International Science Index

22
10008999
Automatic Landmark Selection Based on Feature Clustering for Visual Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation
Abstract:
The selection of specific landmarks for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ Visual Navigation systems based on Automatic Landmark Recognition has significant influence on the precision of the system’s estimated position. At the same time, manual selection of the landmarks does not guarantee a high recognition rate, which would also result on a poor precision. This work aims to develop an automatic landmark selection that will take the image of the flight area and identify the best landmarks to be recognized by the Visual Navigation Landmark Recognition System. The criterion to select a landmark is based on features detected by ORB or AKAZE and edges information on each possible landmark. Results have shown that disposition of possible landmarks is quite different from the human perception.
Paper Detail
43
downloads
21
10005826
A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches
Abstract:
Automatic detection of facial feature points plays an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking, human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the presented algorithms.
Paper Detail
721
downloads
20
10003260
A Robust and Efficient Segmentation Method Applied for Cardiac Left Ventricle with Abnormal Shapes
Abstract:
Segmentation of left ventricle (LV) from cardiac ultrasound images provides a quantitative functional analysis of the heart to diagnose disease. Active Shape Model (ASM) is widely used for LV segmentation, but it suffers from the drawback that initialization of the shape model is not sufficiently close to the target, especially when dealing with abnormal shapes in disease. In this work, a two-step framework is improved to achieve a fast and efficient LV segmentation. First, a robust and efficient detection based on Hough forest localizes cardiac feature points. Such feature points are used to predict the initial fitting of the LV shape model. Second, ASM is applied to further fit the LV shape model to the cardiac ultrasound image. With the robust initialization, ASM is able to achieve more accurate segmentation. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a dataset of 810 cardiac ultrasound images that are mostly abnormal shapes. This proposed method is compared with several combinations of ASM and existing initialization methods. Our experiment results demonstrate that accuracy of the proposed method for feature point detection for initialization was 40% higher than the existing methods. Moreover, the proposed method significantly reduces the number of necessary ASM fitting loops and thus speeds up the whole segmentation process. Therefore, the proposed method is able to achieve more accurate and efficient segmentation results and is applicable to unusual shapes of heart with cardiac diseases, such as left atrial enlargement.
Paper Detail
874
downloads
19
9999406
Temporally Coherent 3D Animation Reconstruction from RGB-D Video Data
Abstract:

We present a new method to reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from single or multi-view RGB-D video data using unbiased feature point sampling. Given RGB-D video data, in form of a 3D point cloud sequence, our method first extracts feature points using both color and depth information. In the subsequent steps, these feature points are used to match two 3D point clouds in consecutive frames independent of their resolution. Our new motion vectors based dynamic alignement method then fully reconstruct a spatio-temporally coherent 3D animation. We perform extensive quantitative validation using novel error functions to analyze the results. We show that despite the limiting factors of temporal and spatial noise associated to RGB-D data, it is possible to extract temporal coherence to faithfully reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from RGB-D video data.

Paper Detail
1491
downloads
18
16026
A Rigid Point Set Registration of Remote Sensing Images Based on Genetic Algorithms and Hausdorff Distance
Abstract:
Image registration is the process of establishing point by point correspondence between images obtained from a same scene. This process is very useful in remote sensing, medicine, cartography, computer vision, etc. Then, the task of registration is to place the data into a common reference frame by estimating the transformations between the data sets. In this work, we develop a rigid point registration method based on the application of genetic algorithms and Hausdorff distance. First, we extract the feature points from both images based on the algorithm of global and local curvature corner. After refining the feature points, we use Hausdorff distance as similarity measure between the two data sets and for optimizing the search space we use genetic algorithms to achieve high computation speed for its inertial parallel. The results show the efficiency of this method for registration of satellite images.
Paper Detail
1360
downloads
17
6689
Optimized Facial Features-based Age Classification
Abstract:
The evaluation and measurement of human body dimensions are achieved by physical anthropometry. This research was conducted in view of the importance of anthropometric indices of the face in forensic medicine, surgery, and medical imaging. The main goal of this research is to optimization of facial feature point by establishing a mathematical relationship among facial features and used optimize feature points for age classification. Since selected facial feature points are located to the area of mouth, nose, eyes and eyebrow on facial images, all desire facial feature points are extracted accurately. According this proposes method; sixteen Euclidean distances are calculated from the eighteen selected facial feature points vertically as well as horizontally. The mathematical relationships among horizontal and vertical distances are established. Moreover, it is also discovered that distances of the facial feature follows a constant ratio due to age progression. The distances between the specified features points increase with respect the age progression of a human from his or her childhood but the ratio of the distances does not change (d = 1 .618 ) . Finally, according to the proposed mathematical relationship four independent feature distances related to eight feature points are selected from sixteen distances and eighteen feature point-s respectively. These four feature distances are used for classification of age using Support Vector Machine (SVM)-Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) algorithm and shown around 96 % accuracy. Experiment result shows the proposed system is effective and accurate for age classification.
Paper Detail
1393
downloads
16
8828
Emotion Classification using Adaptive SVMs
Authors:
Abstract:
The study of the interaction between humans and computers has been emerging during the last few years. This interaction will be more powerful if computers are able to perceive and respond to human nonverbal communication such as emotions. In this study, we present the image-based approach to emotion classification through lower facial expression. We employ a set of feature points in the lower face image according to the particular face model used and consider their motion across each emotive expression of images. The vector of displacements of all feature points input to the Adaptive Support Vector Machines (A-SVMs) classifier that classify it into seven basic emotions scheme, namely neutral, angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. The system was tested on the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) dataset of frontal view facial expressions [7]. Our experiments on emotion classification through lower facial expressions demonstrate the robustness of Adaptive SVM classifier and verify the high efficiency of our approach.
Paper Detail
1525
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15
261
Performance Improvement of Moving Object Recognition and Tracking Algorithm using Parallel Processing of SURF and Optical Flow
Abstract:
The paper proposes a way of parallel processing of SURF and Optical Flow for moving object recognition and tracking. The object recognition and tracking is one of the most important task in computer vision, however disadvantage are many operations cause processing speed slower so that it can-t do real-time object recognition and tracking. The proposed method uses a typical way of feature extraction SURF and moving object Optical Flow for reduce disadvantage and real-time moving object recognition and tracking, and parallel processing techniques for speed improvement. First analyse that an image from DB and acquired through the camera using SURF for compared to the same object recognition then set ROI (Region of Interest) for tracking movement of feature points using Optical Flow. Secondly, using Multi-Thread is for improved processing speed and recognition by parallel processing. Finally, performance is evaluated and verified efficiency of algorithm throughout the experiment.
Paper Detail
1925
downloads
14
12542
Efficient Feature-Based Registration for CT-M R Images Based on NSCT and PSO
Abstract:

Feature-based registration is an effective technique for clinical use, because it can greatly reduce computational costs. However, this technique, which estimates the transformation by using feature points extracted from two images, may cause misalignments. To handle with this limitation, we propose to extract the salient edges and extracted control points (CP) of medical images by using efficiency of multiresolution representation of data nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) that finds the best feature points. The MR images were first decomposed using the NSCT, and then Edge and CP were extracted from bandpass directional subband of NSCT coefficients and some proposed rules. After edge and CP extraction, mutual information was adopted for the registration of feature points and translation parameters are calculated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The experimental results showed that the proposed method produces totally accurate performance for registration medical CT-MR images.

Paper Detail
1382
downloads
13
11078
Signature Recognition and Verification using Hybrid Features and Clustered Artificial Neural Network(ANN)s
Abstract:
Signature represents an individual characteristic of a person which can be used for his / her validation. For such application proper modeling is essential. Here we propose an offline signature recognition and verification scheme which is based on extraction of several features including one hybrid set from the input signature and compare them with the already trained forms. Feature points are classified using statistical parameters like mean and variance. The scanned signature is normalized in slant using a very simple algorithm with an intention to make the system robust which is found to be very helpful. The slant correction is further aided by the use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The suggested scheme discriminates between originals and forged signatures from simple and random forgeries. The primary objective is to reduce the two crucial parameters-False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) with lesser training time with an intension to make the system dynamic using a cluster of ANNs forming a multiple classifier system.
Keywords:
Paper Detail
1129
downloads
12
5943
A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel feature-based image watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image processing operations and geometric attacks.
Paper Detail
1286
downloads
11
6674
Feature Point Reduction for Video Stabilization
Abstract:

Corner detection and optical flow are common techniques for feature-based video stabilization. However, these algorithms are computationally expensive and should be performed at a reasonable rate. This paper presents an algorithm for discarding irrelevant feature points and maintaining them for future use so as to improve the computational cost. The algorithm starts by initializing a maintained set. The feature points in the maintained set are examined against its accuracy for modeling. Corner detection is required only when the feature points are insufficiently accurate for future modeling. Then, optical flows are computed from the maintained feature points toward the consecutive frame. After that, a motion model is estimated based on the simplified affine motion model and least square method, with outliers belonging to moving objects presented. Studentized residuals are used to eliminate such outliers. The model estimation and elimination processes repeat until no more outliers are identified. Finally, the entire algorithm repeats along the video sequence with the points remaining from the previous iteration used as the maintained set. As a practical application, an efficient video stabilization can be achieved by exploiting the computed motion models. Our study shows that the number of times corner detection needs to perform is greatly reduced, thus significantly improving the computational cost. Moreover, optical flow vectors are computed for only the maintained feature points, not for outliers, thus also reducing the computational cost. In addition, the feature points after reduction can sufficiently be used for background objects tracking as demonstrated in the simple video stabilizer based on our proposed algorithm.

Paper Detail
1167
downloads
10
12776
Face Reconstruction and Camera Pose Using Multi-dimensional Descent
Abstract:

This paper aims to propose a novel, robust, and simple method for obtaining a human 3D face model and camera pose (position and orientation) from a video sequence. Given a video sequence of a face recorded from an off-the-shelf digital camera, feature points used to define facial parts are tracked using the Active- Appearance Model (AAM). Then, the face-s 3D structure and camera pose of each video frame can be simultaneously calculated from the obtained point correspondences. This proposed method is primarily based on the combined approaches of Gradient Descent and Powell-s Multidimensional Minimization. Using this proposed method, temporarily occluded point including the case of self-occlusion does not pose a problem. As long as the point correspondences displayed in the video sequence have enough parallax, these missing points can still be reconstructed.

Paper Detail
1003
downloads
9
1712
Scale-Space Volume Descriptors for Automatic 3D Facial Feature Extraction
Abstract:

An automatic method for the extraction of feature points for face based applications is proposed. The system is based upon volumetric feature descriptors, which in this paper has been extended to incorporate scale space. The method is robust to noise and has the ability to extract local and holistic features simultaneously from faces stored in a database. Extracted features are stable over a range of faces, with results indicating that in terms of intra-ID variability, the technique has the ability to outperform manual landmarking.

Paper Detail
891
downloads
8
324
Robot Vision Application based on Complex 3D Pose Computation
Abstract:
The paper presents a technique suitable in robot vision applications where it is not possible to establish the object position from one view. Usually, one view pose calculation methods are based on the correspondence of image features established at a training step and exactly the same image features extracted at the execution step, for a different object pose. When such a correspondence is not feasible because of the lack of specific features a new method is proposed. In the first step the method computes from two views the 3D pose of feature points. Subsequently, using a registration algorithm, the set of 3D feature points extracted at the execution phase is aligned with the set of 3D feature points extracted at the training phase. The result is a Euclidean transform which have to be used by robot head for reorientation at execution step.
Paper Detail
894
downloads
7
421
Security Analysis of Password Hardened Multimodal Biometric Fuzzy Vault
Abstract:
Biometric techniques are gaining importance for personal authentication and identification as compared to the traditional authentication methods. Biometric templates are vulnerable to variety of attacks due to their inherent nature. When a person-s biometric is compromised his identity is lost. In contrast to password, biometric is not revocable. Therefore, providing security to the stored biometric template is very crucial. Crypto biometric systems are authentication systems, which blends the idea of cryptography and biometrics. Fuzzy vault is a proven crypto biometric construct which is used to secure the biometric templates. However fuzzy vault suffer from certain limitations like nonrevocability, cross matching. Security of the fuzzy vault is affected by the non-uniform nature of the biometric data. Fuzzy vault when hardened with password overcomes these limitations. Password provides an additional layer of security and enhances user privacy. Retina has certain advantages over other biometric traits. Retinal scans are used in high-end security applications like access control to areas or rooms in military installations, power plants, and other high risk security areas. This work applies the idea of fuzzy vault for retinal biometric template. Multimodal biometric system performance is well compared to single modal biometric systems. The proposed multi modal biometric fuzzy vault includes combined feature points from retina and fingerprint. The combined vault is hardened with user password for achieving high level of security. The security of the combined vault is measured using min-entropy. The proposed password hardened multi biometric fuzzy vault is robust towards stored biometric template attacks.
Paper Detail
1598
downloads
6
6889
Feature Based Dense Stereo Matching using Dynamic Programming and Color
Abstract:
This paper presents a new feature based dense stereo matching algorithm to obtain the dense disparity map via dynamic programming. After extraction of some proper features, we use some matching constraints such as epipolar line, disparity limit, ordering and limit of directional derivative of disparity as well. Also, a coarseto- fine multiresolution strategy is used to decrease the search space and therefore increase the accuracy and processing speed. The proposed method links the detected feature points into the chains and compares some of the feature points from different chains, to increase the matching speed. We also employ color stereo matching to increase the accuracy of the algorithm. Then after feature matching, we use the dynamic programming to obtain the dense disparity map. It differs from the classical DP methods in the stereo vision, since it employs sparse disparity map obtained from the feature based matching stage. The DP is also performed further on a scan line, between any matched two feature points on that scan line. Thus our algorithm is truly an optimization method. Our algorithm offers a good trade off in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Regarding the results of our experiments, the proposed algorithm increases the accuracy from 20 to 70%, and reduces the running time of the algorithm almost 70%.
Paper Detail
1635
downloads
5
14248
Reliable Face Alignment Using Two-Stage AAM
Abstract:
AAM (active appearance model) has been successfully applied to face and facial feature localization. However, its performance is sensitive to initial parameter values. In this paper, we propose a two-stage AAM for robust face alignment, which first fits an inner face-AAM model to the inner facial feature points of the face and then localizes the whole face and facial features by optimizing the whole face-AAM model parameters. Experiments show that the proposed face alignment method using two-stage AAM is more reliable to the background and the head pose than the standard AAM-based face alignment method.
Paper Detail
886
downloads
4
14984
Progressive AAM Based Robust Face Alignment
Abstract:
AAM has been successfully applied to face alignment, but its performance is very sensitive to initial values. In case the initial values are a little far distant from the global optimum values, there exists a pretty good possibility that AAM-based face alignment may converge to a local minimum. In this paper, we propose a progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm which first finds the feature parameter vector fitting the inner facial feature points of the face and later localize the feature points of the whole face using the first information. The proposed progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm utilizes the fact that the feature points of the inner part of the face are less variant and less affected by the background surrounding the face than those of the outer part (like the chin contour). The proposed algorithm consists of two stages: modeling and relation derivation stage and fitting stage. Modeling and relation derivation stage first needs to construct two AAM models: the inner face AAM model and the whole face AAM model and then derive relation matrix between the inner face AAM parameter vector and the whole face AAM model parameter vector. In the fitting stage, the proposed algorithm aligns face progressively through two phases. In the first phase, the proposed algorithm will find the feature parameter vector fitting the inner facial AAM model into a new input face image, and then in the second phase it localizes the whole facial feature points of the new input face image based on the whole face AAM model using the initial parameter vector estimated from using the inner feature parameter vector obtained in the first phase and the relation matrix obtained in the first stage. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm is more robust with respect to pose, illumination, and face background than the conventional basic AAM-based face alignment algorithm.
Paper Detail
1082
downloads
3
3583
Robust Face Recognition using AAM and Gabor Features
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm using AAM and Gabor features. Gabor feature vectors which are well known to be robust with respect to small variations of shape, scaling, rotation, distortion, illumination and poses in images are popularly employed for feature vectors for many object detection and recognition algorithms. EBGM, which is prominent among face recognition algorithms employing Gabor feature vectors, requires localization of facial feature points where Gabor feature vectors are extracted. However, localization method employed in EBGM is based on Gabor jet similarity and is sensitive to initial values. Wrong localization of facial feature points affects face recognition rate. AAM is known to be successfully applied to localization of facial feature points. In this paper, we devise a facial feature point localization method which first roughly estimate facial feature points using AAM and refine facial feature points using Gabor jet similarity-based facial feature localization method with initial points set by the rough facial feature points obtained from AAM, and propose a face recognition algorithm using the devised localization method for facial feature localization and Gabor feature vectors. It is observed through experiments that such a cascaded localization method based on both AAM and Gabor jet similarity is more robust than the localization method based on only Gabor jet similarity. Also, it is shown that the proposed face recognition algorithm using this devised localization method and Gabor feature vectors performs better than the conventional face recognition algorithm using Gabor jet similarity-based localization method and Gabor feature vectors like EBGM.
Paper Detail
1549
downloads
2
770
Image Search by Features of Sorted Gray level Histogram Polynomial Curve
Abstract:

Image Searching was always a problem specially when these images are not properly managed or these are distributed over different locations. Currently different techniques are used for image search. On one end, more features of the image are captured and stored to get better results. Storing and management of such features is itself a time consuming job. While on the other extreme if fewer features are stored the accuracy rate is not satisfactory. Same image stored with different visual properties can further reduce the rate of accuracy. In this paper we present a new concept of using polynomials of sorted histogram of the image. This approach need less overhead and can cope with the difference in visual features of image.

Paper Detail
871
downloads
1
6227
Automated Feature Points Management for Video Mosaic Construction
Abstract:

A novel algorithm for construct a seamless video mosaic of the entire panorama continuously by automatically analyzing and managing feature points, including management of quantity and quality, from the sequence is presented. Since a video contains significant redundancy, so that not all consecutive video images are required to create a mosaic. Only some key images need to be selected. Meanwhile, feature-based methods for mosaicing rely on correction of feature points? correspondence deeply, and if the key images have large frame interval, the mosaic will often be interrupted by the scarcity of corresponding feature points. A unique character of the method is its ability to handle all the problems above in video mosaicing. Experiments have been performed under various conditions, the results show that our method could achieve fast and accurate video mosaic construction. Keywords?video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

Paper Detail
1235
downloads