International Science Index
Behavioral Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Designed for Shear Using Compressive Force Path and ACI Code Models
Compressive Force Path (CFP) concept is a proposed shear design method to explain shear behavior in reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This concept identifies 04 behaviors based on the shear span to beam depth (a/d) ratio and provides detailed shear design and transverse reinforcement detailing procedure for each behavior. Therefore, author of this paper intended to use this concept as a practical tool for the designing of RC beams particularly for Type II (2 ≤ a/d < 5) and Type III (1 < a/d < 2) behaviors to validate the concept. Total 08 beams of 100×200×1800 mm size beams were cast; out of which, 04 beams were designed according to ACI Code approach while, rest were designed and detailed using CFP concept strategy. The beam sizes in this study are identical, and all parameters are constant except shear span ‘a’. The two-point loading test results of RC beams showed that the shear resistance of concrete (Vc) is better estimated by the CFP concept with a good prediction of cracks pattern, load carrying capacity and actual behavior of the beams in shear as compare to the beams designed according to ACI Code approach. However, most of the beams, particularly a/d ratio less than 4.44 were observed to be deficient in serviceability and failed in shear in spite of attaining theoretical predicted loads.
Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-to-Column Connections
This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging, resulting in a large number of iterations. Contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.
Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members
Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.
Critical Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle for its Maintainability Using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis
The Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an efficient evaluation technique to identify potential failures in products, processes, and services. FMEA is designed to identify and prioritize failure modes. It proves to be a useful method for identifying and correcting possible failures at its earliest possible level so that one can avoid consequences of poor performance. In this paper, FMEA tool is used in detection of failures of various components of heat exchanger cycle and to identify critical failures of the components which may hamper the system’s performance. Further, a detailed Pareto analysis is done to find out the most critical components of the cycle, the causes of its failures, and possible recommended actions. This paper can be used as a checklist which will help in maintainability of the system.
Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams
This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures
There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite
structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in
aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response
of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied,
though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad
operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite
element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method
is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion
characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures
can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical
properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are
measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis
(TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of
each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a
system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is
calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties,
as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE
wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE
modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included.
Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled
through a coupling element.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams
Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.
Failure Modes and Bearing Capacity Estimation for Strip Foundations in C-ɸ Soils: A Numerical Study
In this study, typical c-ɸ soils subjected to loadings were assessed with a view to understand the general stress distribution and settlement behaviour of the soils under drained conditions. Numerical estimations of the non-dimensional bearing capacity factors, Nq and Nγ for varied angles of friction in the soil mass were obtained using PLAXIS. Ultimate bearing capacity values over a Ф range of 0-30 degrees were also computed and compared with analytical results obtained from the traditional simplified uncoupled approach of Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Results from the numerical study agree well with theoretical findings.
Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials
This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.
On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns
Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.
Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement
Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.
Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load
The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.
Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography
This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.
Design for Safety: Safety Consideration in Planning and Design of Airport Airsides
During airport planning and design stages, the major issues of capacity and safety in construction and operation of an airport need to be taken into consideration. The airside of an airport is a major and critical infrastructure that usually consists of runway(s), taxiway system, and apron(s) etc., which have to be designed according to the international standards and recommendations, and local limitations to accommodate the forecasted demands. However, in many cases, airport airsides are suffering from unexpected risks that occurred during airport operations. Therefore, safety risk assessment should be applied in the planning and design of airsides to cope with the probability of risks and their consequences, and to make decisions to reduce the risks to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) based on safety risk assessment. This paper presents a combination approach of Failure Modes, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to develop a risk analysis model for safety risk assessment. An illustrated example is used to the demonstrate risk assessment process on how the design of an airside in an airport can be analysed by using the proposed safety design risk assessment model.
Simulating the Interaction between Groundwater and Brittle Failure in Open Pit Slopes
This paper presents the results of a study on the
influence of varying percentages of rock bridges along a basal surface
defining a biplanar failure mode. A pseudo-coupled-hydromechanical
brittle fracture analysis is adopted using the state-of-the-art code
Slope Model. Model results show that rock bridge failure is strongly
influenced by the incorporation of groundwater pressures. The
models show that groundwater pressure can promote total failure of a
5% rock bridge along the basal surface. Once the percentage of the
rock bridges increases to 10 and 15%, although, the rock bridges are
broken, full interconnection of the surface defining the basal surface
of the biplanar mode does not occur. Increased damage is caused
when the rock bridge is located at the daylighting end of the basal
surface in proximity to the blast damage zone. As expected, some
cracking damage is experienced in the blast damage zone, where
properties representing a good quality controlled damage blast
technique were assumed. Model results indicate the potential increase
of permeability towards the blast damage zone.
Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures
This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of
buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the
influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode
under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis
with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are
contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of
its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of
temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core.
Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical
properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of
temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to
the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length
also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their
significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore,
by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be
Young’s Modulus Variability: Influence on Masonry Vault Behavior
This paper presents a methodology for probabilistic
assessment of bearing capacity and prediction of failure mechanism
of masonry vaults at the ultimate state with consideration of the
natural variability of Young’s modulus of stones. First, the
computation model is explained. The failure mode corresponds to the
four-hinge mechanism. Based on this consideration, the study of a
vault composed of 16 segments is presented. The Young’s modulus of
the segments is considered as random variable defined by a mean
value and a coefficient of variation. A relationship linking the vault
bearing capacity to the voussoirs modulus variation is proposed. The
most probable failure mechanisms, in addition to that observed in the
deterministic case, are identified for each variability level as well as
their probability of occurrence. The results show that the mechanism
observed in the deterministic case has decreasing probability of
occurrence in terms of variability, while the number of other
mechanisms and their probability of occurrence increases with the
coefficient of variation of Young’s modulus. This means that if a
significant change in the Young’s modulus of the segments is proven,
taking it into account in computations becomes mandatory, both for
determining the vault bearing capacity and for predicting its failure
FEM and Experimental Modal Analysis of Computer Mount
Over the last few decades, oilfield service rolling
equipment has significantly increased in weight, primarily because of
emissions regulations, which require larger/heavier engines, larger
cooling systems, and emissions after-treatment systems, in some
cases, etc. Larger engines cause more vibration and shock loads,
leading to failure of electronics and control systems.
If the vibrating frequency of the engine matches the system
frequency, high resonance is observed on structural parts and mounts.
One such existing automated control equipment system comprising
wire rope mounts used for mounting computers was designed
approximately 12 years ago. This includes the use of an industrialgrade
computer to control the system operation. The original
computer had a smaller, lighter enclosure. After a few years, a newer
computer version was introduced, which was 10 lbm heavier. Some
failures of internal computer parts have been documented for cases in
which the old mounts were used. Because of the added weight, there
is a possibility of having the two brackets impact each other under
off-road conditions, which causes a high shock input to the computer
parts. This added failure mode requires validating the existing mount
design to suit the new heavy-weight computer.
This paper discusses the modal finite element method (FEM)
analysis and experimental modal analysis conducted to study the
effects of vibration on the wire rope mounts and the computer. The
existing mount was modelled in ANSYS software, and resultant
mode shapes and frequencies were obtained. The experimental modal
analysis was conducted, and actual frequency responses were
observed and recorded.
Results clearly revealed that at resonance frequency, the brackets
were colliding and potentially causing damage to computer parts. To
solve this issue, spring mounts of different stiffness were modeled in
ANSYS software, and the resonant frequency was determined.
Increasing the stiffness of the system increased the resonant
frequency zone away from the frequency window at which the engine
showed heavy vibrations or resonance. After multiple iterations in
ANSYS software, the stiffness of the spring mount was finalized,
which was again experimentally validated.
Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators
In order to better understand the long term
implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided
grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed
and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant
data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions
experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for
expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and
calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data
and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data
for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted
with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.
Resistance and Sub-Resistances of RC Beams Subjected to Multiple Failure Modes
Geometric and mechanical properties all influence the
resistance of RC structures and may, in certain combination of
property values, increase the risk of a brittle failure of the whole
This paper presents a statistical and probabilistic investigation on
the resistance of RC beams designed according to Eurocodes 2 and 8,
and subjected to multiple failure modes, under both the natural
variation of material properties and the uncertainty associated with
cross-section and transverse reinforcement geometry. A full
probabilistic model based on JCSS Probabilistic Model Code is
derived. Different beams are studied through material nonlinear
analysis via Monte Carlo simulations. The resistance model is
consistent with Eurocode 2. Both a multivariate statistical evaluation
and the data clustering analysis of outcomes are then performed.
Results show that the ultimate load behaviour of RC beams
subjected to flexural and shear failure modes seems to be mainly
influenced by the combination of the mechanical properties of both
longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups, and the tensile strength of
concrete, of which the latter appears to affect the overall response of
the system in a nonlinear way. The model uncertainty of the
resistance model used in the analysis plays undoubtedly an important
role in interpreting results.
Dynamic Risk Identification Using Fuzzy Failure Mode Effect Analysis in Fabric Process Industries: A Research Article as Management Perspective
In and around Erode District, it is estimated that more
than 1250 chemical and allied textile processing fabric industries are
affected, partially closed and shut off for various reasons such as poor
management, poor supplier performance, lack of planning for
productivity, fluctuation of output, poor investment, waste analysis,
labor problems, capital/labor ratio, accumulation of stocks, poor
maintenance of resources, deficiencies in the quality of fabric, low
capacity utilization, age of plant and equipment, high investment and
input but low throughput, poor research and development, lack of
energy, workers’ fear of loss of jobs, work force mix and work ethic.
The main objective of this work is to analyze the existing conditions
in textile fabric sector, validate the break even of Total Productivity
(TP), analyze, design and implement fuzzy sets and mathematical
programming for improvement of productivity and quality
dimensions in the fabric processing industry. It needs to be
compatible with the reality of textile and fabric processing industries.
The highly risk events from productivity and quality dimension were
found by fuzzy systems and results are wrapped up among the textile
fabric processing industry.
Seismic Analysis of URM Buildings in S. Africa
South Africa has some regions which are susceptible
to moderate seismic activity. A peak ground acceleration of between
0.1g and 0.15g can be expected in the southern parts of the Western
Cape. Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is commonly used as a
construction material for 2 to 5 storey buildings in underprivileged
areas in and around Cape Town. URM is typically regarded as the
material most vulnerable to damage when subjected to earthquake
excitation. In this study, a three-storey URM building was analysed
by applying seven earthquake time-histories, which can be expected
to occur in South Africa using a finite element approach.
Experimental data was used to calibrate the in- and out-of-plane
stiffness of the URM. The results indicated that tensile cracking of
the in-plane piers was the dominant failure mode. It is concluded that
URM buildings of this type are at risk of failure especially if
sufficient ductility is not provided. The results also showed that
connection failure must be investigated further.
Determining Occurrence in FMEA Using Hazard Function
FMEA has been used for several years and proved its efficiency for system’s risk analysis due to failures. Risk priority number found in FMEA is used to rank failure modes that may occur in a system. There are some guidelines in the literature to assign the values of FMEA components known as Severity, Occurrence and Detection. This paper propose a method to assign the value for occurrence in more realistic manner representing the state of the system under study rather than depending totally on the experience of the analyst. This method uses the hazard function of a system to determine the value of occurrence depending on the behavior of the hazard being constant, increasing or decreasing.
An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes
In this paper, we present a new maintenance model
for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes,
namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system
degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the
degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A
cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining
the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov
decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is
developed, illustrated by a numerical example.
Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes
Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significantly affect the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasize was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are too much enhanced while less drift improvements are observed.
Experimental Studies of Spiral-Confined HSCFST Columns under Uni-Axial Compression
Concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns are becoming increasingly popular owing to the superior behavior contributed by the composite action. However, this composite action cannot be fully developed because of different dilation properties between steel tube and concrete. During initial compression, there will be de-bonding between the constitutive materials. As a result, the strength, initial stiffness and ductility of CFST columns reduce significantly. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of spirals is proposed to improve the interface bonding. In this paper, a total of 14CFST columns with high-strength as well as ultra-high-strength concrete in-filled were fabricated and tested under uni-axial compression. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed spirals can improve the strength, initial stiffness, ductility and the interface bonding condition of CFST columns by restraining the lateral expansion of steel tube and core concrete. Moreover, the failure modes of confined core concrete change due to the strong confinement provided by spirals.
Residual Life Prediction for a System Subject to Condition Monitoring and Two Failure Modes
In this paper, we investigate the residual life prediction
problem for a partially observable system subject to two failure
modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system
degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the
degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model with
unknown parameters. The parameter estimation procedure based on
an EM algorithm is developed and the formulas for the conditional
reliability function and the mean residual life are derived, illustrated
by a numerical example.
Elastic Failure of Web-Cracked Plate Girder
The presence of a vertical fatigue crack in the web of
a plate girder subjected to pure bending influences the bending
moment capacity of the girder. The growth of the crack may lead to
premature elastic failure due to flange local yielding, flange local
buckling, or web local buckling. Approximate expressions for the
bending moment capacities corresponding to these failure modes
were formulated. Finite element analyses were then used to validate
the expressions. The expressions were employed to assess the effects
of crack length on the capacity. Neglecting brittle fracture, tension
buckling, and ductile failure modes, it was found that typical girders
are governed by the capacity associated with flange local yielding as
influenced by the crack. Concluding, a possible use of the capacity
expressions in girder design was demonstrated.
Evaluation Process for the Hardware Safety Integrity Level
Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are becoming
increasingly complex and the proportion of programmable electronic
parts is growing. The IEC 61508 global standard was established to
ensure the functional safety of SISs, but it was expressed in highly
macroscopic terms. This study introduces an evaluation process for
hardware safety integrity levels through failure modes, effects, and
diagnostic analysis (FMEDA).FMEDA is widely used to evaluate
safety levels, and it provides the information on failure rates and
failure mode distributions necessary to calculate a diagnostic coverage
factor for a given component. In our evaluation process, the
components of the SIS subsystem are first defined in terms of failure
modes and effects. Then, the failure rate and failure mechanism
distribution are assigned to each component. The safety mode and
detectability of each failure mode are determined for each component.
Finally, the hardware safety integrity level is evaluated based on the
Experimental Testing of Composite Tubes with Different Corrugation Profile Subjected to Lateral Compression Load
This paper presents the effect of corrugation profile
geometry on the crushing behavior, energy absorption, failure
mechanism, and failure mode of woven roving glass fibre/epoxy
laminated composite tube. Experimental investigations were carried
out on composite tubes with three different profile shapes: sinusoidal,
triangular and trapezoidal. The tubes were subjected to lateral
compressive loading. On the addition to a radial corrugated
composite tube, cylindrical composite tube, were fabricated and
tested under the same condition in order to know the effect of
corrugation geometry. Typical histories of their deformation are
presented. Behavior of tubes as regards the peak crushing load,
energy absorbed and mode of crushing has been discussed. The
results show that the behavior of the tube under lateral compression
load is influenced by the geometry of the tube itself.