9

10008873

Comparison of Electrical Parameters of Oil-Immersed and Dry-Type Transformer Using Finite Element Method

The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.

8

10008252

Treatment of Low-Grade Iron Ore Using Two Stage Wet High-Intensity Magnetic Separation Technique

This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore contains low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje low-grade ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe2O3) with 34.18 mass% as an iron grade. The ore also contains silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and alumina exist as minor mineral components. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gangue particles is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron-bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, and pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 93.08% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gangue mineral particles containing 12 mass% silica and 3.94 mass% alumna remained in the concentrate, therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage WHIMS using the same parameters from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 83.41% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass%. Accordingly, phosphorus was also reduced to 0.02 mass%. Therefore, the two stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.

7

10006709

Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic
flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the
air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density
of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes
in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type
permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and
finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the
end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis
wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional
finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the
end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element
simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional
approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux
in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux
in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by
the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted
expression for its behavior is suggested.

6

10004755

Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating

We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnetic profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. The qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016 A.cm-2 to 0.074 A.cm-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300 W.

5

9999315

Electromagnetic Flow Meter Efficiency

A study of electromagnetic flow meter is presented in the paper. Comparison has been made between the analytical and the numerical results by the use of FEM numerical analysis (Quick Field 5.6) for determining polarization voltage through the circle cross section of the polarization transducer. Exciting and geometrical parameters increasing its effectiveness has been examined. The aim is to obtain maximal output signal. The investigations include different variants of the magnetic flux density distribution around the tube: homogeneous field of magnitude Bm, linear distribution with maximal value Bm and trapezium distribution conserving the same exciting magnetic energy as the homogeneous field.

4

9997033

Diagnosis of Static, Dynamic and Mixed Eccentricity in Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor by Using FEM

In Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor, eccentricity is a common fault that can make it necessary to remove the motor from the production line. However, because the motor may be inaccessible, diagnosing the fault is not easy. This paper presents an FEM that identifies different models, static eccentricity, dynamic eccentricity, and mixed eccentricity, at no load and full load. The method overcomes the difficulty of applying FEMs to transient behavior. It simulates motor speed, torque and flux density distribution along the air gap for SE,DE, and ME. This paper represents the various effects of different eccentricitiestypes on the transient performance.

3

708

Simulation and Parameterization by the Finite Element Method of a C Shape Delectromagnet for Application in the Characterization of Magnetic Properties of Materials

This article presents the simulation, parameterization and optimization of an electromagnet with the C–shaped configuration, intended for the study of magnetic properties of materials. The electromagnet studied consists of a C-shaped yoke, which provides self–shielding for minimizing losses of magnetic flux density, two poles of high magnetic permeability and power coils wound on the poles. The main physical variable studied was the static magnetic flux density in a column within the gap between the poles, with 4cm2 of square cross section and a length of 5cm, seeking a suitable set of parameters that allow us to achieve a uniform magnetic flux density of 1x104 Gaussor values above this in the column, when the system operates at room temperature and with a current consumption not exceeding 5A. By means of a magnetostatic analysis by the finite element method, the magnetic flux density and the distribution of the magnetic field lines were visualized and quantified. From the results obtained by simulating an initial configuration of electromagnet, a structural optimization of the geometry of the adjustable caps for the ends of the poles was performed. The magnetic permeability effect of the soft magnetic materials used in the poles system, such as low– carbon steel (0.08% C), Permalloy (45% Ni, 54.7% Fe) and Mumetal (21.2% Fe, 78.5% Ni), was also evaluated. The intensity and uniformity of the magnetic field in the gap showed a high dependence with the factors described above. The magnetic field achieved in the column was uniform and its magnitude ranged between 1.5x104 Gauss and 1.9x104 Gauss according to the material of the pole used, with the possibility of increasing the magnetic field by choosing a suitable geometry of the cap, introducing a cooling system for the coils and adjusting the spacing between the poles. This makes the device a versatile and scalable tool to generate the magnetic field necessary to perform magnetic characterization of materials by techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Hall-effect, Kerr-effect magnetometry, among others. Additionally, a CAD design of the modules of the electromagnet is presented in order to facilitate the construction and scaling of the physical device.

2

6287

Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply
the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few
LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant
factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is
expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control
system was developed.
The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic
Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the number of LED, are
installed on the blades, set; using the Lighting Simulation
Program.Relux, it is able to confirm that the difference of the beam
intensity between the center and the outer of lighting system when the
lighting device is rotating.

1

14633

Power Frequency Magnetic Field Survey in Indoor Power Distribution Substation in Egypt

In our modern society electricity is vital to our health,
safety, comfort and well-being. While our daily use of electricity is
often taken for granted, public concern has arisen about potential
adverse health effects from electric and magnetic – electromagnetic –
fields (EMFs) produced by our use of electricity.
This paper aims to compare between the measured magnetic field
values and the simulated models for the indoor medium to low
voltage (MV/LV) distribution substations.
To calculate the magnetic flux density in the substations,
interactive software SUBCALC is used which is based on closed
form solution of the Biot-Savart law with 3D conductor model.
The comparison between the measured values and the simulated
models was acceptable. However there were some discrepancies, as
expected, may be due to the current variation during measurements.