International Science Index
A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing
Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.
Encapsulation of Satureja khuzestanica Essential Oil in Chitosan Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antifungal Activity
During the recent years the six-fold growth of cancer in Iran has led the production of healthy products to become a challenge in the food industry. Due to the young population in the country, the consumption of fast foods is growing. The chemical cancer-causing preservatives are used to produce these products more than the standard; so using an appropriate alternative seems to be important. On the one hand, the plant essential oils show the high antimicrobial potential against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and on the other hand they are highly volatile and decomposed under the processing conditions. The study aims to produce the loaded chitosan nanoparticles with different concentrations of savory essential oil to improve the anti-microbial property and increase the resistance of essential oil to oxygen and heat. The encapsulation efficiency was obtained in the range of 32.07% to 39.93% and the particle size distribution of the samples was observed in the range of 159 to 210 nm. The range of Zeta potential was obtained between -11.9 to -23.1 mV. The essential oil loaded in chitosan showed stronger antifungal activity against Rhizopus stolonifer. The results showed that the antioxidant property is directly related to the concentration of loaded essential oil so that the antioxidant property increases by increasing the concentration of essential oil. In general, it seems that the savory essential oil loaded in chitosan particles can be used as a food processor.
Effects of Centrifugation, Encapsulation Method and Different Coating Materials on the Total Antioxidant Activity of the Microcapsules of Powdered Cherry Laurels
Encapsulation protects sensitive food ingredients against heat, oxygen, moisture and pH until they are released to the system. It can mask the unwanted taste of nutrients that are added to the foods for fortification purposes. Cherry laurels (Prunus laurocerasus) contain phenolic compounds which decrease the proneness to several chronic diseases such as types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this research was to study the effects of centrifugation, different coating materials and homogenization methods on microencapsulation of powders obtained from cherry laurels. In this study, maltodextrin and mixture of maltodextrin:whey protein with a ratio of 1:3 (w/w) were chosen as coating materials. Total solid content of coating materials was kept constant as 10% (w/w). Capsules were obtained from powders of freeze-dried cherry laurels through encapsulation process by silent crusher homogenizer or microfluidization. Freeze-dried cherry laurels were core materials and core to coating ratio was chosen as 1:10 by weight. To homogenize the mixture, high speed homogenizer was used at 4000 rpm for 5 min. Then, silent crusher or microfluidizer was used to complete encapsulation process. The mixtures were treated either by silent crusher for 1 min at 75000 rpm or microfluidizer at 50 MPa for 3 passes. Freeze drying for 48 hours was applied to emulsions to obtain capsules in powder form. After these steps, dry capsules were grounded manually into a fine powder. The microcapsules were analyzed for total antioxidant activity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method. Prior to high speed homogenization, the samples were centrifuged (4000 rpm, 1 min). Centrifugation was found to have positive effect on total antioxidant activity of capsules. Microcapsules treated by microfluidizer were found to have higher total antioxidant activities than those treated by silent crusher. It was found that increasing whey protein concentration in coating material (using maltodextrin:whey protein 1:3 mixture) had positive effect on total antioxidant activity for both silent crusher and microfluidization methods. Therefore, capsules prepared by microfluidization of centrifuged mixtures can be selected as the best conditions for encapsulation of cherry laurel powder by considering their total antioxidant activity. In this study, it was shown that capsules prepared by these methods can be recommended to be incorporated into foods in order to enhance their functionality by increasing antioxidant activity.
Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique
In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.
Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract
Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.
Preparation of Porous Metal Membrane by Thermal Annealing for Thin Film Encapsulation
This paper presents thermal annealing de-wetting
technique for the preparation of porous metal membrane for Thin
Film Encapsulation (TFE) application. Thermal annealing de-wetting
experimental results reveal that pore size formation in porous metal
membrane depend upon i.e. 1. The substrate at which metal is
deposited, 2. Melting point of metal used for porous metal cap layer
membrane formation, 3. Thickness of metal used for cap layer, 4.
Temperature used for formation of porous metal membrane. In order
to demonstrate this technique, Silver (Ag) was used as a metal for
preparation of porous metal membrane on amorphous silicon (a-Si)
and silicon oxide. The annealing of the silver thin film of various
thicknesses was performed at different temperature. Pores in porous
silver film were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM). In order to check the usefulness of porous metal film for TFE
application, the porous silver film prepared on amorphous silicon (a-
Si) and silicon oxide was released using XeF2 and VHF, respectively.
Finally, guide line and structures are suggested to use this porous
membrane for robust TFE application.
Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs
Various nanomaterials can be used as a drug delivery
vehicles in nanomedicine, called nanocarriers. They can either be
organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural-based. Although synthetic
nanocarriers are easier to produce, they can often be toxic for the
organism and thus not suitable for use in treatment. From naturalbased
nanocarriers, the most commonly used are protein cages or
viral capsids. In this work, virus bacteriophage λ was used for
delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin,
oxaliplatin and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were
obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in
medium with 0.2% maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform
and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by
ultracentrifugation at 130 000×g and 4°C for 3 h. The encapsulation
of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different
concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25
μg·mL-1). Free drug molecules were removed by filtration. The
encapsulation was verified using the absorbance for doxorubicin and
atomic absorption spectrometry for platinum cytostatics. The amount
of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the increasing
concentration of applied drug with the determination coefficient
R2=0.989 for doxorubicin; R2=0.967 for cisplatin; R2=0.989 for
carboplatin and R2=0.996 for oxaliplatin. The overall encapsulation
efficiency was calculated as 50% for doxorubicin; 8% for cisplatin;
6% for carboplatin and 10% for oxaliplatin.
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation
Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV
protection but their topical use could be limited due to their
physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such
limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C.
ternatea and Z. mays, has potentiated its use as topical antiinflammatory.
Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the
anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and
human fore head fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema
in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a
topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of
fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC
significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at
8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic
and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and
prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote
collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a
potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural
Graphene/h-BN Heterostructure Interconnects
The material behavior of graphene, a single layer of
carbon lattice, is extremely sensitive to its dielectric environment. We
demonstrate improvement in electronic performance of graphene
nanowire interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching,
chemically inert, 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-
BN). A novel layer-based transfer technique is developed to construct
the h-BN/MLG/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene
wires are characterized and compared with that on SiO2 or h-BN
substrate without passivating h-BN layer. Significant improvements
in maximum current-carrying density, breakdown threshold, and
power density in encapsulated graphene wires are observed. These
critical improvements are achieved without compromising the carrier
transport characteristics in graphene. Furthermore, graphene wires
exhibit electrical behavior less insensitive to ambient conditions, as
compared with the non-passivated ones. Overall, h-BN/graphene/h-
BN heterostructure presents a robust material platform towards the
implementation of high-speed carbon-based interconnects.
Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin
Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of Tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.
Biodegradable Surfactants for Advanced Drug Delivery Strategies
Oxidative stress makes up common incidents in
eukaryotic metabolism. The presence of diverse components
disturbing the equilibrium during oxygen metabolism increases
oxidative damage unspecifically in living cells. Body´s own
ubiquinone (Q10) seems to be a promising drug in defending the
heightened appearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though, its
lipophilic properties require a new strategy in drug formulation to
overcome their low bioavailability. Consequently, the manufacture of
heterogeneous nanodispersions is in focus for medical applications.
The composition of conventional nanodispersions is made up of a
drug-consisting core and a surfactive agent, also named as surfactant.
Long-termed encapsulation of the surfactive components into tissues
might be the consequence of the use during medical therapeutics. The
potential of provoking side-effects is given by their nonbiodegradable
properties. Further improvements during fabrication
process use the incorporation of biodegradable components such as
modified γ-polyglutamic acid which decreases the potential of
TiO2-Zeolite Y Catalyst Prepared Using Impregnation and Ion-Exchange Method for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth Dye in Aqueous Solution
Characteristics and sonocatalytic activity of zeolite
Y catalysts loaded with TiO2 using impregnation and ion exchange
methods for the degradation of amaranth dye were investigated.
The Ion-exchange method was used to encapsulate the TiO2 into
the internal pores of the zeolite while the incorporation of TiO2
mostly on the external surface of zeolite was carried out using the
impregnation method. Different characterization techniques were
used to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the produced
catalysts. The framework of zeolite Y remained virtually
unchanged after the encapsulation of TiO2 while the crystallinity of
zeolite decreased significantly after the incorporation of 15 wt% of
TiO2. The sonocatalytic activity was enhanced by TiO2
incorporation with maximum degradation efficiencies of 50% and
68% for the encapsulated titanium and titanium loaded onto the
zeolite, respectively after 120min of reaction. Catalysts
characteristics and sonocatalytic behaviors were significantly
affected by the preparation method and the location of TiO2
introduced with zeolite structure. Behaviors in the sonocatalytic
process were successfully correlated with the characteristics of the
Design of Salbutamol Sulphate Gastroretentive Nanoparticles via Surface Charge Manipulation
In the present study, development of salbutamol
sulphate nanoparticles that adhere to gastric mucus was investigated.
Salbutamol sulphate has low bioavailability due to short transit time in
gastric. It also has a positive surface charge that provides hurdles to be
encapsulated by the positively strong mucoadhesive polymer of
chitosan. To overcome the difficulties, the surface charge of active
ingredient was modified using several nonionic and anionic
stomach-specific polymers. The nanoparticles were prepared using
ionotropic gelation technique. The evaluation involved determination
of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug
release and in vitro mucoadhesion test. Results exhibited that the use
of anionic alginate polymer was more satisfactory than that of
nonionic polymer. Characteristics of the particles was nano-size, high
encapsulation efficiency, fulfilled the drug release requirements and
adhesive towards stomach for around 11 hours. This result shows that
the salbutamol sulphate nanoparticles can be utilized for improvement
Microencapsulation of Ascorbic Acid by Spray Drying: Influence of Process Conditions
Ascorbic acid (AA), commonly known as vitamin C, is essential for normal functioning of the body and maintenance of metabolic integrity. Among its various roles are as an antioxidant, a cofactor in collagen formation and other reactions, as well as reducing physical stress and maintenance of the immune system. Recent collaborative research between the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) in Scottsdale, Tasmania and RMIT University has sought to overcome the problems arising from the inherent instability of ascorbic acid during processing and storage of foods. The recent work has demonstrated the potential of microencapsulation by spray drying as a means to enhance retention. The purpose of this current study has been focused upon the influence of spray drying conditions on the properties of encapsulated ascorbic acid. The process was carried out according to a central composite design. Independent variables were: inlet temperature (80-120° C) and feed flow rate (7-14 mL/minute). Process yield, ascorbic acid loss, moisture content, water activity and particle size distribution were analysed as responses. The results have demonstrated the potential of microencapsulation by spray drying as a means to enhance retention. Vitamin retention, moisture content, water activity and process yield were influenced positively by inlet air temperature and negatively by feed flow rate.
Production of Novel Bioactive Yogurt Enriched with Olive Fruit Polyphenols
In the course of the present work, plain (nonencapsulated)
and microencapsulated polyphenols were produced
using olive mill wastewater (OMW) as raw material, in order to be
used for enrichment of yogurt and dairy products. The OMW was
first clarified by using membrane technology and subsequently the
contained poly-phenols were isolated by adsorption-desorption
technique using selective macro-porous resins and finally recovered
in dry form after been processed by RO membrane technique
followed by freeze drying. Moreover, the polyphenols were
encapsulated in modified starch by freeze drying in order to mask the
color and bitterness effect and improve their functionality. The two
products were used successfully as additives in yogurt preparations
and the produced products were acceptable by the consumers and
presented with certain advantage to the plain yogurt. For the herein
proposed production scheme a patent application was already
Protein Delivery from Polymeric Nanoparticles
Aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two
loading methods of proteins onto polymeric nanocarriers: adsorption
and encapsulation methods. Preliminary studies of protein loading
were done using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as model protein.
Nanocarriers were prepared starting from polylactic co-glycolic acid
(PLGA) polymer; production methods used are two different variants
of emulsion evaporation method. Nanoparticles obtained were
analyzed in terms of dimensions by Dynamic Light Scattering and
Loading Efficiency of BSA by Bradford Assay. Loaded
nanoparticles were then submitted to in-vitro protein dissolution test
in order to study the effect of the delivery system on the release rate
of the protein.
Study of Encapsulation of Quantum Dots in Polystyrene and Poly (E-Caprolactone)Microreactors Prepared by Microvolcanic Eruption of Freeze Dried Microspheres
Polymeric microreactors have emerged as a new
generation of carriers that hold tremendous promise in the areas of
cancer therapy, controlled delivery of drugs, for removal of
pollutants etc. Present work reports a simple and convenient
methodology for synthesis of polystyrene and poly caprolactone
microreactors. An aqueous suspension of carboxylated (1μm)
polystyrene latex particles was mixed with toluene solution followed
by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Freezed particles were incubated at
-20°C and characterized for formation of voids on the surface of
polymer microspheres by Field Emission Scanning Electron
Microscope. The hollow particles were then overnight incubated at
40ºC with unfunctionalized quantum dots (QDs) in 5:1 ratio. QDs
Encapsulated polystyrene microcapsules were characterized by
Likewise Poly ε-caprolactone microreactors were prepared by
micro-volcanic rupture of freeze dried microspheres synthesized
using emulsification of polymer with aqueous Poly vinyl alcohol and
freezed with liquid nitrogen. Microreactors were examined with Field
Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for size and morphology.
Current study is an attempt to create hollow polymer particles which
can be employed for microencapsulation of nanoparticles and drug
Pharmaceutical Microencapsulation Technology for Development of Controlled Release Drug Delivery systems
This article demonstrated development of
controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac
sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose.
Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions
were processed by microencapsulation based on phase
separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The
prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to
obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation
was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was
conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2
maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined
time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected
samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm.
The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium
microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were
off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release
profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to
be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and
coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with
ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of
drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as
compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The
release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release
pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found
comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR,
microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h.
Further, a good correlation was found between drug release
and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules.
Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good
technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making
the controlled release formulations.
Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Loaded Heparin based Super-paramagnetic Iron oxide Nanoparticles against the Human Ovarian Cancer Cells
This study determines the effect of naked and heparinbased
super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the human
cancer cell lines of A2780. Doxorubicin was used as the anticancer
drug, entrapped in the SPIO-NPs. This study aimed to decorate
nanoparticles with heparin, a molecular ligand for 'active' targeting
of cancerous cells and the application of modified-nanoparticles in
cancer treatment. The nanoparticles containing the anticancer drug
DOX were prepared by a solvent evaporation and emulsification
cross-linking method. The physicochemical properties of the
nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques, and uniform
nanoparticles with an average particle size of 110±15 nm with high
encapsulation efficiencies (EE) were obtained. Additionally, a
sustained release of DOX from the SPIO-NPs was successful.
Cytotoxicity tests showed that the SPIO-DOX-HP had higher cell
toxicity than the individual HP and confocal microscopy analysis
confirmed excellent cellular uptake efficiency. These results indicate
that HP based SPIO-NPs have potential uses as anticancer drug
carriers and also have an enhanced anticancer effect.
Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies
Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.
Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation
This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p<0.05) different from 1 while the values of R2 for IVIVC of T1 and Mepressor® were significantly (p<0.05) different from 1. Internal prediction errors of IVIVC, calculated from observed Area under Curve (AUC) and predicted AUC, were less than 10%. This study successfully presents a valid level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate modified dosage forms.
A Metric Framework for Analysis of Quality of Object Oriented Design
The impact of OO design on software quality
characteristics such as defect density and rework by mean of
experimental validation. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism,
reusability, Data hiding and message-passing are the major attribute
of an Object Oriented system. In order to evaluate the quality of an
Object oriented system the above said attributes can act as indicators.
The metrics are the well known quantifiable approach to express any
attribute. Hence, in this paper we tried to formulate a framework of
metrics representing the attributes of object oriented system.
Empirical Data is collected from three different projects based on
object oriented paradigms to calculate the metrics.
Interconnection of Autonomous PROFIBUS Segments through IEEE 802.16 WMAN
PROFIBUS (PROcess FIeld BUS) which is defined with international standarts (IEC61158, EN50170) is the most popular fieldbus, and provides a communication between industrial applications which are located in different control environment and location in manufacturing, process and building automation. Its communication speed is from 9.6 Kbps to 12 Mbps over distances from 100 to 1200 meters, and so it is to be often necessary to interconnect them in order to break these limits. Unfortunately this interconnection raises several issues and the solutions found so far are not very satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a new solution to interconnect PROFIBUS segments, which uses a wireless MAN based on the IEEE 802.16 standard as a backbone system. Also, the solution which is described a model for internetworking unit integrates the traffic generated by PROFIBUS segments into IEEE 802.16 wireless MAN using encapsulation technique.