The choice evaluation between oil-immersed and dry-type transformers is often controlled by cost, location, and application. This paper compares the electrical performance of liquid- filled and dry-type transformers, which will assist the customer to choose the right and efficient ones for particular applications. An accurate assessment of the time-average flux density, electric field intensity and voltage distribution in an oil-insulated and a dry-type transformer have been computed and investigated. The detailed transformer modeling and analysis has been carried out to determine electrical parameter distributions. The models of oil-immersed and dry-type transformers are developed and solved by using the finite element method (FEM) to compare the electrical parameters. The effects of non-uniform and non-coherent voltage gradient, flux density and electric field distribution on the power losses and insulation properties of transformers are studied in detail. The results show that, for the same voltage and kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) rating, oil-immersed transformers have better insulation properties and less hysteresis losses than the dry-type.
This study investigates the removal of silica, alumina and phosphorus as impurities from Sanje iron ore using wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Sanje iron ore contains low-grade hematite ore found in Nampundwe area of Zambia from which iron is to be used as the feed in the steelmaking process. The chemical composition analysis using X-ray Florence spectrometer showed that Sanje low-grade ore contains 48.90 mass% of hematite (Fe2O3) with 34.18 mass% as an iron grade. The ore also contains silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) of 31.10 mass% and 7.65 mass% respectively. The mineralogical analysis using X-ray diffraction spectrometer showed hematite and silica as the major mineral components of the ore while magnetite and alumina exist as minor mineral components. Mineral particle distribution analysis was done using scanning electron microscope with an X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and images showed that the average mineral size distribution of alumina-silicate gangue particles is in order of 100 μm and exists as iron-bearing interlocked particles. Magnetic separation was done using series L model 4 Magnetic Separator. The effect of various magnetic separation parameters such as magnetic flux density, particle size, and pulp density of the feed was studied during magnetic separation experiments. The ore with average particle size of 25 µm and pulp density of 2.5% was concentrated using pulp flow of 7 L/min. The results showed that 10 T was optimal magnetic flux density which enhanced the recovery of 93.08% of iron with 53.22 mass% grade. The gangue mineral particles containing 12 mass% silica and 3.94 mass% alumna remained in the concentrate, therefore the concentrate was further treated in the second stage WHIMS using the same parameters from the first stage. The second stage process recovered 83.41% of iron with 67.07 mass% grade. Silica was reduced to 2.14 mass% and alumina to 1.30 mass%. Accordingly, phosphorus was also reduced to 0.02 mass%. Therefore, the two stage magnetic separation process was established using these results.
A study of electromagnetic flow meter is presented in the paper. Comparison has been made between the analytical and the numerical results by the use of FEM numerical analysis (Quick Field 5.6) for determining polarization voltage through the circle cross section of the polarization transducer. Exciting and geometrical parameters increasing its effectiveness has been examined. The aim is to obtain maximal output signal. The investigations include different variants of the magnetic flux density distribution around the tube: homogeneous field of magnitude Bm, linear distribution with maximal value Bm and trapezium distribution conserving the same exciting magnetic energy as the homogeneous field.
In Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor, eccentricity is a common fault that can make it necessary to remove the motor from the production line. However, because the motor may be inaccessible, diagnosing the fault is not easy. This paper presents an FEM that identifies different models, static eccentricity, dynamic eccentricity, and mixed eccentricity, at no load and full load. The method overcomes the difficulty of applying FEMs to transient behavior. It simulates motor speed, torque and flux density distribution along the air gap for SE,DE, and ME. This paper represents the various effects of different eccentricitiestypes on the transient performance.
This article presents the simulation, parameterization and optimization of an electromagnet with the C–shaped configuration, intended for the study of magnetic properties of materials. The electromagnet studied consists of a C-shaped yoke, which provides self–shielding for minimizing losses of magnetic flux density, two poles of high magnetic permeability and power coils wound on the poles. The main physical variable studied was the static magnetic flux density in a column within the gap between the poles, with 4cm2 of square cross section and a length of 5cm, seeking a suitable set of parameters that allow us to achieve a uniform magnetic flux density of 1x104 Gaussor values above this in the column, when the system operates at room temperature and with a current consumption not exceeding 5A. By means of a magnetostatic analysis by the finite element method, the magnetic flux density and the distribution of the magnetic field lines were visualized and quantified. From the results obtained by simulating an initial configuration of electromagnet, a structural optimization of the geometry of the adjustable caps for the ends of the poles was performed. The magnetic permeability effect of the soft magnetic materials used in the poles system, such as low– carbon steel (0.08% C), Permalloy (45% Ni, 54.7% Fe) and Mumetal (21.2% Fe, 78.5% Ni), was also evaluated. The intensity and uniformity of the magnetic field in the gap showed a high dependence with the factors described above. The magnetic field achieved in the column was uniform and its magnitude ranged between 1.5x104 Gauss and 1.9x104 Gauss according to the material of the pole used, with the possibility of increasing the magnetic field by choosing a suitable geometry of the cap, introducing a cooling system for the coils and adjusting the spacing between the poles. This makes the device a versatile and scalable tool to generate the magnetic field necessary to perform magnetic characterization of materials by techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Hall-effect, Kerr-effect magnetometry, among others. Additionally, a CAD design of the modules of the electromagnet is presented in order to facilitate the construction and scaling of the physical device.