International Science Index
Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry
In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.
Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading
The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.
Evaluation for Punching Shear Strength of Slab-Column Connections with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Overlay
This paper presents the test results on 5 slab-column connection specimens with Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) overlay including 1 control specimen to investigate retrofitting effect of UHPFRC overlay on the punching shear capacity. The test parameters were the thickness of the UHPFRC overlay and the amount of steel re-bars in it. All specimens failed in punching shear mode with abrupt failure aspect. The test results showed that by adding a thin layer of UHPFRC over the Reinforced Concrete (RC) substrates, considerable increases in global punching shear resistance up to 82% and structural rigidity were achieved. Furthermore, based on the cracking patterns the composite systems appeared to be governed by two failure modes: 1) diagonal shear failure in RC section and 2) debonding failure at the interface.
Evaluation of Wind Fragility for Set Anchor Used in Sign Structure in Korea
Recently, damage to domestic facilities by strong winds and typhoons are growing. Therefore, this study focused on sign structure among various vulnerable facilities. The evaluation of the wind fragility was carried out considering the destruction of the anchor, which is one of the various failure modes of the sign structure. The performance evaluation of the anchor was carried out to derive the wind fragility. Two parameters were set and four anchor types were selected to perform the pull-out and shear tests. The resistance capacity was estimated based on the experimental results. Wind loads were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation method. Based on these results, we derived the wind fragility according to anchor type and wind exposure category. Finally, the evaluation of the wind fragility was performed according to the experimental parameters such as anchor length and anchor diameter. This study shows that the depth of anchor was more significant for the safety of structure compare to diameter of anchor.
Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine
Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.
Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression
A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.
Quasi-Static Analysis of End Plate Beam-to-Column Connections
This paper presents a method for modelling and analysing end plate beam-to-column connections to obtain the quasi-static behaviour using non-linear dynamic explicit integration. In addition to its importance to study the static behaviour of a structural member, quasi-static behaviour is largely needed to be compared with the dynamic behaviour of such members in order to investigate the dynamic effect by proposing dynamic increase factors (DIFs). The beam-to-column bolted connections contain various contact surfaces at which the implicit procedure may have difficulties converging, resulting in a large number of iterations. Contrary, explicit procedure could deal effectively with complex contacts without converging problems. Hence, finite element modelling using ABAQUS/explicit is used in this study to address the dynamic effect may be produced using explicit procedure. Also, the effect of loading rate and mass scaling are discussed to investigate their effect on the time of analysis. The results show that the explicit procedure is valuable to model the end plate beam-to-column connections in terms of failure mode, load-displacement relationships. Also, it is concluded that loading rate and mass scaling should be carefully selected to avoid the dynamic effect in the solution.
Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members
Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.
Critical Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle for its Maintainability Using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis
The Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an efficient evaluation technique to identify potential failures in products, processes, and services. FMEA is designed to identify and prioritize failure modes. It proves to be a useful method for identifying and correcting possible failures at its earliest possible level so that one can avoid consequences of poor performance. In this paper, FMEA tool is used in detection of failures of various components of heat exchanger cycle and to identify critical failures of the components which may hamper the system’s performance. Further, a detailed Pareto analysis is done to find out the most critical components of the cycle, the causes of its failures, and possible recommended actions. This paper can be used as a checklist which will help in maintainability of the system.
Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams
This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Thermal Effect on Wave Interaction in Composite Structures
There exist a wide range of failure modes in composite
structures due to the increased usage of the structures especially in
aerospace industry. Moreover, temperature dependent wave response
of composite and layered structures have been continuously studied,
though still limited, in the last decade mainly due to the broad
operating temperature range of aerospace structures. A wave finite
element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method
is presented by which the temperature dependent wave dispersion
characteristics and interaction phenomenon in composite structures
can be predicted. Initially, the temperature dependent mechanical
properties of the panel in the range of -100 ◦C to 150 ◦C are
measured experimentally using the Thermal Mechanical Analysis
(TMA). Temperature dependent wave dispersion characteristics of
each waveguide of the structural system, which is discretized as a
system of a number of waveguides coupled by a coupling element, is
calculated using the WFE approach. The wave scattering properties,
as a function of temperature, is determined by coupling the WFE
wave characteristics models of the waveguides with the full FE
modelling of the coupling element on which defect is included.
Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled
through a coupling element.
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Optimally Designed Steel Angelina™ Beams
Web-expanded steel beams provide an easy and economical solution for the systems having longer structural members. The main goal of manufacturing these beams is to increase the moment of inertia and section modulus, which results in greater strength and rigidity. Until recently, there were two common types of open web-expanded beams: with hexagonal openings, also called castellated beams, and beams with circular openings referred to as cellular beams, until the generation of sinusoidal web-expanded beams. In the present research, the optimum design of a new generation beams, namely sinusoidal web-expanded beams, will be carried out and the design results will be compared with castellated and cellular beam solutions. Thanks to a reduced fabrication process and substantial material savings, the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes (Angelina™ Beam) meets the economic requirements of steel design problems while ensuring optimum safety. The objective of this research is to carry out non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) of the web-expanded beam with sinusoidal holes. The FE method has been used to predict their entire response to increasing values of external loading until they lose their load carrying capacity. FE model of each specimen that is utilized in the experimental studies is carried out. These models are used to simulate the experimental work to verify of test results and to investigate the non-linear behavior of failure modes such as web-post buckling, shear buckling and vierendeel bending of beams.
Failure Modes and Bearing Capacity Estimation for Strip Foundations in C-ɸ Soils: A Numerical Study
In this study, typical c-ɸ soils subjected to loadings were assessed with a view to understand the general stress distribution and settlement behaviour of the soils under drained conditions. Numerical estimations of the non-dimensional bearing capacity factors, Nq and Nγ for varied angles of friction in the soil mass were obtained using PLAXIS. Ultimate bearing capacity values over a Ф range of 0-30 degrees were also computed and compared with analytical results obtained from the traditional simplified uncoupled approach of Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Results from the numerical study agree well with theoretical findings.
Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials
This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.
On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns
Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.
Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement
Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.
Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load
The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.
Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography
This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.
Design for Safety: Safety Consideration in Planning and Design of Airport Airsides
During airport planning and design stages, the major issues of capacity and safety in construction and operation of an airport need to be taken into consideration. The airside of an airport is a major and critical infrastructure that usually consists of runway(s), taxiway system, and apron(s) etc., which have to be designed according to the international standards and recommendations, and local limitations to accommodate the forecasted demands. However, in many cases, airport airsides are suffering from unexpected risks that occurred during airport operations. Therefore, safety risk assessment should be applied in the planning and design of airsides to cope with the probability of risks and their consequences, and to make decisions to reduce the risks to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) based on safety risk assessment. This paper presents a combination approach of Failure Modes, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to develop a risk analysis model for safety risk assessment. An illustrated example is used to the demonstrate risk assessment process on how the design of an airside in an airport can be analysed by using the proposed safety design risk assessment model.
Simulating the Interaction between Groundwater and Brittle Failure in Open Pit Slopes
This paper presents the results of a study on the
influence of varying percentages of rock bridges along a basal surface
defining a biplanar failure mode. A pseudo-coupled-hydromechanical
brittle fracture analysis is adopted using the state-of-the-art code
Slope Model. Model results show that rock bridge failure is strongly
influenced by the incorporation of groundwater pressures. The
models show that groundwater pressure can promote total failure of a
5% rock bridge along the basal surface. Once the percentage of the
rock bridges increases to 10 and 15%, although, the rock bridges are
broken, full interconnection of the surface defining the basal surface
of the biplanar mode does not occur. Increased damage is caused
when the rock bridge is located at the daylighting end of the basal
surface in proximity to the blast damage zone. As expected, some
cracking damage is experienced in the blast damage zone, where
properties representing a good quality controlled damage blast
technique were assumed. Model results indicate the potential increase
of permeability towards the blast damage zone.
Buckling Resistance of GFRP Sandwich Infill Panels with Different Cores under Increased Temperatures
This paper presents numerical analysis in terms of
buckling resistance of GFRP sandwich infill panels system under the
influence of increased temperature on the foam core. Failure mode
under in-plane compression is studied by means of numerical analysis
with ABAQUS platform. Parameters considered in this study are
contact length and both the type of foam for core and the variation of
its module elastic under the thermal influence. Increment of
temperature is considered in static cases and only applied to core.
Indeed, it is proven that the effect of temperature alters the mechanical
properties of the entire panel system. Moreover, the rises of
temperature result in a decrease in strength of the panel. This is due to
the polymeric nature of this material. Additionally, the contact length
also displays the effect on performance of infill panel. Their
significance factors are based on type of polymer for core. Therefore,
by comparing difference type of core material, the variation can be
Young’s Modulus Variability: Influence on Masonry Vault Behavior
This paper presents a methodology for probabilistic
assessment of bearing capacity and prediction of failure mechanism
of masonry vaults at the ultimate state with consideration of the
natural variability of Young’s modulus of stones. First, the
computation model is explained. The failure mode corresponds to the
four-hinge mechanism. Based on this consideration, the study of a
vault composed of 16 segments is presented. The Young’s modulus of
the segments is considered as random variable defined by a mean
value and a coefficient of variation. A relationship linking the vault
bearing capacity to the voussoirs modulus variation is proposed. The
most probable failure mechanisms, in addition to that observed in the
deterministic case, are identified for each variability level as well as
their probability of occurrence. The results show that the mechanism
observed in the deterministic case has decreasing probability of
occurrence in terms of variability, while the number of other
mechanisms and their probability of occurrence increases with the
coefficient of variation of Young’s modulus. This means that if a
significant change in the Young’s modulus of the segments is proven,
taking it into account in computations becomes mandatory, both for
determining the vault bearing capacity and for predicting its failure
FEM and Experimental Modal Analysis of Computer Mount
Over the last few decades, oilfield service rolling
equipment has significantly increased in weight, primarily because of
emissions regulations, which require larger/heavier engines, larger
cooling systems, and emissions after-treatment systems, in some
cases, etc. Larger engines cause more vibration and shock loads,
leading to failure of electronics and control systems.
If the vibrating frequency of the engine matches the system
frequency, high resonance is observed on structural parts and mounts.
One such existing automated control equipment system comprising
wire rope mounts used for mounting computers was designed
approximately 12 years ago. This includes the use of an industrialgrade
computer to control the system operation. The original
computer had a smaller, lighter enclosure. After a few years, a newer
computer version was introduced, which was 10 lbm heavier. Some
failures of internal computer parts have been documented for cases in
which the old mounts were used. Because of the added weight, there
is a possibility of having the two brackets impact each other under
off-road conditions, which causes a high shock input to the computer
parts. This added failure mode requires validating the existing mount
design to suit the new heavy-weight computer.
This paper discusses the modal finite element method (FEM)
analysis and experimental modal analysis conducted to study the
effects of vibration on the wire rope mounts and the computer. The
existing mount was modelled in ANSYS software, and resultant
mode shapes and frequencies were obtained. The experimental modal
analysis was conducted, and actual frequency responses were
observed and recorded.
Results clearly revealed that at resonance frequency, the brackets
were colliding and potentially causing damage to computer parts. To
solve this issue, spring mounts of different stiffness were modeled in
ANSYS software, and the resonant frequency was determined.
Increasing the stiffness of the system increased the resonant
frequency zone away from the frequency window at which the engine
showed heavy vibrations or resonance. After multiple iterations in
ANSYS software, the stiffness of the spring mount was finalized,
which was again experimentally validated.
Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators
In order to better understand the long term
implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided
grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed
and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant
data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions
experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for
expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and
calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data
and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data
for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted
with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.
Resistance and Sub-Resistances of RC Beams Subjected to Multiple Failure Modes
Geometric and mechanical properties all influence the
resistance of RC structures and may, in certain combination of
property values, increase the risk of a brittle failure of the whole
This paper presents a statistical and probabilistic investigation on
the resistance of RC beams designed according to Eurocodes 2 and 8,
and subjected to multiple failure modes, under both the natural
variation of material properties and the uncertainty associated with
cross-section and transverse reinforcement geometry. A full
probabilistic model based on JCSS Probabilistic Model Code is
derived. Different beams are studied through material nonlinear
analysis via Monte Carlo simulations. The resistance model is
consistent with Eurocode 2. Both a multivariate statistical evaluation
and the data clustering analysis of outcomes are then performed.
Results show that the ultimate load behaviour of RC beams
subjected to flexural and shear failure modes seems to be mainly
influenced by the combination of the mechanical properties of both
longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups, and the tensile strength of
concrete, of which the latter appears to affect the overall response of
the system in a nonlinear way. The model uncertainty of the
resistance model used in the analysis plays undoubtedly an important
role in interpreting results.
Dynamic Risk Identification Using Fuzzy Failure Mode Effect Analysis in Fabric Process Industries: A Research Article as Management Perspective
In and around Erode District, it is estimated that more
than 1250 chemical and allied textile processing fabric industries are
affected, partially closed and shut off for various reasons such as poor
management, poor supplier performance, lack of planning for
productivity, fluctuation of output, poor investment, waste analysis,
labor problems, capital/labor ratio, accumulation of stocks, poor
maintenance of resources, deficiencies in the quality of fabric, low
capacity utilization, age of plant and equipment, high investment and
input but low throughput, poor research and development, lack of
energy, workers’ fear of loss of jobs, work force mix and work ethic.
The main objective of this work is to analyze the existing conditions
in textile fabric sector, validate the break even of Total Productivity
(TP), analyze, design and implement fuzzy sets and mathematical
programming for improvement of productivity and quality
dimensions in the fabric processing industry. It needs to be
compatible with the reality of textile and fabric processing industries.
The highly risk events from productivity and quality dimension were
found by fuzzy systems and results are wrapped up among the textile
fabric processing industry.
Seismic Analysis of URM Buildings in S. Africa
South Africa has some regions which are susceptible
to moderate seismic activity. A peak ground acceleration of between
0.1g and 0.15g can be expected in the southern parts of the Western
Cape. Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is commonly used as a
construction material for 2 to 5 storey buildings in underprivileged
areas in and around Cape Town. URM is typically regarded as the
material most vulnerable to damage when subjected to earthquake
excitation. In this study, a three-storey URM building was analysed
by applying seven earthquake time-histories, which can be expected
to occur in South Africa using a finite element approach.
Experimental data was used to calibrate the in- and out-of-plane
stiffness of the URM. The results indicated that tensile cracking of
the in-plane piers was the dominant failure mode. It is concluded that
URM buildings of this type are at risk of failure especially if
sufficient ductility is not provided. The results also showed that
connection failure must be investigated further.
Determining Occurrence in FMEA Using Hazard Function
FMEA has been used for several years and proved its efficiency for system’s risk analysis due to failures. Risk priority number found in FMEA is used to rank failure modes that may occur in a system. There are some guidelines in the literature to assign the values of FMEA components known as Severity, Occurrence and Detection. This paper propose a method to assign the value for occurrence in more realistic manner representing the state of the system under study rather than depending totally on the experience of the analyst. This method uses the hazard function of a system to determine the value of occurrence depending on the behavior of the hazard being constant, increasing or decreasing.
An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes
In this paper, we present a new maintenance model
for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes,
namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system
degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the
degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A
cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining
the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov
decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is
developed, illustrated by a numerical example.
Parameters Affecting the Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Outrigger Braced Walls to Earthquakes
Outrigger-braced wall systems are commonly used to provide high rise buildings with the required lateral stiffness for wind and earthquake resistance. The existence of outriggers adds to the stiffness and strength of walls as reported by several studies. The effects of different parameters on the elasto-plastic dynamic behavior of outrigger-braced wall systems to earthquakes are investigated in this study. Parameters investigated include outrigger stiffness, concrete strength, and reinforcement arrangement as the main design parameters in wall design. In addition to being significantly affect the wall behavior, such parameters may lead to the change of failure mode and the delay of crack propagation and consequently failure as the wall is excited by earthquakes. Bi-linear stress-strain relation for concrete with limited tensile strength and truss members with bi-linear stress-strain relation for reinforcement were used in the finite element analysis of the problem. The famous earthquake record, El-Centro, 1940 is used in the study. Emphasize was given to the lateral drift, normal stresses and crack pattern as behavior controlling determinants. Results indicated significant effect of the studied parameters such that stiffer outrigger, higher grade concrete and concentrating the reinforcement at wall edges enhance the behavior of the system. Concrete stresses and cracking behavior are too much enhanced while less drift improvements are observed.