International Science Index
An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Fuel-Type Configurations in Car Lines
Although environmental concern is on the rise across Europe, current market data indicate that adoption rates of environmentally friendly vehicles remain extremely low. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to a) assess preferences of European consumers for clean-fuel cars and their characteristics and b) design car lines that optimize the combination of fuel types among models in the line-up. In this direction, the authors introduce a new evolutionary mechanism and implement it to stated-preference data derived from a large-scale choice-based conjoint experiment that measures consumer preferences for various factors affecting clean-fuel vehicle (CFV) adoption. The proposed two-step methodology provides interesting insights into how new and existing fuel-types can be combined in a car line that maximizes customer satisfaction.
Type–2 Fuzzy Programming for Optimizing the Heat Rate of an Industrial Gas Turbine via Absorption Chiller Technology
Terms set in power purchase agreements (PPA) challenge power utility companies in balancing between the returns (from maximizing power production) and securing long term supply contracts at capped production. The production limitation set in the PPA has driven efforts to maximize profits through efficient and economic power production. In this paper, a combined industrial-scale gas turbine (GT) - absorption chiller (AC) system is considered to cool the GT air intake for reducing the plant’s heat rate (HR). This GT-AC system is optimized while considering power output limitations imposed by the PPA. In addition, the proposed formulation accounts for uncertainties in the ambient temperature using Type-2 fuzzy programming. Using the enhanced chaotic differential evolution (CEDE), the Pareto frontier was constructed and the optimization results are analyzed in detail.
Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems
For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.
DEA-Based Variable Structure Position Control of DC Servo Motor
This paper presents Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) based Variable Structure Position Control (VSPC) of Laboratory DC servomotor (LDCSM). DEA is employed for the optimal tuning of Variable Structure Control (VSC) parameters for position control of a DC servomotor. The VSC combines the techniques of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) that gives the advantages of small overshoot, improved step response characteristics, faster dynamic response and adaptability to plant parameter variations, suppressed influences of disturbances and uncertainties in system behavior. The results of the simulation responses of the VSC parameters adjustment by DEA were performed in Matlab Version 2010a platform and yield better dynamic performance compared with the untuned VSC designed.
A Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution for Clustering Microarray Gene Expression Data
A DNA microarray technology is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the large number of genes and the complexity of biological networks greatly increase the challenges of comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data, which often consists of millions of measurements. It is handled by clustering which reveals the natural structures and identifying the interesting patterns in the underlying data. In this paper, gene based clustering in gene expression data is proposed using Cuckoo Search with Differential Evolution (CS-DE). The experiment results are analyzed with gene expression benchmark datasets. The results show that CS-DE outperforms CS in benchmark datasets. To find the validation of the clustering results, this work is tested with one internal and one external cluster validation indexes.
A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production
Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been used
widely through evolution theory to discover acceptable solutions that
corresponds to challenges such as natural resources management.
EAs are also used to solve varied problems in the real world. EAs
have been rapidly identified for its ease in handling multiple
objective problems. Reservoir operations is a vital and researchable
area which has been studied in the last few decades due to the limited
nature of water resources that is found mostly in the semi-arid
regions of the world. The state of some developing economy that
depends on electricity for overall development through hydropower
production, a renewable form of energy, is appalling due to water
scarcity. This paper presents a review of the applications of
evolutionary algorithms to reservoir operation for hydropower
production. This review includes the discussion on areas such as
genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and reservoir operation. It
also identified the research gaps discovered in these areas. The results
of this study will be an eye opener for researchers and decision
makers to think deeply of the adverse effect of water scarcity and
drought towards economic development of a nation. Hence, it
becomes imperative to identify evolutionary algorithms that can
address this issue which can hamper effective hydropower
Comparative Dynamic Performance of Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Intelligent Techniques
This paper demonstrates dynamic performance evaluation of load frequency control (LFC) with different intelligent techniques. All non-linearities and physical constraints have been considered in simulation studies such as governor dead band (GDB), generation rate constraint (GRC) and boiler dynamics. The conventional integral time absolute error has been considered as objective function. The design problem is formulated as an optimisation problem and particle swarm optimisation (PSO), bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm (BFOA) and differential evolution (DE) are employed to search optimal controller parameters. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the same interconnected power system. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, undershoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a step load perturbation (SLP). It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than FLC. Further, robustness analysis is carried out by varying the time constants of speed governor, turbine, tie-line power in the range of +40% to -40% to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DE optimized PID controller.
Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array
Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to
capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras
permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be
sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components
through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated
into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color
interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This
paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to
construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE)
Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde-
Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.
Trust and Reputation Mechanism with Path Optimization in Multipath Routing
A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.
Genetic Algorithm for Solving Non-Convex Economic Dispatch Problem
Economic dispatch (ED) is considered to be one of the
key functions in electric power system operation. This paper presents
a new hybrid approach based genetic algorithm (GA) to economic
dispatch problems. GA is most commonly used optimizing algorithm
predicated on principal of natural evolution. Utilization of chaotic
queue with GA generates several neighborhoods of near optimal
solutions to keep solution variation. It could avoid the search process
from becoming pre-mature. For the objective of chaotic queue
generation, utilization of tent equation as opposed to logistic equation
results in improvement of iterative speed. The results of the proposed
approach were compared in terms of fuel cost, with existing
differential evolution and other methods in literature.
Supremacy of Differential Evolution Algorithm in Designing Multiplier-Less Low-Pass FIR Filter
In this communication, we have made an attempt to design multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of various mutation strategies of Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Impulse response coefficient of the designed FIR filter has been represented as sums or differences of powers of two. Performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated in terms of its frequency response and associated hardware cost. Supremacy of our approach has been substantiated by comparing our result with many of the existing multiplier-less filter design algorithms of recent interest. It has also been demonstrated that DE-optimized filter outperforms Genetic Algorithm (GA) based design by a large margin. Hardware efficiency of our algorithm has further been validated by implementing those filters on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip.
Load Frequency Control of Nonlinear Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System Using Differential Evolution Technique
This paper presents a differential evolution algorithm to design a robust PI and PID controllers for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of nonlinear interconnected power systems considering the boiler dynamics, Governor Dead Band (GDB), Generation Rate Constraint (GRC). Differential evolution algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The proposed method easily copes of with nonlinear constraints. Further the proposed controller is simple, effective and can ensure the desirable overall system performance. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with published fuzzy logic controller for the same power systems. The comparison is done using various performance measures like overshoot, settling time and standard error criteria of frequency and tie-line power deviation following a 1% step load perturbation in hydro area. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of proposed controller is better than fuzzy logic controller. Furthermore, it is also seen that the proposed system is robust and is not affected by change in the system parameters.
Comparison of Two Interval Models for Interval-Valued Differential Evolution
The author previously proposed an extension of differential evolution. The proposed method extends the processes of DE to handle interval numbers as genotype values so that DE can be applied to interval-valued optimization problems. The interval DE can employ either of two interval models, the lower and upper model or the center and width model, for specifying genotype values. Ability of the interval DE in searching for solutions may depend on the model. In this paper, the author compares the two models to investigate which model contributes better for the interval DE to find better solutions. Application of the interval DE is evolutionary training of interval-valued neural networks. A result of preliminary study indicates that the CW model is better than the LU model: the interval DE with the CW model could evolve better neural networks.
STATCOM based Damping Controller in Power Systems for Enhance the Power System Stability
This paper describes the power-system stability improvement by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based damping controller with Differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to find out the optimal controller parameters. The present study considered both local and remote signals with associated time delays. The performances of the proposed controllers have been compared with different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller the Simulation results are presented under different disturbances and loading conditions.
Differential Evolution Based Optimal Choice and Location of Facts Devices in Restructured Power System
This paper deals with the optimal choice and location of FACTS devices in deregulated power systems using Differential Evolution algorithm. The main objective of this paper is to achieve the power system economic generation allocation and dispatch in deregulated electricity market. Using the proposed method, the locations of the FACTS devices, their types and ratings are optimized simultaneously. Different kinds of FACTS devices such as TCSC and SVC are simulated in this study. Furthermore, their investment costs are also considered. Simulation results validate the capability of this new approach in minimizing the overall system cost function, which includes the investment costs of the FACTS devices and the bid offers of the market participants. The proposed algorithm is an effective and practical method for the choice and location of suitable FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market.
Power System Stability Improvement by Simultaneous Tuning of PSS and SVC Based Damping Controllers Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm
Power-system stability improvement by simultaneous tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator (SVC) based damping controller is thoroughly investigated in this paper. Both local and remote signals with associated time delays are considered in the present study. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem, and differential evolution (DE) algorithm is employed to search for the optimal controller parameters. The performances of the proposed controllers are evaluated under different disturbances for both single-machine infinite bus power system and multi-machine power system. The performance of the proposed controllers with variations in the signal transmission delays has also been investigated. The proposed stabilizers are tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different disturbances. Nonlinear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control schemes over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances. Further, the proposed design approach is found to be robust and improves stability effectively even under small disturbance conditions.
Economical Operation of Hydro-Thermal Power System based on Multi-path Adaptive Tabu Search
An economic operation scheduling problem of a
hydro-thermal power generation system has been properly solved by
the proposed multipath adaptive tabu search algorithm (MATS). Four
reservoirs with their own hydro plants and another one thermal plant
are integrated to be a studied system used to formulate the objective
function under complicated constraints, eg water managements,
power balance and thermal generator limits. MATS with four subsearch
units (ATSs) and two stages of discarding mechanism (DM),
has been setting and trying to solve the problem through 25 trials
under function evaluation criterion. It is shown that MATS can
provide superior results with respect to single ATS and other
previous methods, genetic algorithms (GA) and differential evolution
Active Vibration Control of Flexible Beam using Differential Evolution Optimisation
This paper presents the development of an active
vibration control using direct adaptive controller to suppress the
vibration of a flexible beam system. The controller is realized based
on linear parametric form. Differential evolution optimisation
algorithm is used to optimize the controller using single objective
function by minimizing the mean square error of the observed
vibration signal. Furthermore, an alternative approach is developed to
systematically search for the best controller model structure together
with it parameter values. The performance of the control scheme is
presented and analysed in both time and frequency domain.
Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to
suppress the unwanted vibration effectively.
DEMO Based Optimal Power Purchase Planning Under Electricity Price Uncertainty
Due to the deregulation of the Electric Supply
Industry and the resulting emergence of electricity market, the
volumes of power purchases are on the rise all over the world. In a
bid to meet the customer-s demand in a reliable and yet economic
manner, utilities purchase power from the energy market over and
above its own production. This paper aims at developing an optimal
power purchase model with two objectives viz economy and
environment ,taking various functional operating constraints such as
branch flow limits, load bus voltage magnitudes limits, unit capacity
constraints and security constraints into consideration.The price of
purchased power being an uncertain variable is modeled using fuzzy
logic. DEMO (Differential Evolution For Multi-objective
Optimization) is used to obtain the pareto-optimal solution set of the
multi-objective problem formulated. Fuzzy set theory has been
employed to extract the best compromise non-dominated solution.
The results obtained on IEEE 30 bus system are presented and
compared with that of NSGAII.
A Combined Conventional and Differential Evolution Method for Model Order Reduction
In this paper a mixed method by combining an evolutionary and a conventional technique is proposed for reduction of Single Input Single Output (SISO) continuous systems into Reduced Order Model (ROM). In the conventional technique, the mixed advantages of Mihailov stability criterion and continued Fraction Expansions (CFE) technique is employed where the reduced denominator polynomial is derived using Mihailov stability criterion and the numerator is obtained by matching the quotients of the Cauer second form of Continued fraction expansions. Then, retaining the numerator polynomial, the denominator polynomial is recalculated by an evolutionary technique. In the evolutionary method, the recently proposed Differential Evolution (DE) optimization technique is employed. DE method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. The proposed method is illustrated through a numerical example and compared with ROM where both numerator and denominator polynomials are obtained by conventional method to show its superiority.
Reentry Trajectory Optimization Based on Differential Evolution
Reentry trajectory optimization is a multi-constraints
optimal control problem which is hard to solve. To tackle it, we
proposed a new algorithm named CDEN(Constrained Differential
Evolution Newton-Raphson Algorithm) based on Differential Evolution(
DE) and Newton-Raphson.We transform the infinite dimensional
optimal control problem to parameter optimization which is finite
dimensional by discretize control parameter. In order to simplify
the problem, we figure out the control parameter-s scope by process
constraints. To handle constraints, we proposed a parameterless constraints
handle process. Through comprehensive analyze the problem,
we use a new algorithm integrated by DE and Newton-Raphson to
solve it. It is validated by a reentry vehicle X-33, simulation results
indicated that the algorithm is effective and robust.
Robust FACTS Controller Design Employing Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques
Recently, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Differential
Evolution (DE) algorithm technique have attracted considerable
attention among various modern heuristic optimization techniques.
Since the two approaches are supposed to find a solution to a given
objective function but employ different strategies and computational
effort, it is appropriate to compare their performance. This paper
presents the application and performance comparison of DE and GA
optimization techniques, for flexible ac transmission system
(FACTS)-based controller design. The design objective is to enhance
the power system stability. The design problem of the FACTS-based
controller is formulated as an optimization problem and both the PSO
and GA optimization techniques are employed to search for optimal
controller parameters. The performance of both optimization
techniques has been compared. Further, the optimized controllers are
tested on a weekly connected power system subjected to different
disturbances, and their performance is compared with the
conventional power system stabilizer (CPSS). The eigenvalue
analysis and non-linear simulation results are presented and
compared to show the effectiveness of both the techniques in
designing a FACTS-based controller, to enhance power system
Capacitor Placement in Radial Distribution System for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
This paper presents a new method which applies an
artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in
distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile
and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new population
based meta heuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior
of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that
it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and
mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution
and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other
advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented
by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism
which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity
of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on
69-bus system and compared the results with the other approach
available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the
other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational
Frequency-Domain Design of Fractional-Order FIR Differentiators
In this paper, a fractional-order FIR differentiator
design method using the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is
presented. In the proposed method, the FIR digital filter is designed to
meet the frequency response of a desired fractal-order differentiator,
which is evaluated in the frequency domain. To verify the design
performance, another design method considered in the time-domain is
also provided. Simulation results reveal the efficiency of the proposed
EML-Estimation of Multivariate t Copulas with Heuristic Optimization
In recent years, copulas have become very popular in
financial research and actuarial science as they are more flexible in
modelling the co-movements and relationships of risk factors as compared
to the conventional linear correlation coefficient by Pearson.
However, a precise estimation of the copula parameters is vital in
order to correctly capture the (possibly nonlinear) dependence structure
and joint tail events. In this study, we employ two optimization
heuristics, namely Differential Evolution and Threshold Accepting to
tackle the parameter estimation of multivariate t distribution models
in the EML approach. Since the evolutionary optimizer does not rely
on gradient search, the EML approach can be applied to estimation of
more complicated copula models such as high-dimensional copulas.
Our experimental study shows that the proposed method provides
more robust and more accurate estimates as compared to the IFM
A Hybrid Metaheuristic Framework for Evolving the PROAFTN Classifier
In this paper, a new learning algorithm based on a
hybrid metaheuristic integrating Differential Evolution (DE) and
Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search (RVNS) is introduced to train
the classification method PROAFTN. To apply PROAFTN, values of
several parameters need to be determined prior to classification. These
parameters include boundaries of intervals and relative weights for
each attribute. Based on these requirements, the hybrid approach,
named DEPRO-RVNS, is presented in this study. In some cases, the
major problem when applying DE to some classification problems
was the premature convergence of some individuals to local optima.
To eliminate this shortcoming and to improve the exploration and
exploitation capabilities of DE, such individuals were set to iteratively
re-explored using RVNS. Based on the generated results on
both training and testing data, it is shown that the performance of
PROAFTN is significantly improved. Furthermore, the experimental
study shows that DEPRO-RVNS outperforms well-known machine
learning classifiers in a variety of problems.
Controller Design of Discrete Systems by Order Reduction Technique Employing Differential Evolution Optimization Algorithm
One of the main objectives of order reduction is to
design a controller of lower order which can effectively control the
original high order system so that the overall system is of lower
order and easy to understand. In this paper, a simple method is
presented for controller design of a higher order discrete system.
First the original higher order discrete system in reduced to a lower
order model. Then a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID)
controller is designed for lower order model. An error minimization
technique is employed for both order reduction and controller
design. For the error minimization purpose, Differential Evolution
(DE) optimization algorithm has been employed. DE method is
based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE)
between the desired response and actual response pertaining to a
unit step input. Finally the designed PID controller is connected to
the original higher order discrete system to get the desired
specification. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated
through a numerical example.
Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem by Using Differential Evolution
This paper proposes an application of the differential
evolution (DE) algorithm for solving the economic dispatch problem
(ED). Furthermore, the regenerating population procedure added to
the conventional DE in order to improve escaping the local minimum
solution. To test performance of DE algorithm, three thermal
generating units with valve-point loading effects is used for testing.
Moreover, investigating the DE parameters is presented. The
simulation results show that the DE algorithm, which had been
adjusted parameters, is better convergent time than other optimization
Solving the Economic Dispatch Problem using Novel Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper proposes an improved approach based on
conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving an
economic dispatch(ED) problem with considering the generator
constraints. The mutation operators of the differential evolution (DE)
are used for improving diversity exploration of PSO, which called
particle swarm optimization with mutation operators (PSOM). The
mutation operators are activated if velocity values of PSO nearly to
zero or violated from the boundaries. Four scenarios of mutation
operators are implemented for PSOM. The simulation results of all
scenarios of the PSOM outperform over the PSO and other existing
approaches which appeared in literatures.
Optimization of Distribution Network Configuration for Loss Reduction Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Network reconfiguration in distribution system is realized by changing the status of sectionalizing switches to reduce the power loss in the system. This paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for determining the sectionalizing switch to be operated in order to solve the distribution system loss minimization problem. The ABC algorithm is a new population based metaheuristic approach inspired by intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. The advantage of ABC algorithm is that it does not require external parameters such as cross over rate and mutation rate as in case of genetic algorithm and differential evolution and it is hard to determine these parameters in prior. The other advantage is that the global search ability in the algorithm is implemented by introducing neighborhood source production mechanism which is a similar to mutation process. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 14, 33, and 119-bus systems and compared with different approaches available in the literature. The proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of the quality of solution and computational efficiency.