the highfrequency band of a SVD-DCT block by imposing a particular relationship between two pseudo-randomly selected DCT coefficients. An adaptive frequency mask is used to adjust local watermark embedding strength. Watermark extraction involves mainly the inverse process. The watermark extracting method is blind and efficient. Experimental results show that the quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Results also show that the proposed scheme is robust against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Paper Detail
1374
downloads
18
6996
Contourlet versus Wavelet Transform for a Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique
Abstract:

In this paper, a watermarking algorithm that uses the wavelet transform with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) concepts is introduced. Also, the paper investigates the role of Contourlet Transform (CT) versus Wavelet Transform (WT) in providing robust image watermarking. Two measures are utilized in the comparison between the waveletbased and the contourlet-based methods; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC). Experimental results reveal that the introduced algorithm is robust against different attacks and has good results compared to the contourlet-based algorithm.

Paper Detail
1259
downloads
17
3515
Ultrasonic Echo Image Adaptive Watermarking Using the Just-Noticeable Difference Estimation
Abstract:

Most of the image watermarking methods, using the properties of the human visual system (HVS), have been proposed in literature. The component of the visual threshold is usually related to either the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) or the visual masking. Especially on the contrast masking, most methods have not mention to the effect near to the edge region. Since the HVS is sensitive what happens on the edge area. This paper proposes ultrasound image watermarking using the visual threshold corresponding to the HVS in which the coefficients in a DCT-block have been classified based on the texture, edge, and plain area. This classification method enables not only useful for imperceptibility when the watermark is insert into an image but also achievable a robustness of watermark detection. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods has been carried out which shown that the proposed method robusts to blockwise memoryless manipulations, and also robust against noise addition.

Paper Detail
982
downloads
16
5670
A Normalization-based Robust Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
Abstract:

Digital watermarking has become an important technique for copyright protection but its robustness against attacks remains a major problem. In this paper, we propose a normalizationbased robust image watermarking scheme. In the proposed scheme, original host image is first normalized to a standard form. Zernike transform is then applied to the normalized image to calculate Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of Zernike moments according to the watermark bit stream. The watermark extracting method is a blind method. Security analysis and false alarm analysis are then performed. The quality degradation of watermarked image caused by the embedded watermark is visually transparent. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has very high robustness against various image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Paper Detail
1120
downloads
15
15895
Robust Semi-Blind Digital Image Watermarking Technique in DT-CWT Domain
Abstract:
In this paper a new robust digital image watermarking algorithm based on the Complex Wavelet Transform is proposed. This technique embeds different parts of a watermark into different blocks of an image under the complex wavelet domain. To increase security of the method, two chaotic maps are employed, one map is used to determine the blocks of the host image for watermark embedding, and another map is used to encrypt the watermark image. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Paper Detail
1096
downloads
14
10090
Authentication and Data Hiding Using a Reversible ROI-based Watermarking Scheme for DICOM Images
Abstract:
In recent years image watermarking has become an important research area in data security, confidentiality and image integrity. Many watermarking techniques were proposed for medical images. However, medical images, unlike most of images, require extreme care when embedding additional data within them because the additional information must not affect the image quality and readability. Also the medical records, electronic or not, are linked to the medical secrecy, for that reason, the records must be confidential. To fulfill those requirements, this paper presents a lossless watermarking scheme for DICOM images. The proposed a fragile scheme combines two reversible techniques based on difference expansion for patient's data hiding and protecting the region of interest (ROI) with tamper detection and recovery capability. Patient's data are embedded into ROI, while recovery data are embedded into region of non-interest (RONI). The experimental results show that the original image can be exactly extracted from the watermarked one in case of no tampering. In case of tampered ROI, tampered area can be localized and recovered with a high quality version of the original area.
Paper Detail
1041
downloads
13
14077
HSV Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography
Abstract:
In this paper a simple watermarking method for color images is proposed. The proposed method is based on watermark embedding for the histograms of the HSV planes using visual cryptography watermarking. The method has been proved to be robust for various image processing operations such as filtering, compression, additive noise, and various geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping, flipping, and shearing.
Paper Detail
1309
downloads
12
3295
A Hyper-Domain Image Watermarking Method based on Macro Edge Block and Wavelet Transform for Digital Signal Processor
Abstract:

In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe can not run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. However, almost nowadays algorithms need to build on consumer production because integrator circuit has a huge progress and cheap price. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit consumer application. The experimental results show that the image quality by watermarking insertion can achieve 46 dB can be accepted in human vision and can real-time execute on digital signal processor.

Paper Detail
701
downloads
11
2735
A Nonoblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation
Abstract:
In this paper, a robust digital image watermarking scheme for copyright protection applications using the singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. In this scheme, an entropy masking model has been applied on the host image for the texture segmentation. Moreover, the local luminance and textures of the host image are considered for watermark embedding procedure to increase the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In contrast to all existing SVD-based watermarking systems that have been designed to embed visual watermarks, our system uses a pseudo-random sequence as a watermark. We have tested the performance of our method using a wide variety of image processing attacks on different test images. A comparison is made between the results of our proposed algorithm with those of a wavelet-based method to demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm.
Paper Detail
1060
downloads
10
8092
A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme using Image Moment Normalization
Abstract:
Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. A number of papers on robust digital watermarking have been presented, but there are no standards that have been defined so far. Thus multimedia security is still a posing problem. The aim of this paper is to design a robust image-watermarking scheme, which can withstand a different set of attacks. The proposed scheme provides a robust solution integrating image moment normalization, content dependent watermark and discrete wavelet transformation. Moment normalization is useful to recover the watermark even in case of geometrical attacks. Content dependent watermarks are a powerful means of authentication as the data is watermarked with its own features. Discrete wavelet transforms have been used as they describe image features in a better manner. The proposed scheme finds its place in validating identification cards and financial instruments.
Paper Detail
948
downloads
9
2365
Distortion Estimation in Digital Image Watermarking using Genetic Programming
Abstract:
This paper introduces a technique of distortion estimation in image watermarking using Genetic Programming (GP). The distortion is estimated by considering the problem of obtaining a distorted watermarked signal from the original watermarked signal as a function regression problem. This function regression problem is solved using GP, where the original watermarked signal is considered as an independent variable. GP-based distortion estimation scheme is checked for Gaussian attack and Jpeg compression attack. We have used Gaussian attacks of different strengths by changing the standard deviation. JPEG compression attack is also varied by adding various distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is able to detect the watermark even in the case of strong distortions and is more robust against attacks.
Paper Detail
1067
downloads
8
7298
Digital Image Watermarking in the Wavelet Transform Domain
Abstract:
In this paper, we start by first characterizing the most important and distinguishing features of wavelet-based watermarking schemes. We studied the overwhelming amount of algorithms proposed in the literature. Application scenario, copyright protection is considered and building on the experience that was gained, implemented two distinguishing watermarking schemes. Detailed comparison and obtained results are presented and discussed. We concluded that Joo-s [1] technique is more robust for standard noise attacks than Dote-s [2] technique.
Paper Detail
1886
downloads
7
11511
A Robust Wavelet-Based Watermarking Algorithm Using Edge Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, a robust watermarking algorithm using the wavelet transform and edge detection is presented. The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges, where distortions are less noticeable, with a subband level dependent strength. Also, the watermark is embedded to selected coefficients around edges, using a different scale factor for watermark strength, that are captured by a morphological dilation operation. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency to various attacks such as median filtering, Gaussian noise, JPEG compression and geometrical transformations.
Paper Detail
1709
downloads
6
13150
A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks
Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.

Paper Detail
852
downloads
5
4108
A Novel Dual-Purpose Image Watermarking Technique
Abstract:
Image watermarking has proven to be quite an efficient tool for the purpose of copyright protection and authentication over the last few years. In this paper, a novel image watermarking technique in the wavelet domain is suggested and tested. To achieve more security and robustness, the proposed techniques relies on using two nested watermarks that are embedded into the image to be watermarked. A primary watermark in form of a PN sequence is first embedded into an image (the secondary watermark) before being embedded into the host image. The technique is implemented using Daubechies mother wavelets where an arbitrary embedding factor α is introduced to improve the invisibility and robustness. The proposed technique has been applied on several gray scale images where a PSNR of about 60 dB was achieved.
Paper Detail
1048
downloads
4
14530
A Wavelet-Based Watermarking Method Exploiting the Contrast Sensitivity Function
Abstract:

The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The current paper presents an approach for still image digital watermarking in which the watermark embedding process employs the wavelet transform and incorporates Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics. The sensitivity of a human observer to contrast with respect to spatial frequency is described by the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The strength of the watermark within the decomposition subbands, which occupy an interval on the spatial frequencies, is adjusted according to this sensitivity. Moreover, the watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges where distortions are less noticeable. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency.

Paper Detail
1455
downloads
3
1840
Spread Spectrum Image Watermarking for Secured Multimedia Data Communication
Abstract:

Digital watermarking is a way to provide the facility of secure multimedia data communication besides its copyright protection approach. The Spread Spectrum modulation principle is widely used in digital watermarking to satisfy the robustness of multimedia signals against various signal-processing operations. Several SS watermarking algorithms have been proposed for multimedia signals but very few works have discussed on the issues responsible for secure data communication and its robustness improvement. The current paper has critically analyzed few such factors namely properties of spreading codes, proper signal decomposition suitable for data embedding, security provided by the key, successive bit cancellation method applied at decoder which have greater impact on the detection reliability, secure communication of significant signal under camouflage of insignificant signals etc. Based on the analysis, robust SS watermarking scheme for secure data communication is proposed in wavelet domain and improvement in secure communication and robustness performance is reported through experimental results. The reported result also shows improvement in visual and statistical invisibility of the hidden data.

Paper Detail
1888
downloads
2
12060
A Dual Digital-Image Watermarking Technique
Abstract:
Image watermarking has become an important tool for intellectual property protection and authentication. In this paper a watermarking technique is suggested that incorporates two watermarks in a host image for improved protection and robustness. A watermark, in form of a PN sequence (will be called the secondary watermark), is embedded in the wavelet domain of a primary watermark before being embedded in the host image. The technique has been tested using Lena image as a host and the camera man as the primary watermark. The embedded PN sequence was detectable through correlation among other five sequences where a PSNR of 44.1065 dB was measured. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the technique, the watermarked image was exposed to four types of attacks, namely compression, low pass filtering, salt and pepper noise and luminance change. In all cases the secondary watermark was easy to detect even when the primary one is severely distorted.
Paper Detail
1776
downloads
1
9015
A Blind Digital Watermark in Hadamard Domain
Abstract:

A new blind gray-level watermarking scheme is described. In the proposed method, the host image is first divided into 4*4 non-overlapping blocks. For each block, two first AC coefficients of its Hadamard transform are then estimated using DC coefficients of its neighbor blocks. A gray-level watermark is then added into estimated values. Since embedding watermark does not change the DC coefficients, watermark extracting could be done by estimating AC coefficients and comparing them with their actual values. Several experiments are made and results suggest the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

Paper Detail
1631
downloads