International Science Index
Associations between Metabolic Syndrome and Bone Mineral Density and Trabecular Bone Score in Postmenopausal Women with Non-Vertebral Fractures
Medical, social, and economic relevance of osteoporosis is caused by reducing quality of life, increasing disability and mortality of the patients as a result of fractures due to the low-energy trauma. This study is aimed to examine the associations of metabolic syndrome components, bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in menopausal women with non-vertebral fractures. 1161 menopausal women aged 50-79 year-old were examined and divided into three groups: A included 419 women with increased body weight (BMI - 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), B – 442 females with obesity (BMI >29.9 kg/m2)i and C – 300 women with metabolic syndrome (diagnosis according to IDF criteria, 2005). BMD of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body and forearm was investigated with usage of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The bone quality indexes were measured according to Med-Imaps installation. All analyses were performed using Statistical Package 6.0. BMD of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body, and ultradistal radius was significant higher in women with obesity and metabolic syndrome compared to the pre-obese ones (p<0.001). TBS was significantly higher in women with increased body weight compared to obese and metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis showed significant positive correlation between waist circumference, triglycerides level and BMD of lumbar spine and femur. Significant negative association between serum HDL level and BMD of investigated sites was established. The TBS (L1-L4) indexes positively correlated with HDL (high-density lipoprotein) level. Despite the fact that BMD indexes were better in women with metabolic syndrome, the frequency of non-vertebral fractures was significantly higher in this group of patients.
SEM-EBSD Observation for Microtubes by Using Dieless Drawing Process
Because die drawing requires insertion of a die, a plug, or a mandrel, higher precision and efficiency are demanded for drawing equipment for a tube having smaller diameter. Manufacturing of such tubes is also accompanied by problems such as cracking and fracture. We specifically examine dieless drawing, which is less affected by these drawing-related difficulties. This deformation process is governed by a similar principle to that of reduction in diameter when pulling a heated glass tube. We conducted dieless drawing of SUS304 stainless steel microtubes under various conditions with three factor parameters of heating temperature, area reduction, and drawing speed. We used SEM-EBSD to observe the processing condition effects on microstructural elements. As the result of this study, crystallographic orientation of microtube is clear by using SEM-EBSD analysis.
Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens
Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.
Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier
Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.
Experiment Study on the Influence of Tool Materials on the Drilling of Thick Stacked Plate of 2219 Aluminum Alloy
The drilling and riveting processes are widely used in the assembly of carrier rocket, which makes the efficiency and quality of drilling become the important factor affecting the assembly process. According to the problem existing in the drilling of thick stacked plate (thickness larger than 10mm) of carrier rocket, such as drill break, large noise and burr etc., experimental study of the influence of tool material on the drilling was carried out. The cutting force was measured by a piezoelectric dynamometer, the aperture was measured with an outline projector, and the burr is observed and measured by a digital stereo microscope. Through the measurement, the effects of tool material on the drilling were analyzed from the aspects of drilling force, diameter, and burr. The results show that, compared with carbide drill and coated carbide one, the drilling force of high speed steel is larger. But, the application of high speed steel also has some advantages, e.g. a higher number of hole can be obtained, the height of burr is small, the exit is smooth and the slim burr is less, and the tool experiences wear but not fracture. Therefore, the high speed steel tool is suitable for the drilling of thick stacked plate of 2219 Aluminum alloy.
Sphere in Cube Grid Approach to Modelling of Shale Gas Production Using Non-Linear Flow Mechanisms
Shale gas is one of the most rapidly growing forms of natural gas. Unconventional natural gas deposits are difficult to characterize overall, but in general are often lower in resource concentration and dispersed over large areas. Moreover, gas is densely packed into the matrix through adsorption which accounts for large volume of gas reserves. Gas production from tight shale deposits are made possible by extensive and deep well fracturing which contacts large fractions of the formation. The conventional reservoir modelling and production forecasting methods, which rely on fluid-flow processes dominated by viscous forces, have proved to be very pessimistic and inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach to forecast shale gas production by detailed modeling of gas desorption, diffusion and non-linear flow mechanisms in combination with statistical representation of these processes. The representation of the model involves a cube as a porous media where free gas is present and a sphere (SiC: Sphere in Cube model) inside it where gas is adsorbed on to the kerogen or organic matter. Further, the sphere is considered consisting of many layers of adsorbed gas in an onion-like structure. With pressure decline, the gas desorbs first from the outer most layer of sphere causing decrease in its molecular concentration. The new available surface area and change in concentration triggers the diffusion of gas from kerogen. The process continues until all the gas present internally diffuses out of the kerogen, gets adsorbs onto available surface area and then desorbs into the nanopores and micro-fractures in the cube. Each SiC idealizes a gas pathway and is characterized by sphere diameter and length of the cube. The diameter allows to model gas storage, diffusion and desorption; the cube length takes into account the pathway for flow in nanopores and micro-fractures. Many of these representative but general cells of the reservoir are put together and linked to a well or hydraulic fracture. The paper quantitatively describes these processes as well as clarifies the geological conditions under which a successful shale gas production could be expected. A numerical model has been derived which is then compiled on FORTRAN to develop a simulator for the production of shale gas by considering the spheres as a source term in each of the grid blocks. By applying SiC to field data, we demonstrate that the model provides an effective way to quickly access gas production rates from shale formations. We also examine the effect of model input properties on gas production.
Bone Mineral Density and Frequency of Low-Trauma Fractures in Ukrainian Women with Metabolic Syndrome
Osteoporosis is one of the important problems in postmenopausal women due to an increased risk of sudden and unexpected fractures. This study is aimed to determine the connection between bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in Ukrainian women suffering from metabolic syndrome. Participating in the study, 566 menopausal women aged 50-79 year-old were examined and divided into two groups: Group A included 336 women with no obesity (BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2), and Group B – 230 women with metabolic syndrome (diagnosis according to IDF criteria, 2005). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measuring of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body and forearm BMD and bone quality indexes (last according to Med-Imaps installation). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package 6.0. A significant increase of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body and ultradistal radius BMD was found in women with metabolic syndrome compared to those without obesity (p < 0.001) both in their totality and in groups of 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and 70-79 years. TBS was significantly higher in non-obese women compared to metabolic syndrome patients of 50-59 years and in the general sample (p < 0.05). Analysis showed significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD at all levels. Significant negative correlation between BMI and TBS (L1-L4) was established. Despite the fact that BMD indexes were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome, the frequency of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures did not differ significantly in the groups of patients.
Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods
Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.
Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates
The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.
Thermomechanical Damage Modeling of F114 Carbon Steel
The numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in academic institutes and in the industry. It is a useful tool to predict many phenomena present in the classical manufacturing forming processes such as fracture. But, the results of such numerical model depend strongly on the parameters of the constitutive behavior model. The influences of thermal and mechanical loads cause damage. The temperature and strain rate dependent materials’ properties and their modelling are discussed. A Johnson-Cook Model of damage has been selected for the numerical simulations. Virtual software called the ABAQUS 6.11 is used for finite element analysis. This model was introduced in order to give information concerning crack initiation during thermal and mechanical loads.
Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application
Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power
output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used
to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced
Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures
are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure.
This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two
groups: one is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and
the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and
CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM
manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing
to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second
group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group.
On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups
showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends
followed by crack propagation until fracture.
Effect of Out-of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole
In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue
fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that
should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress
concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is
important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular
holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a
notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair
aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more
expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the
relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a
circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method.
We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by
using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch
adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts
on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA
model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield
stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly,
the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents
under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the
three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic
region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was
calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis
results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis
model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the
tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has
As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the
analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred
to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation
causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole.
Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects
relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole
on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the
out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration
on the plate with a circular hole.
Application of the Experimental Planning Design to the Notched Precracked Tensile Fracture of Composite
Composite materials have important assets compared
to traditional materials. They bring many functional advantages:
lightness, mechanical resistance and chemical, etc. In the present
study we examine the effect of a circular central notch and a precrack
on the tensile fracture of two woven composite materials. The tensile
tests were applied to a standardized specimen, notched and a
precarcked (orientation of the crack 0°, 45° and 90°). These tensile
tests were elaborated according to an experimental planning design of
the type 23.31 requiring 24 experiments with three repetitions. By the
analysis of regression, we obtained a mathematical model describing
the maximum load according to the influential parameters (hole
diameter, precrack length, angle of a precrack orientation). The
specimens precracked at 90° have a better behavior than those having
a precrack at 45° and still better than those having of the precracks
oriented at 0°. In addition the maximum load is inversely
proportional to the notch size.
Behavioral Studies on Multi-Directionally Reinforced 4-D Orthogonal Composites on Various Preform Configurations
The main advantage of multidirectionally reinforced composites is the freedom to orient selected fiber types and hence derives the benefits of varying fibre volume fractions and there by accommodate the design loads of the final structure of composites. This technology provides the means to produce tailored composites with desired properties. Due to the high level of fibre integrity with through thickness reinforcement those composites are expected to exhibit superior load bearing characteristics with capability to carry load even after noticeable and apparent fracture. However, a survey of published literature indicates inadequacy in the design and test data base for the complete characterization of the multidirectional composites. In this paper the research objective is focused on the development and testing of 4-D orthogonal composites with different preform configurations and resin systems. A preform is the skeleton 4D reinforced composite other than the matrix. In 4-D performs fibre bundles are oriented in three directions at 1200 with respect to each other and they are on orthogonal plane with the fibre in 4th direction. This paper addresses the various types of 4-D composite manufacturing processes and the mechanical test methods followed for the material characterization. A composite analysis is also made, experiments on course and fine woven preforms are conducted and the findings of test results are discussed in this paper. The interpretations of the test results reveal several useful and interesting features. This should pave the way for more widespread use of the perform configurations for allied applications.
Effects of Polymers and Alkaline on Recovery Improvement from Fractured Models
In this work, several ASP solutions were flooded into
fractured models initially saturated with heavy oil at a constant flow
rate and different geometrical characteristics of fracture. The ASP
solutions are constituted from 2 polymers i.e. a synthetic polymer,
hydrolyzed polyacrylamide as well as a biopolymer, a surfactant and
2types of alkaline. The results showed that using synthetic
hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer increases ultimate oil recovery;
however, type of alkaline does not play a significant rule on oil
recovery. In addition, position of the injection well respect to the
fracture system has remarkable effects on ASP flooding. For instance
increasing angle of fractures with mean flow direction causes more
oil recovery and delays breakthrough time. This work can be
accounted as a comprehensive survey on ASP flooding which
considers most of effective factors in this chemical EOR method.
Cold-pressed Kenaf and Fibreglass Hybrid Composites Laminates: Effect of Fibre Types
Natural fibres have emerged as the potential reinforcement material for composites and thus gain attraction by many researchers. This is mainly due to their applicable benefits as they offer low density, low cost, renewable, biodegradability and environmentally harmless and also comparable mechanical properties with synthetic fibre composites. The properties of hybrid composites highly depends on several factors, including the interaction of fillers with the polymeric matrix, shape and size (aspect ratio), and orientation of fillers . In this study, natural fibre kenaf composites and kenaf/fibreglass hybrid composites were fabricated by a combination of hand lay-up method and cold-press method. The effect of different fibre types (powder, short and long) on the tensile properties of composites is investigated. The kenaf composites with and without the addition of fibreglass were then characterized by tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy. A significant improvement in tensile strength and modulus were indicated by the introduction of long kenaf/woven fibreglass hybrid composite. However, the opposite trends are observed in kenaf powder composite. Fractographic observation shows that fibre/matrix debonding causes the fibres pull out. This phenomenon results in the fibre and matrix fracture.
Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes
The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack
Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall
Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of
critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack
growth continues to be an important component of research for
several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the
understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the
determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context,
studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant
(NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic
loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle
fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.
Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials
This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.
An Investigation to Effective Parameters on the Damage of Dual Phase Steels by Acoustic Emission Using Energy Ratio
Dual phase steels (DPS)s have a microstructure
consisting of a hard second phase called Martensite in the soft Ferrite
matrix. In recent years, there has been interest in dual-phase steels,
because the application of these materials has made significant usage;
particularly in the automotive sector Composite microstructure of
(DPS)s exhibit interesting characteristic mechanical properties such
as continuous yielding, low yield stress to tensile strength
ratios(YS/UTS), and relatively high formability; which offer
advantages compared with conventional high strength low alloy
steels(HSLAS). The research dealt with the characterization of
damage in (DPS)s. In this study by review the mechanisms of failure
due to volume fraction of martensite second phase; a new method is
introduced to identifying the mechanisms of failure in the various
phases of these types of steels. In this method the acoustic emission
(AE) technique was used to detect damage progression. These failure
mechanisms consist of Ferrite-Martensite interface decohesion and/or
martensite phase fracture. For this aim, dual phase steels with
different volume fraction of martensite second phase has provided by
various heat treatment methods on a low carbon steel (0.1% C), and
then AE monitoring is used during tensile test of these DPSs. From
AE measurements and an energy ratio curve elaborated from the
value of AE energy (it was obtained as the ratio between the strain
energy to the acoustic energy), that allows detecting important
events, corresponding to the sudden drops. These AE signals events
associated with various failure mechanisms are classified for ferrite
and (DPS)s with various amount of Vm and different martensite
morphology. It is found that AE energy increase with increasing Vm.
This increasing of AE energy is because of more contribution of
martensite fracture in the failure of samples with higher Vm. Final
results show a good relationship between the AE signals and the
mechanisms of failure.
Contact Stress on the Surface of Gear Teeth with Different Profile
Contact stress is an important problem in industry.
This is a problem that in the first attention may be don-t appears, but
disregard of these stresses cause a lot of damages in machines. These
stresses occur at locations such as gear teeth, bearings, cams and
between a locomotive wheel and the railroad rail. These stresses
cause failure by excessive elastic deformation, yielding and fracture.
In this paper we intend show the effective parameters in contact
stress and ponder effect of curvature. In this paper we study contact
stresses on the surface of gear teeth and compare these stresses for
four popular profiles of gear teeth (involute, cycloid, epicycloids, and
hypocycloid). We study this problem with mathematical and finite
element methods and compare these two methods on different profile
Geometry Calibration Factors of Modified Arcan Fracture Test for Welded Joint
In this study the mixed mode fracture mechanics
parameters were investigated for high tensile steel butt welded joint
based on modified Arcan test and finite element analysis was used to
evaluate the effect of crack length on fracture criterion. The nondimensional
stress intensity factors, strain energy release rates and Jintegral
energy on crack tip were obtained for various in-plane
loading combinations on Arcan specimen starting from pure mode-I
to pure mode-II loading conditions. The specimen and apparatus were
modeled by finite element method and analyzed under various
loading angles (between 0 to 90 degrees with 15 degree interval) to
simulate the pure mode-I, II and mixed mode fracture. Since the
analytical results are independent from elasticity modules for
isotropic materials, therefore the results in elastic fields can be used
for Arcan specimens. The main objective of this study was to
evaluate the geometric calibration factors for modified Arcan test
specimen in order to obtain fracture toughness under mixed mode