International Science Index
Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal
In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.
Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI
Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.
Sorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite: Kinetic and Factorial Design Study
An organoclay (HDTMA-B) was prepared from sodium bentonite (Na-B). The starting material was modified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion (HDTMA+) in the amounts corresponding to 100 % of the CEC value. Batch experiments were carried out in order to model and optimize the sorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models have been developed to predict the rate constant and the sorption capacity at equilibrium with the effect of temperature, the solid/solution ratio and the initial dye concentration. The equilibrium time was reached within 60 min. At room temperature (20 °C), optimum dye sorption of 49.4 mg/g (98.9%) was achieved at pH 6.6, sorbent dosage of 1g/L and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, using surfactant modified bentonite. The optimization of adsorption parameters mentioned above on dye removal was carried out using Box-Behnken design. The sorption parameters were analyzed statistically by means of variance analysis by using the Statgraphics Centurion XVI software.
Antimicrobial and Aroma Finishing of Organic Cotton Knits Using Vetiver Oil Microcapsules for Health Care Textiles
Eco-friendly textiles are gaining importance among the consumers and textile manufacturers in the healthcare sector due to increased environmental pollution which leads to several health and environmental hazards. Hence, the research was designed to cultivate and develop the organic cotton knit, to prepare and characterize the Vetiver oil microcapsules for textile finishing and to access the wash durability of finished knits. The cotton SAHANA variety grown under organic production systems was processed and spun into 30 single yarn dyed with four natural colorants (Arecanut slurry, Eucalyptus leaves, Pomegranate rind and Indigo) and eco dyed yarn was further used for development of single jersy knitted fabric. Vetiveria zizanioides is an aromatic grass which is being traditionally used in medicine and perfumery. Vetiver essential oil was used for preparation of microcapsules by interfacial polymerization technique subjected to Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for characterization of microcapsules. The knitted fabric was finished with vetiver oil microcapsules by exhaust and pad dry cure methods. The finished organic knit was assessed for laundering on antimicrobial efficiency and aroma intensity. GCMS spectral analysis showed that, diethyl phthalate (28%) was the major compound found in vetiver oil followed by isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.72%), beta-vetivenene (6.92%), solavetivone (5.58%), aromadenderene, azulene and khusimol. Bioassay explained that, the vetiver oil and diluted vetiver oil possessed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli than the coconut oil. FTRI spectra of vetiver oil and microcapsules possessed similar peaks viz., C-H, C=C & C꞊O stretching and additionally oil microcapsules possessed the peak of 3331.24 cm-1 at 91.14 transmittance was attributed to N-H stretches. TGA of oil microcapsules revealed that, there was a minimum weight loss (5.835%) recorded at 467.09°C compared to vetiver oil i.e., -3.026% at the temperature of 396.24°C. The shape of the microcapsules was regular and round, some were spherical in shape and few were rounded by small aggregates. Irrespective of methods of application, organic cotton knits finished with microcapsules by pad dry cure method showed maximum zone of inhibition compared to knits finished by exhaust method against S. aureus and E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of the finished samples was subjected to multiple washing which indicated that knits finished with pad dry cure method showed a zone of inhibition even after 20th wash and better aroma retention compared to knits finished with the exhaust method of application. Further, the group of respondents rated that the 5th washed samples had the greater aroma intensity in both the methods than the other samples. Thus, the vetiver microencapsulated organic cotton knits are free from hazardous chemicals and have multi-functional properties that can be suitable for medical and healthcare textiles.
Vermicomposting of Textile Industries’ Dyeing Sludge by Using Eisenia foetida
Surat City in India is famous for textile and dyeing industries which generate textile sludge in huge quantity. Textile sludge contains harmful chemicals which are poisonous and carcinogenic. The safe disposal and reuse of textile dyeing sludge are challenging for owner of textile industries and government of the state. The aim of present study was the vermicomposting of textile industries dyeing sludge with cow dung and Eisenia foetida as earthworm spices. The vermicompost reactor of 0.3 m3 capacity was used for vermicomposting. Textile dyeing sludge was mixed with cow dung in different proportion, i.e., 0:100 (C1), 10:90 (C2), 20:80 (C3), 30:70 (C4). Vermicomposting duration was 120 days. All the combinations of the feed mixture, the pH was increased to a range 7.45-7.78, percentage of total organic carbon was decreased to a range of 31-33.3%, total nitrogen was decreased to a range of 1.15-1.32%, total phosphorus was increased in the range of 6.2-7.9 (g/kg).
Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes
Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.
High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry
Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.
Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.
Solar Photocatalysis of Methyl Orange Using Multi-Ion Doped TiO2 Catalysts
Solar-light activated titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide with thiourea, followed by calcinations at 450 °C. The experiments demonstrated that methyl orange in aqueous solutions were successfully degraded under solar light using doped TiO2. The photocatalytic oxidation of a mono azo methyl-orange dye has been investigated in multi ion doped TiO2 and solar light. Solutions were irradiated by solar-light until high removal was achieved. It was found that there was no degradation of methyl orange in the dark and in the absence of TiO2. Varieties of laboratory prepared TiO2 catalysts both un-doped and doped using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and thiourea as a dopant were tested in order to compare their photoreactivity. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the working conditions. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was obtained at optimum dosage using commercially produced TiO2. Our work focused on laboratory synthesized catalyst and the maximum methyl orange removal was achieved at 81% with catalyst loading of 0.04 g/L, initial pH of 3 and methyl orange concentration of 0.005 g/L using multi-ion doped catalyst. The kinetics of photocatalytic methyl orange dye stuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The presence of the multi-ion dopant (thiourea) enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst.
Evaluation of Microleakage of a New Generation Nano-Ionomer in Class II Restoration of Primary Molars
Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to assess the microleakage properties of nano-filled glass ionomer in comparison to resin-reinforced glass ionomers. Material and Methods: 40 deciduous molar teeth were included in this study. Class-II cavity was prepared in a standard form for all the specimens. The teeth were randomly distributed into two groups (20 per group) according to the restorative material used either nano-glass ionomer or Photac Fill glass ionomer restoration. All specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C. After that, the teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye then sectioned and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Microleakage was assessed using linear dye penetration and on a scale from zero to five. Results: Two way ANOVA test revealed a statistically significant lower degree of microleakage in both occlusal and gingival restorations (0.4±0.2), (0.9±0.1) for nano-filled glass ionomer group in comparison to resin modified glass ionomer (2.3±0.7), (2.4±0.5). No statistical difference was found between gingival and occlusal leakage regarding the effect of the measured site. Conclusion: Nano-filled glass ionomer shows superior sealing ability which enables this type of restoration to be used in minimum invasive treatment.
Removal of Textile Dye from Industrial Wastewater by Natural and Modified Diatomite
The textile industry produces high amount of colored effluent each year. The management or treatment of these discharges depends on the applied techniques. Adsorption is one of wastewater treatment techniques destined to treat this kind of pollution, and the performance and efficiency predominantly depend on the nature of the adsorbent used. Therefore, scientific research is directed towards the development of new materials using different physical and chemical treatments to improve their adsorption capacities. In the same perspective, we looked at the effect of the heat treatment on the effectiveness of diatomite, which is found in abundance in Algeria. The textile dye Orange Bezaktiv (SRL-150) which is used as organic pollutants in this study is provided by the textile company SOITEXHAM in Oran city (west Algeria). The effect of different physicochemical parameters on the adsorption of SRL-150 on natural and modified diatomite is studied, and the results of the kinetics and adsorption isotherms were modeled.
Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction
Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.
Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter
Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Photovoltaic Properties of an Organic Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
In the present study, metal free organic dyes were prepared and used as photo-sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Double rhodanine was utilized as the fundamental electron acceptor group to which electron donor aldehyde with varying substituents was attached to produce new organic dye. This dye was first purified and then characterized by analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric evaluations of the prepared dye in solution and on a nano anatase TiO2 substrate were carried out in order to assess possible changes in the status of the dyes in different environments. The results show that the dye form j-type aggregates on the nano TiO2. Additionally, oxidation potential measurements were also carried out. Finally, dye sensitized solar cell based on synthesized dye was fabricated in order to determine the photovoltaic behavior and conversion efficiency of individual dye.
Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats
Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.
Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis
Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.
Extremism among College and High School Students in Moscow: Diagnostics Features
In this day and age, extremism in various forms of its manifestation is a real threat to the world community, the national security of a state and its territorial integrity, as well as to the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens. Extremism, as it is known, in general terms described as a commitment to extreme views and actions, radically denying the existing social norms and rules. Supporters of extremism in the ideological and political struggles often adopt methods and means of psychological warfare, appeal not to reason and logical arguments, but to emotions and instincts of the people, to prejudices, biases, and a variety of mythological designs. They are dissatisfied with the established order and aim at increasing this dissatisfaction among the masses. Youth extremism holds a specific place among the existing forms and types of extremism. In this context in 2015, we conducted a survey among Moscow college and high school students. The aim of this study was to determine how great or small is the difference in understanding and attitudes towards extremism manifestations, inclination and readiness to take part in extremist activities and what causes this predisposition, if it exists. We performed multivariate analysis and found the Russian college and high school students' opinion about the extremism and terrorism situation in our country and also their cognition on these topics. Among other things, we showed, that the level of aggressiveness of young people were not above the average for the whole population. The survey was conducted using the questionnaire method. The sample included college and high school students in Moscow (642 and 382, respectively) by method of random selection. The questionnaire was developed by specialists of RUDN University Sociological Laboratory and included both original questions (projective questions, the technique of incomplete sentences), and the standard test Dayhoff S. to determine the level of internal aggressiveness. It is also used as an experiment, the technique of study option using of FACS and SPAFF to determine the psychotypes and determination of non-verbal manifestations of emotions. The study confirmed the hypothesis that in respondents’ opinion, the level of aggression is higher today than a few years ago. Differences were found in the understanding of and respect for such social phenomena as extremism, terrorism, and their danger and appeal for the two age groups of young people. Theory of psychotypes, SPAFF (specific affect cording system) and FACS (facial action cording system) are considered as additional techniques for the diagnosis of a tendency to extreme views. Thus, it is established that diagnostics of acceptance of extreme views among young people is possible thanks to simultaneous use of knowledge from the different fields of socio-humanistic sciences. The results of the research can be used in a comparative context with other countries and as a starting point for further research in the field, taking into account its extreme relevance.
Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products
This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.
Statistical Optimization of Adsorption of a Harmful Dye from Aqueous Solution
Textile industries cater to varied customer preferences and contribute substantially to the economy. However, these textile industries also produce a considerable amount of effluents. Prominent among these are the azo dyes which impart considerable color and toxicity even at low concentrations. Azo dyes are also used as coloring agents in food and pharmaceutical industry. Despite their applications, azo dyes are also notorious pollutants and carcinogens. Popular techniques like photo-degradation, biodegradation and the use of oxidizing agents are not applicable for all kinds of dyes, as most of them are stable to these techniques. Chemical coagulation produces a large amount of toxic sludge which is undesirable and is also ineffective towards a number of dyes. Most of the azo dyes are stable to UV-visible light irradiation and may even resist aerobic degradation. Adsorption has been the most preferred technique owing to its less cost, high capacity and process efficiency and the possibility of regenerating and recycling the adsorbent. Adsorption is also most preferred because it may produce high quality of the treated effluent and it is able to remove different kinds of dyes. However, the adsorption process is influenced by many variables whose inter-dependence makes it difficult to identify optimum conditions. The variables include stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. Further, the internal diffusional resistance inside the adsorbent particle leads to slow uptake of the solute within the adsorbent. Hence, it is necessary to identify optimum conditions that lead to high capacity and uptake rate of these pollutants. In this work, commercially available activated carbon was chosen as the adsorbent owing to its high surface area. A typical azo dye found in textile effluent waters, viz. the monoazo Acid Orange 10 dye (CAS: 1936-15-8) has been chosen as the representative pollutant. Adsorption studies were mainly focused at obtaining equilibrium and kinetic data for the batch adsorption process at different process conditions. Studies were conducted at different stirring speed, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration settings. The Full Factorial Design was the chosen statistical design framework for carrying out the experiments and identifying the important factors and their interactions. The optimum conditions identified from the experimental model were validated with actual experiments at the recommended settings. The equilibrium and kinetic data obtained were fitted to different models and the model parameters were estimated. This gives more details about the nature of adsorption taking place. Critical data required to design batch adsorption systems for removal of Acid Orange 10 dye and identification of factors that critically influence the separation efficiency are the key outcomes from this research.
Extracts of Cola acuminata, Lupinus arboreus and Bougainvillea spectabilis as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Organic dyes from Cola acuminata (C. acuminata), Lupinus arboreus (L. arboreus) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) leaves and their mixtures were used as sensitizers to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Photoelectric measurements of C. acuminata showed a short circuit current (Jsc) of 0.027 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.018 mA/ cm2 with a mixture of mercury chloride and iodine (Hgcl2 + I); potassium bromide and iodine (KBr + I); and potassium chloride and iodine (KCl + I) respectively. The open circuit voltage (Voc) was 24 mV, 25 mV and 20 mV for the three dyes respectively. L. arboreus had Jsc of 0.034 mA/ cm2, 0.021 mA/ cm2 and 0.013 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc of 28 mV, 14.2 mV and 15 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. B. spectabilis recorded Jsc 0.023 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.015 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc values of 6.2 mV, 14.3 mV and 4.0 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. It was observed that the fill factor (FF) was 0.140 for C. acuminata, 0.3198 for L. arboreus and 0.1138 for B. spectabilis. Internal conversions of 0.096%, 0.056% and 0.063% were recorded for three dyes when combined with (KBr + I) electrolyte. The internal efficiency of C. acuminata DSSC was highest in value.
Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations
Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and
pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly,
which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes
are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system.
Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health
hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye
removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study,
fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and
submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in
textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes
were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial
dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid
(ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3
(1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS
plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates.
Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the
productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate
EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed
higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular
characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing
of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with
other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes
hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by
upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the
requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile
Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction
Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino
acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging
from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum
of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were
selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were
characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM
and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the
reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous,
anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was
determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm,
spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic >
Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6%
of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic
micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by
polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction
completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with
polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the
rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous,
anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of
reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media
was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a
polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.
Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination
This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized
intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist
wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of
electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra
indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional
group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple
benzene-rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are
likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy
gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles,
redox mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo
dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, RBk5) were clearly disclosed.
With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and
198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented.
This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell
(MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch
mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more
favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting
reactor scheme for operation.
Removal of Rhodamine B from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Clay by Fixed Bed Column Method
The discharge of dye in industrial effluents is of great concern because their presence and accumulation have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on living species. The removal of such compounds at such low levels is a difficult problem. The adsorption process is an effective and attractive proposition for the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater. Activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds is a very common technology in the treatment of water and especially in processes of decolouration. However, it is expensive and the powdered one is difficult to be separated from aquatic system when it becomes exhausted or the effluent reaches the maximum allowable discharge level. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon by chemical and thermal procedure is also expensive and results in loss of the sorbent. The focus of this research was to evaluate the adsorption potential of the raw clay in removing rhodamine B from aqueous solutions using a laboratory fixed-bed column. The continuous sorption process was conducted in this study in order to simulate industrial conditions. The effect of process parameters, such as inlet flow rate, adsorbent bed height, and initial adsorbate concentration on the shape of breakthrough curves was investigated. A glass column with an internal diameter of 1.5 cm and height of 30 cm was used as a fixed-bed column. The pH of feed solution was set at 8.5. Experiments were carried out at different bed heights (5 - 20 cm), influent flow rates (1.6- 8 mL/min) and influent rhodamine B concentrations (20 - 80 mg/L). The obtained results showed that the adsorption capacity increases with the bed depth and the initial concentration and it decreases at higher flow rate. The column regeneration was possible for four adsorption–desorption cycles. The clay column study states the value of the excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution. Uptake of rhodamine B through a fixed-bed column was dependent on the bed depth, influent rhodamine B concentration, and flow rate.
Potential of Henna Leaves as Dye and Its Fastness Properties on Fabric
Despite the wide spread use of synthetic dyes, natural
dyes are still exploited and used to enhance its inherent aesthetic
qualities as a major material for beautification of the body. Centuries
before the discovery of synthetic dyes, natural dyes were the only
source of dye open to mankind. Dyes are extracted from plant -
leaves, roots and barks, insect secretions, and minerals. However,
research findings have made it clear that of all, plants- leaves, roots,
barks or flowers are the most explored and exploited in which henna
(Lawsonia innermis L.) is one of those plants. Experiment has also
shown that henna is used in body painting in conjunction with an
alkaline (Ammonium Sulphate) as a fixing agent. This of course
gives a clue that if colour derived from henna is properly
investigated, it may not only be used for body decoration but
possibly, may have affinity to fiber substrate. This paper investigates
the dyeing potentials – dye ability and fastness qualities of henna dye
extracts on cotton and linen fibers using mordants like ammonium
sulphate and other alkalis (hydrosulphate and caustic soda, potash,
common salt, potassium alum). Hot and cold water and ethanol
solvent were used in the extraction of the dye to investigate the most
effective method, dye ability, and fastness qualities of these extracts
under room temperature. The results of the experiment show that
cotton have a high rate of dye intake than other fiber. On a similar
note, the colours obtained depend most on the solvent used. In
conclusion, hot water extraction appears more effective. While the
colours obtained from ethanol and both cold hot methods of
extraction range from light to dark yellow, light green to army green
and to some extent shades of brown hues.
Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels
Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic,
polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and
are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical
cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions,
they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances,
depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the
hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several
studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic
hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared
and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa),
either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or
copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide
(DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic
dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and
retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was
negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption
capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the
other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of
functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance.
Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,Ndimethylacrylamide),
PDMAM, was also used for reasons of
Up Scaling of Highly Transparent Quasi-Solid State, Dye-Sensitized Solar Devices Composed of Nanocomposite Materials
At the present work, highly transparent strip type
quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated
through inkjet printing using nanocomposite TiO2 inks as raw
materials and tested under outdoor illumination conditions. The cells,
which can be considered as the structural units of large area modules,
were fully characterized electrically and electrochemically and after
the evaluation of the received results a large area DSSC module was
manufactured. The module design was a sandwich Z-interconnection
where the working electrode is deposited on one conductive glass and
the counter electrode on a second glass. Silver current collective
fingers were printed on the conductive glasses to make the internal
electrical connections and the adjacent cells were connected in series
and finally insulated using a UV curing resin to protect them from the
corrosive (I-/I3-) redox couple of the electrolyte. Finally, outdoor tests
were carried out to the fabricated dye-sensitized solar module and its
performance data were collected and assessed.
Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell
Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used
industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low
cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment
of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study
was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7
(AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell
(TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye
concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The
studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on
flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth.
The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were
analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The
adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient
associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and
mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with
Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different
conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model
(R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The
(TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7
using fixed-bed adsorption column.
Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105
In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.
Investigation into the Optimum Hydraulic Loading Rate for Selected Filter Media Packed in a Continuous Upflow Filter
Continuous upflow filters can combine the nutrient
(nitrogen and phosphate) and suspended solid removal in one unit
process. The contaminant removal could be achieved chemically or
biologically; in both processes the filter removal efficiency depends
on the interaction between the packed filter media and the influent. In
this paper a residence time distribution (RTD) study was carried out
to understand and compare the transfer behaviour of contaminants
through a selected filter media packed in a laboratory-scale
continuous up flow filter; the selected filter media are limestone and
white dolomite. The experimental work was conducted by injecting a
tracer (red drain dye tracer –RDD) into the filtration system and then
measuring the tracer concentration at the outflow as a function of
time; the tracer injection was applied at hydraulic loading rates
(HLRs) (3.8 to 15.2 m h-1). The results were analysed according to
the cumulative distribution function F(t) to estimate the residence
time of the tracer molecules inside the filter media. The mean
residence time (MRT) and variance σ2 are two moments of RTD that
were calculated to compare the RTD characteristics of limestone with
white dolomite. The results showed that the exit-age distribution of
the tracer looks better at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1) and (3.8 m h-1) for
limestone and white dolomite respectively. At these HLRs the
cumulative distribution function F(t) revealed that the residence time
of the tracer inside the limestone was longer than in the white
dolomite; whereas all the tracer took 8 minutes to leave the white
dolomite at 3.8 m h-1. On the other hand, the same amount of the
tracer took 10 minutes to leave the limestone at the same HLR. In
conclusion, the determination of the optimal level of hydraulic
loading rate, which achieved the better influent distribution over the
filtration system, helps to identify the applicability of the material as
filter media. Further work will be applied to examine the efficiency
of the limestone and white dolomite for phosphate removal by
pumping a phosphate solution into the filter at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1).