International Science Index

20
10008960
Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace
Abstract:

The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Paper Detail
50
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19
10008629
Effect of Using Crumb Rubber with Warm-Mix-Asphalt Additive in Laboratory and Field Aging
Abstract:

Using a waste material such as crumb rubber (CR) obtained by waste tires has become an important issue in respect to sustainability. However, the CR modified mixture also requires high manufacture temperature as a polymer modified mixture. For this reason in this study, it is intended to produce a CR modified mixture with warm mix asphalt additives in the same mixture. Asphalt mixtures produced by pure, 10%CR, 10%CR+3% Sasobit and 10%CR+0.7% Evotherm were subjected to aging procedure in the laboratory and the field. The indirect tensile repeated tests were applied to aged and original specimens. It was concluded that the fatigue life of the mixtures increased significantly with the increase of aging time. CR+Sasobit modified mixture aged at the both field and laboratory gave the highest load cycle among the mixtures.

Paper Detail
104
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18
10006624
Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy
Abstract:

Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.

Paper Detail
296
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17
10004772
Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper
Abstract:
Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.
Paper Detail
600
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16
10004261
Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue
Abstract:

This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Paper Detail
999
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15
10002704
Physiological and Psychological Influence on Office Workers during Demand Response
Abstract:

In recent years, the power system has been changed and a flexible power pricing system such as demand response has been sought in Japan. The demand response system works simply in the household sector and the owner as the decision-maker, can benefit from power saving. On the other hand, the execution of demand response in the office building is more complex than in the household because various people such as owners, building administrators and occupants are involved in the decision-making process. While the owners benefit from demand saving, the occupants are exposed to restricted benefits of a demand-saved environment. One of the reasons is that building systems are usually under centralized management and each occupant cannot choose freely whether to participate in demand response or not. In addition, it is unclear whether incentives give occupants the motivation to participate. However, the recent development of IT and building systems enables the personalized control of the office environment where each occupant can control the lighting level or temperature individually. Therefore, it can be possible to have a system which each occupant can make a decision of whether or not to participate in demand response in the office building. This study investigates personal responses to demand response requests, under the condition where each occupant can adjust their brightness individually in their workspace. Once workers participate in the demand response, their desk-lights are automatically turned off. The participation rates in the demand response events are compared among four groups, which are divided by different motivation, the presence, or absence of incentives and the method of participation. The result shows that there are significant differences of participation rates in demand response event between four groups. The method of participation has a large effect on the participation rate. The “Opt-out” groups where the occupants are automatically enrolled in a demand response event if they do not express non-participation have the highest participation rate in the four groups. Incentives also have an effect on the participation rate. This study also reports on the impact of low illumination office environment on the occupants, such as stress or fatigue. The electrocardiogram and the questionnaire are used to investigate the autonomic nervous activity and subjective fatigue symptoms of the occupants. There is no big difference between dim workspace during demand response event and bright workspace in autonomic nervous activity and fatigue.

Paper Detail
941
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14
10001407
Stress and Strain Analysis of Notched Bodies Subject to Non-Proportional Loadings
Authors:
Abstract:
In this paper, an analytical simplified method for calculating elasto-plastic stresses strains of notched bodies subject to non-proportional loading paths is discussed. The method was based on the Neuber notch correction, which relates the incremental elastic and elastic-plastic strain energy densities at the notch root and the material constitutive relationship. The validity of the method was presented by comparing computed results of the proposed model against finite element numerical data of notched shaft. The comparison showed that the model estimated notch-root elasto-plastic stresses strains with good accuracy using linear-elastic stresses. The prosed model provides more efficient and simple analysis method preferable to expensive experimental component tests and more complex and time consuming incremental non-linear FE analysis. The model is particularly suitable to perform fatigue life and fatigue damage estimates of notched components subjected to nonproportional loading paths.
Paper Detail
1736
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13
10001635
Driver Fatigue State Recognition with Pixel Based Caveat Scheme Using Eye-Tracking
Abstract:
Driver fatigue is an important factor in the increasing number of road accidents. Dynamic template matching method was proposed to address the problem of real-time driver fatigue detection system based on eye-tracking. An effective vision based approach was used to analyze the driver’s eye state to detect fatigue. The driver fatigue system consists of Face detection, Eye detection, Eye tracking, and Fatigue detection. Initially frames are captured from a color video in a car dashboard and transformed from RGB into YCbCr color space to detect the driver’s face. Canny edge operator was used to estimating the eye region and the locations of eyes are extracted. The extracted eyes were considered as a template matching for eye tracking. Edge Map Overlapping (EMO) and Edge Pixel Count (EPC) matching function were used for eye tracking which is used to improve the matching accuracy. The pixel of eyeball was tracked from the eye regions which are used to determine the fatigue state of the driver.
Paper Detail
1085
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12
9997675
Vibration, Lubrication and Machinery Consideration for a Mixer Gearbox Related to Iran Oil Industries
Abstract:

In this paper, some common gearboxes vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems are explained. In addition, an experimental gearbox vibration analysis is discussed through a critical case history for a mixer gearbox related to Iran oil industry. The case history also consists of gear manufacturing (machining) recommendations, lubrication condition of gearbox and machinery maintenance activities that caused reduction in noise and vibration of the gearbox. Besides some of the recent patents and innovations in gearboxes, lubrication and vibration monitoring systems explained. Finally micro pitting and surface fatigue in pinion and bevel of mentioned horizontal to vertical gearbox discussed in details.

Paper Detail
3259
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11
142
Changes in Subjective and Objective Measures of Performance in Ramadan
Abstract:
The Muslim faith requires individuals to fast between the hours of sunrise and sunset during the month of Ramadan. Our recent work has concentrated on some of the changes that take place during the daytime when fasting. A questionnaire was developed to assess subjective estimates of physical, mental and social activities, and fatigue. Four days were studied: in the weeks before and after Ramadan (control days) and during the first and last weeks of Ramadan (experimental days). On each of these four days, this questionnaire was given several times during the daytime and once after the fast had been broken and just before individuals retired at night. During Ramadan, daytime mental, physical and social activities all decreased below control values but then increased to abovecontrol values in the evening. The desires to perform physical and mental activities showed very similar patterns. That is, individuals tried to conserve energy during the daytime in preparation for the evenings when they ate and drank, often with friends. During Ramadan also, individuals were more fatigued in the daytime and napped more often than on control days. This extra fatigue probably reflected decreased sleep, individuals often having risen earlier (before sunrise, to prepare for fasting) and retired later (to enable recovery from the fast). Some physiological measures and objective measures of performance (including the response to a bout of exercise) have also been investigated. Urine osmolality fell during the daytime on control days as subjects drank, but rose in Ramadan to reach values at sunset indicative of dehydration. Exercise performance was also compromised, particularly late in the afternoon when the fast had lasted several hours. Self-chosen exercise work-rates fell and a set amount of exercise felt more arduous. There were also changes in heart rate and lactate accumulation in the blood, indicative of greater cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by the exercise in subjects who had been fasting. Daytime fasting in Ramadan produces widespread effects which probably reflect combined effects of sleep loss and restrictions to intakes of water and food.
Paper Detail
1153
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10
13115
Fatigue Properties and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibber Reinforced Composites
Abstract:

A two-parameter fatigue model explicitly accounting for the cyclic as well as the mean stress was used to fit static and fatigue data available in literature concerning carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates subjected tension-tension fatigue. The model confirms the strength–life equal rank assumption and predicts reasonably the probability of failure under cyclic loading. The model parameters were found by best fitting procedures and required a minimum of experimental tests.

Paper Detail
1457
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9
9887
Fretting Fatigue behavior of Bolted Single Lap Joints of Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of bolt clamping force on the fatigue behavior of bolted single lap joints of aluminum alloy 2024- T3 have been studied using numerical finite element method. To do so, a three dimensional model according to the bolted single lap joint has been created and numerical analysis has been carried out using finite element based package. Then the stress distribution and also the slip amplitudes have been calculated in the critical regions and the outcome have been compared with the available experimental fatigue tests results. The numerical results show that in low applied clamping force, the fatigue failure of the specimens occur around the stress concentration location (the bolted hole edge) due to the tensile stresses and thus fatigue crack propagation, but with increase of the clamping force, the fatigue life increases and the cracks nucleate and propagate far from the hole edge because of fretting fatigue. In other words, with the further increase of clamping force value of the joint, the fatigue life reduces due to occurrence of the fretting fatigue in the critical location where the slip amplitude is within its critical occurs earlier.

Paper Detail
1869
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8
14802
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Vigilance – A Test of Temporal Decrement in the Attention Networks Test (ANT)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to test whether the Attention Networks Test (ANT) showed temporal decrements in performance. Vigilance tasks typically show such decrements, which may reflect impairments in executive control resulting from cognitive fatigue. The ANT assesses executive control, as well as alerting and orienting. Thus, it was hypothesized that ANT executive control would deteriorate over time. Manipulations including task condition (trial composition) and masking were included in the experimental design in an attempt to increase performance decrements. However, results showed that there is no temporal decrement on the ANT. The roles of task demands, cognitive fatigue and participant motivation in producing this result are discussed. The ANT may not be an effective tool for investigating temporal decrement in attention.
Paper Detail
1187
downloads
7
1518
On the Verification of Power Nap Associated with Stage 2 Sleep and Its Application
Abstract:
One of the most important causes of accidents is driver fatigue. To reduce the accidental rate, the driver needs a quick nap when feeling sleepy. Hence, searching for the minimum time period of nap is a very challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is twofold, i.e. to investigate the possible fastest time period for nap and its relationship with stage 2 sleep, and to develop an automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device. The experiment for this investigation is designed with 21 subjects. It yields the result that waking up the subjects after getting into stage 2 sleep for 3-5 minutes can efficiently reduce the sleepiness. Furthermore, the automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 85% which is comparable with the commercial sleep lab system.
Paper Detail
908
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6
760
The Effect of Fine Aggregate Properties on the Fatigue Behavior of the Conventional and Polymer Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Two Types of Sand as Fine Aggregate
Abstract:
Fatigue cracking continues to be the main challenges in improving the performance of bituminous mixture pavements. The purpose of this paper is to look at some aspects of the effects of fine aggregate properties on the fatigue behaviour of hot mixture asphalt. Two types of sand (quarry and mining sand) with two conventional bitumen (PEN 50/60 & PEN 80/100) and four polymers modified bitumen PMB (PM1_82, PM1_76, PM2_82 and PM2_76) were used. Physical, chemical and mechanical tests were performed on the sands to determine their effect when incorporated with a bituminous mixture. According to the beam fatigue results, quarry sand that has more angularity, rougher, higher shear strength and a higher percentage of Aluminium oxide presented higher resistance to fatigue. Also a PMB mixture gives better fatigue results than conventional mixtures, this is due to the PMB having better viscosity property than that of the conventional bitumen.
Paper Detail
1914
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5
6418
Workstation Design Based On Ergonomics in Animal Feed Packing Process
Abstract:

The intention of this study to design the probability optimized sewing sack-s workstation based on ergonomics for productivity improvement and decreasing musculoskeletal disorders. The physical dimensions of two workers were using to design the new workstation. The physical dimensions are (1) sitting height, (2) mid shoulder height sitting, (3) shoulder breadth, (4) knee height, (5) popliteal height, (6) hip breadth and (7) buttock-knee length. The 5th percentile of buttock knee length sitting (51 cm), the 50th percentile of mid shoulder height sitting (62 cm) and the 95th percentile of popliteal height (43 cm) and hip breadth (45 cm) applied to design the workstation for sewing sack-s operator and the others used to adjust the components of this workstation. The risk assessment by RULA before and after using the probability optimized workstation were 7 and 7 scores and REBA scores were 11 and 5, respectively. Body discomfort-abnormal index was used to assess muscle fatigue of operators before adjustment workstation found that neck muscles, arm muscles area, muscles on the back and the lower back muscles fatigue. Therefore, the extension and flexion exercise was applied to relief musculoskeletal stresses. The workers exercised 15 minutes before the beginning and the end of work for 5 days. After that, the capability of flexion and extension muscles- workers were increasing in 3 muscles (arm, leg, and back muscles).

Paper Detail
1599
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4
4949
Turbulent Mixing and its Effects on Thermal Fatigue in Nuclear Reactors
Abstract:
The turbulent mixing of coolant streams of different temperature and density can cause severe temperature fluctuations in piping systems in nuclear reactors. In certain periodic contraction cycles these conditions lead to thermal fatigue. The resulting aging effect prompts investigation in how the mixing of flows over a sharp temperature/density interface evolves. To study the fundamental turbulent mixing phenomena in the presence of density gradients, isokinetic (shear-free) mixing experiments are performed in a square channel with Reynolds numbers ranging from 2-500 to 60-000. Sucrose is used to create the density difference. A Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) is used to determine the concentration map of the flow in the cross section. The mean interface width as a function of velocity, density difference and distance from the mixing point are analyzed based on traditional methods chosen for the purposes of atmospheric/oceanic stratification analyses. A definition of the mixing layer thickness more appropriate to thermal fatigue and based on mixedness is devised. This definition shows that the thermal fatigue risk assessed using simple mixing layer growth can be misleading and why an approach that separates the effects of large scale (turbulent) and small scale (molecular) mixing is necessary.
Paper Detail
1523
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3
1400
Effect of Preloading on the Contact Stress Distribution of a Dovetail Interface
Abstract:
This paper presents the influence of preloading on a) the contact tractions, b) slip levels and c) stresses at the dovetail blade-disc interface of an aero-engine through a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modeling and analysis. The preloading is applied by an interference fit at the dovetail interface and the bulk loading is applied through the rotational speed of rotor. Preloading at the dovetail interface reduces the peak contact pressure developed due to bulk loading up to 35%, and reduces the peak contact pressure and stress difference between top and bottom contact edges. Increasing the level of preloading reduces the cyclic stress amplitude at the interface up to certain values of preload and as a consequence, an improvement in fatigue life could be expected. Fretting damage, due to vibration and wind milling effect during engine ground condition, can be minimized by preloading the dovetail interface.
Paper Detail
2336
downloads
2
397
New Wavelet Indices to Assess Muscle Fatigue during Dynamic Contractions
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare new indices based on the discrete wavelet transform with another spectral parameters proposed in the literature as mean average voltage, median frequency and ratios between spectral moments applied to estimate acute exercise-induced changes in power output, i.e., to assess peripheral muscle fatigue during a dynamic fatiguing protocol. 15 trained subjects performed 5 sets consisting of 10 leg press, with 2 minutes rest between sets. Surface electromyography was recorded from vastus medialis (VM) muscle. Several surface electromyographic parameters were compared to detect peripheral muscle fatigue. These were: mean average voltage (MAV), median spectral frequency (Fmed), Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue (FInsm5), as well as other five parameters obtained from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as ratios between different scales. The new wavelet indices achieved the best results in Pearson correlation coefficients with power output changes during acute dynamic contractions. Their regressions were significantly different from MAV and Fmed. On the other hand, they showed the highest robustness in presence of additive white gaussian noise for different signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Therefore, peripheral impairments assessed by sEMG wavelet indices may be a relevant factor involved in the loss of power output after dynamic high-loading fatiguing task.
Paper Detail
1257
downloads
1
13557
A New Automatic System of Cell Colony Counting
Abstract:
The counting process of cell colonies is always a long and laborious process that is dependent on the judgment and ability of the operator. The judgment of the operator in counting can vary in relation to fatigue. Moreover, since this activity is time consuming it can limit the usable number of dishes for each experiment. For these purposes, it is necessary that an automatic system of cell colony counting is used. This article introduces a new automatic system of counting based on the elaboration of the digital images of cellular colonies grown on petri dishes. This system is mainly based on the algorithms of region-growing for the recognition of the regions of interest (ROI) in the image and a Sanger neural net for the characterization of such regions. The better final classification is supplied from a Feed-Forward Neural Net (FF-NN) and confronted with the K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) and a Linear Discriminative Function (LDF). The preliminary results are shown.
Paper Detail
921
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