International Science Index
Investigating the Dynamics of Knowledge Acquisition in Learning Using Differential Equations
A mathematical model for knowledge acquisition in
teaching and learning is proposed. In this study we adopt the
mathematical model that is normally used for disease modelling
into teaching and learning. We derive mathematical conditions which
facilitate knowledge acquisition. This study compares the effects
of dropping out of the course at early stages with later stages of
learning. The study also investigates effect of individual interaction
and learning from other sources to facilitate learning. The study fits
actual data to a general mathematical model using Matlab ODE45
and lsqnonlin to obtain a unique mathematical model that can be
used to predict knowledge acquisition. The data used in this study
was obtained from the tutorial test results for mathematics 2 students
from the Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa
in the department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. The study
confirms already known results that increasing dropout rates and
forgetting taught concepts reduce the population of knowledgeable
students. Increasing teaching contacts and access to other learning
materials facilitate knowledge acquisition. The effect of increasing
dropout rates is more enhanced in the later stages of learning
than earlier stages. The study opens up a new direction in further
investigations in teaching and learning using differential equations.
Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma
Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.
Model-Driven and Data-Driven Approaches for Crop Yield Prediction: Analysis and Comparison
Crop yield prediction is a paramount issue in
agriculture. The main idea of this paper is to find out efficient
way to predict the yield of corn based meteorological records.
The prediction models used in this paper can be classified into
model-driven approaches and data-driven approaches, according to
the different modeling methodologies. The model-driven approaches are based on crop mechanistic
modeling. They describe crop growth in interaction with their
environment as dynamical systems. But the calibration process of
the dynamic system comes up with much difficulty, because it
turns out to be a multidimensional non-convex optimization problem.
An original contribution of this paper is to propose a statistical
methodology, Multi-Scenarios Parameters Estimation (MSPE), for the
parametrization of potentially complex mechanistic models from a
new type of datasets (climatic data, final yield in many situations).
It is tested with CORNFLO, a crop model for maize growth. On the other hand, the data-driven approach for yield prediction
is free of the complex biophysical process. But it has some strict
requirements about the dataset.
A second contribution of the paper is the comparison of these
model-driven methods with classical data-driven methods. For this
purpose, we consider two classes of regression methods, methods
derived from linear regression (Ridge and Lasso Regression, Principal
Components Regression or Partial Least Squares Regression) and
machine learning methods (Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbor,
Artificial Neural Network and SVM regression).
The dataset consists of 720 records of corn yield at county scale
provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and
the associated climatic data. A 5-folds cross-validation process and
two accuracy metrics: root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP),
mean absolute error of prediction(MAEP) were used to evaluate the
crop prediction capacity.
The results show that among the data-driven approaches, Random
Forest is the most robust and generally achieves the best prediction
error (MAEP 4.27%). It also outperforms our model-driven approach
(MAEP 6.11%). However, the method to calibrate the mechanistic
model from dataset easy to access offers several side-perspectives.
The mechanistic model can potentially help to underline the stresses
suffered by the crop or to identify the biological parameters of interest
for breeding purposes. For this reason, an interesting perspective is
to combine these two types of approaches.
H∞ Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy State-Derivative Feedback Control Design for Nonlinear Dynamic Systems
This paper considers an H∞ TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback controller for a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. A Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is used to approximate a class of nonlinear dynamical systems. Then, based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, we design an H∞ TS fuzzy state-derivative feedback control law which guarantees L2-gain of the mapping from the exogenous input noise to the regulated output to be less or equal to a prescribed value. We derive a sufficient condition such that the system with the fuzzy controller is asymptotically stable and H∞ performance is satisfied. Finally, we provide and simulate a numerical example is provided to illustrate the stability and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
The Effect of Measurement Distribution on System Identification and Detection of Behavior of Nonlinearities of Data
In this paper, we considered and applied parametric
modeling for some experimental data of dynamical system. In this
study, we investigated the different distribution of output
measurement from some dynamical systems. Also, with variance
processing in experimental data we obtained the region of
nonlinearity in experimental data and then identification of output
section is applied in different situation and data distribution. Finally,
the effect of the spanning the measurement such as variance to
identification and limitation of this approach is explained.
Real Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance in Dynamic Environments with Different D-S
In this paper a real-time obstacle avoidance approach
for both autonomous and non-autonomous dynamical systems (DS) is
presented. In this approach the original dynamics of the controller
which allow us to determine safety margin can be modulated.
Different common types of DS increase the robot’s reactiveness in
the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle especially
when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments.
The method is validated by simulation and influence of different
autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as important
characteristics of limit cycles and unstable DS. Furthermore, the
position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained.
Finally, the verification of avoidance trajectories is described through
different parameters such as safety factor.
An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN
The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.
Complex Dynamics of Bertrand Duopoly Games with Bounded Rationality
A dynamic of Bertrand duopoly game is analyzed, where players use different production methods and choose their prices with bounded rationality. The equilibriums of the corresponding discrete dynamical systems are investigated. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability conditions of Nash equilibrium under a local adjustment process are studied. The stability of Nash equilibrium, as some parameters of the model are varied, gives rise to complex dynamics such as cycles of higher order and chaos. On this basis, we discover that an increase of adjustment speed of bounded rational player can make Bertrand market sink into the chaotic state. Finally, the complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by numerical simulation.
An Analytical Solution for Vibration of Elevator Cables with Small Bending Stiffness
Responses of the dynamical systems are highly affected by the natural frequencies and it has a huge impact on design and operation of high-rise and high-speed elevators. In the present paper, the variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to investigate better understanding the dynamics of elevator cable as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) swing system. Comparisons made among the results of the proposed closed-form analytical solution, the traditional numerical iterative time integration solution, and the linearized governing equations confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. Furthermore, based on the results of the proposed closed-form solution, the linearization errors in calculating the natural frequencies in different cases are discussed.
New Class of Chaotic Mappings in Symbol Space
Symbolic dynamics studies dynamical systems on the basis of the symbol sequences obtained for a suitable partition of the state space. This approach exploits the property that system dynamics reduce to a shift operation in symbol space. This shift operator is a chaotic mapping. In this article we show that in the symbol space exist other chaotic mappings.
Coupled Dynamics in Host-Guest Complex Systems Duplicates Emergent Behavior in the Brain
The ability of the brain to organize information and generate the functional structures we use to act, think and communicate, is a common and easily observable natural phenomenon. In object-oriented analysis, these structures are represented by objects. Objects have been extensively studied and documented, but the process that creates them is not understood. In this work, a new class of discrete, deterministic, dissipative, host-guest dynamical systems is introduced. The new systems have extraordinary self-organizing properties. They can host information representing other physical systems and generate the same functional structures as the brain does. A simple mathematical model is proposed. The new systems are easy to simulate by computer, and measurements needed to confirm the assumptions are abundant and readily available. Experimental results presented here confirm the findings. Applications are many, but among the most immediate are object-oriented engineering, image and voice recognition, search engines, and Neuroscience.
ISTER (Immune System - Tumor Efficiency Rate): An Important Key for Planning in Radiotherapic Facilities
The use of the oncologic index ISTER allows for a more effective planning of the radiotherapic facilities in the hospitals. Any change in the radiotherapy treatment, due to unexpected stops, may be adapted by recalculating the doses to the new treatment duration while keeping the optimal prognosis. The results obtained in a simulation model on millions of patients allow the definition of optimal success probability algorithms.
Investigation of a Transition from Steady Convection to Chaos in Porous Media Using Piecewise Variational Iteration Method
In this paper, a new dependable algorithm based on an adaptation of the standard variational iteration method (VIM) is used for analyzing the transition from steady convection to chaos for lowto-intermediate Rayleigh numbers convection in porous media. The solution trajectories show the transition from steady convection to chaos that occurs at a slightly subcritical value of Rayleigh number, the critical value being associated with the loss of linear stability of the steady convection solution. The VIM is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of intervals for finding accurate approximate solutions to the considered model and other dynamical systems. We shall call this technique as the piecewise VIM. Numerical comparisons between the piecewise VIM and the classical fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions reveal that the proposed technique is a promising tool for the nonlinear chaotic and nonchaotic systems.
The First Integral Approach in Stability Problem of Large Scale Nonlinear Dynamical Systems
In analyzing large scale nonlinear dynamical systems,
it is often desirable to treat the overall system as a collection of
interconnected subsystems. Solutions properties of the large scale
system are then deduced from the solution properties of the
individual subsystems and the nature of the interconnections. In this
paper a new approach is proposed for the stability analysis of large
scale systems, which is based upon the concept of vector Lyapunov
functions and the decomposition methods. The present results make
use of graph theoretic decomposition techniques in which the overall
system is partitioned into a hierarchy of strongly connected
components. We show then, that under very reasonable assumptions,
the overall system is stable once the strongly connected subsystems
are stables. Finally an example is given to illustrate the constructive
Regularization of the Trajectories of Dynamical Systems by Adjusting Parameters
A gradient learning method to regulate the trajectories
of some nonlinear chaotic systems is proposed. The method is
motivated by the gradient descent learning algorithms for neural
networks. It is based on two systems: dynamic optimization system
and system for finding sensitivities. Numerical results of several
examples are presented, which convincingly illustrate the efficiency
of the method.
On Diffusion Approximation of Discrete Markov Dynamical Systems
The paper is devoted to stochastic analysis of finite
dimensional difference equation with dependent on ergodic Markov
chain increments, which are proportional to small parameter ". A
point-form solution of this difference equation may be represented
as vertexes of a time-dependent continuous broken line given on the
segment [0,1] with "-dependent scaling of intervals between vertexes.
Tending " to zero one may apply stochastic averaging and diffusion
approximation procedures and construct continuous approximation of
the initial stochastic iterations as an ordinary or stochastic Ito differential
equation. The paper proves that for sufficiently small " these
equations may be successfully applied not only to approximate finite
number of iterations but also for asymptotic analysis of iterations,
when number of iterations tends to infinity.
Evolutionary Training of Hybrid Systems of Recurrent Neural Networks and Hidden Markov Models
We present a hybrid architecture of recurrent neural
networks (RNNs) inspired by hidden Markov models (HMMs). We
train the hybrid architecture using genetic algorithms to learn and
represent dynamical systems. We train the hybrid architecture on a
set of deterministic finite-state automata strings and observe the
generalization performance of the hybrid architecture when presented
with a new set of strings which were not present in the training data
set. In this way, we show that the hybrid system of HMM and RNN
can learn and represent deterministic finite-state automata. We ran
experiments with different sets of population sizes in the genetic
algorithm; we also ran experiments to find out which weight
initializations were best for training the hybrid architecture. The
results show that the hybrid architecture of recurrent neural networks
inspired by hidden Markov models can train and represent dynamical
systems. The best training and generalization performance is
achieved when the hybrid architecture is initialized with random real
weight values of range -15 to 15.
Modeling Hybrid Systems with MLD Approach and Analysis of the Model Size and Complexity
Recently, a great amount of interest has been shown
in the field of modeling and controlling hybrid systems. One of the
efficient and common methods in this area utilizes the mixed logicaldynamical
(MLD) systems in the modeling. In this method, the
system constraints are transformed into mixed-integer inequalities by
defining some logic statements. In this paper, a system containing
three tanks is modeled as a nonlinear switched system by using the
MLD framework. Comparing the model size of the three-tank system
with that of a two-tank system, it is deduced that the number of
binary variables, the size of the system and its complexity
tremendously increases with the number of tanks, which makes the
control of the system more difficult. Therefore, methods should be
found which result in fewer mixed-integer inequalities.
Anti-Synchronization of two Different Chaotic Systems via Active Control
This paper presents anti-synchronization of chaos
between two different chaotic systems using active control method.
The proposed technique is applied to achieve chaos antisynchronization
for the Lü and Rössler dynamical systems.
Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.
Control of Chaotic Dynamical Systems using RBF Networks
This paper presents a novel control method based on radial basis function networks (RBFNs) for chaotic dynamical systems. The proposed method first identifies the nonlinear part of the chaotic system off-line and then constructs a model-following controller using only the estimated system parameters. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Mathematical Approach towards Fault Detection and Isolation of Linear Dynamical Systems
The main objective of this work is to provide a fault detection and isolation based on Markov parameters for residual generation and a neural network for fault classification. The diagnostic approach is accomplished in two steps: In step 1, the system is identified using a series of input / output variables through an identification algorithm. In step 2, the fault is diagnosed comparing the Markov parameters of faulty and non faulty systems. The Artificial Neural Network is trained using predetermined faulty conditions serves to classify the unknown fault. In step 1, the identification is done by first formulating a Hankel matrix out of Input/ output variables and then decomposing the matrix via singular value decomposition technique. For identifying the system online sliding window approach is adopted wherein an open slit slides over a subset of 'n' input/output variables. The faults are introduced at arbitrary instances and the identification is carried out in online. Fault residues are extracted making a comparison of the first five Markov parameters of faulty and non faulty systems. The proposed diagnostic approach is illustrated on benchmark problems with encouraging results.